Actions

Pediatric glioma of the brainstem

From WikiMD Wellnesspedia & World Directory

Summary[edit | edit source]

Tumor BrainstemGlioma2.JPG
  • Pediatric glioma of the brainstem - a glioma that arises from the brain stem and occurs during childhood.
  • Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem.
  • There are two types of brain stem gliomas in children.
  • The cause of most childhood brain tumors is unknown.
  • The signs and symptoms of brain stem glioma are not the same in every child.
  • Tests that examine the brain are used to detect (find) childhood brain stem glioma.
  • A biopsy may be done to diagnose certain types of brain stem glioma.
  • Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery).

What is Pediatric glioma of the brainstem?[edit | edit source]

Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem.

==What are gliomas?[edit | edit source]

What is the brainstem?[edit | edit source]

  • The brain stem is made up of the midbrain, pons, and medulla.
  • It is the lowest part of the brain and connects to the spinal cord, just above the back of the neck.
  • The brain stem controls vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure, and the nerves and muscles used in seeing, hearing, walking, talking, and eating.

Where in the brainstem do most of these gliomas occur?[edit | edit source]

What are brain tumors?[edit | edit source]

Brain tumors are the second most common type of cancer in children.

What are the different types of brainstem gliomas in Children?[edit | edit source]

  • There are two types of brain stem gliomas in children.
  • Even though DIPG and focal brain stem glioma form in the same type of cell, they act differently:

What is DIPG?[edit | edit source]

DIPG is a fast-growing tumor that forms in the pons.

What is the prognosis of DIPG?[edit | edit source]

DIPG is hard to treat and has a poor prognosis (chance of recovery) because of the following: It is not a well-defined tumor and spreads among the healthy cells in the brain stem. Vital functions, such as breathing and heart rate, may be affected.

What are focal brain stem gliomas?[edit | edit source]

  • A focal glioma is a slow-growing tumor that forms outside the pons and in only one area of the brain stem.
  • It is easier to treat and has a better prognosis than DIPG.
  • The cause of most childhood brain tumors is unknown.

What are the risk factors for these tumors[edit | edit source]

  1. Having certain genetic disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1).
  2. The signs and symptoms of brain stem glioma are not the same in every child.

What are the signs and symptoms of Pediatric glioma of the brainstem?[edit | edit source]

Signs and symptoms depend on the following:

Classification of brainstem gliomas by MRI appearance - Fonc-02-00205-g001.jpg

  • Where the tumor forms in the brain.
  • The size of the tumor and whether it has spread throughout the brain stem.
  • How fast the tumor grows.
  • The child's age and stage of development.
  • Signs and symptoms may be caused by childhood brain stem gliomas or by other conditions.
  • Trouble with eye movement (the eye is turned inward).
  • Vision problems.
  • Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Unusual sleepiness.
  • Loss of ability to move one side of the face or body.
  • Loss of balance and trouble walking.
  • More or less energy than usual.
  • Changes in behavior.
  • Trouble learning in school.

What tests are done for Pediatric glioma of the brainstem?[edit | edit source]

  • Tests that examine the brain are used to detect (find) childhood brain stem glioma.
  • Physical exam and health history: An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual.
  • A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Neurological exam: A series of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function.
  • The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work.
  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) with gadolinium: A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the brain.
  • A substance called gadolinium is injected into a vein.
  • The gadolinium collects around the cancer cells so they show up brighter in the picture.
  • This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).
  • A biopsy may be done to diagnose certain types of brain stem glioma.

Are biopsies contra-indicated in DIPG?[edit | edit source]

Yes. If the MRI scan looks like the tumor is a DIPG, a biopsy is usually not done and the tumor is not removed - When the MRI scan results are uncertain, a biopsy may be done.

Are biopsies done for focal brain stemp glioma?[edit | edit source]

If the MRI scan looks like a focal brain stem glioma, a biopsy may be done.

How are brain stem biopsies done?[edit | edit source]

A part of the skull is removed and a needle is used to remove a sample of the brain tissue.

Palliative Care Options for a Young Adult Patient with a Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma - Fig. 1.png

What are needle guided biopsies?[edit | edit source]

  • Sometimes, the needle is guided by a computer.
  • pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. If cancer cells are found, the doctor will remove as much tumor as safely possible during the same surgery.

What tests are done on the brain biopsy?[edit | edit source]

  • The following test may be done on the tissue sample that was removed during biopsy or surgery:
  • Immunohistochemistry: A laboratory test that uses antibodies to check for certain antigens (markers) in a sample of a patient’s tissue - The antibodies are usually linked to an enzyme or a fluorescent dye.
  • After the antibodies bind to a specific antigen in the tissue sample, the enzyme or dye is activated, and the antigen can then be seen under a microscope - This type of test is used to help diagnose cancer and to help tell one type of cancer from another type of cancer.

What factors affect the prognosis?[edit | edit source]

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery).

The child's prognosis depends on the following:

  • The type of brain stem glioma (DIPG or focal glioma).
  • Where the tumor is found in the brain and if it has spread within the brain stem.
  • The age of the child at diagnosis.
  • How long the child has symptoms prior to diagnosis.
  • Whether or not the child has a condition called neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Whether there is a certain change in the H3 K27m gene.
  • Whether the tumor has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

What is the expected lifespan of brainstem glioma DIPG?[edit | edit source]

Most children with DIPG live less than 18 months after diagnosis.

What is the expected lifespan of brainstem focal glioma?[edit | edit source]

Children with a focal glioma usually live longer than 5 years.

Tumor BrainstemGlioma1.JPG

What are the stages of Childhood Brain Stem Gliomas?[edit | edit source]

  • The plan for cancer treatment depends on whether the tumor is in one area of the brain or has spread all through the brain.
  • Staging is the process used to find out how much cancer there is and if cancer has spread - It is important to know the stage in order to plan treatment.

There is no standard staging system for childhood brain stem glioma. Treatment is based on the following:

How is Pediatric glioma of the brainstem treated?[edit | edit source]

There are different types of treatment for children with brain stem glioma. Children with brain stem glioma should have their treatment planned by a team of health care providers who are experts in treating childhood brain tumors. Five types of standard treatment are used:

What are the side effects of treatment?[edit | edit source]

  • Treatment for childhood brain stem glioma may cause side effects.
  • Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
  • Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

In summary, Childhood brain stem glioma is a rare condition in which abnormal cells develop in the tissues of the brain stem (the part of the brain connected to the spinal cord). The condition can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The severity of the condition and the associated signs and symptoms vary based on the size and location of the tumor and how quickly the tumor is growing. Common features include difficulty walking; loss of the ability to move one side of the body or face; vision or hearing problems; headaches (particularly in the morning); nausea and vomiting; unusual sleepiness; and behavioral changes. In most cases, the underlying cause of childhood brain stem glioma is unknown. Certain genetic conditions, such as neurofibromatosis type I, are associated with an increased risk of childhood brainstem glioma. Treatment varies but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid diversion, observation, and targeted therapy.

FAQS

Can you help answer any of these frequently asked questions on Pediatric glioma of the brainstem?

  • What is the survival rate for brain stem glioma?
  • Can you survive brain stem glioma?
  • Is brain stem glioma fatal?
  • What is the most aggressive pediatric brain tumor?
  • Can brainstem tumors be removed?
  • How long can you live with a low grade glioma?
  • Are brain stem glioma hereditary?
  • What are the symptoms of brain stem glioma?
  • How fast do gliomas grow?
  • Is brainstem glioma cancerous?
  • How common is brain stem glioma?
  • Is glioma the same as glioblastoma?
  • Are pediatric brain tumors rare?
  • Are brain tumors rare?
  • What is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor?
  • How serious is a tumor on the brain stem?
  • What happens if you have a tumor on your brain stem?
  • What is a glioma brain tumor?
  • Can glioma be removed?
  • Can glioma be cured completely?
  • Are gliomas always cancerous?
Latest research

External links[edit source]

Wikipedia

Latest articles - Pediatric glioma of the brainstem[edit source]

PubMed
Clinical trials
UpToDate

Source: Data courtesy of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Since the data might have changed, please query MeSH on Pediatric glioma of the brainstem for any updates.



Navigation: Health Encyclopedia - Health topics - Disease Index‏‎ - Cases - Drugs - Rare diseases - Gray's Anatomy - USMLE - All Pages

Wellness: Obesity - W8MD weight loss diet - Metabolic syndrome - Insulin resistance - Weight loss - Wellness

Directories: Doctors - Hospitals - Medical schools - Residency programs - Pharmaceutical companies


WikiMD's articles are provided for informational purposes only with no expressed or implied warranties.
The articles may contain errors or omissions and is not a substitute for professional medical advice. See full disclaimer.

Tired of being Overweight? Want to lose weight with insurance?
W8MD's physician weight loss available in PA, NJ & NY. Call (718)946-5500