Celiac trunk

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Celiac Trunk

The celiac trunk (also known as celiac artery, truncus coeliacus, and celiac axis) is a major branch of the abdominal aorta and one of the three anterior/ midline branches of the abdominal aorta, the other two being the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery. It is responsible for supplying oxygenated blood to the stomach, spleen, and liver.

Anatomy[edit | edit source]

The celiac trunk is typically located at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12) or the first lumbar vertebra (L1). It is about 1.25 cm in length and has a slightly leftward orientation. The celiac trunk gives rise to three major branches: the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery, and the splenic artery.

Branches[edit | edit source]

  • Left gastric artery: This is the smallest branch of the celiac trunk. It ascends towards the lesser curvature of the stomach, where it anastomoses with the right gastric artery.
  • Common hepatic artery: This artery typically gives rise to the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery. The proper hepatic artery further divides into the left and right hepatic arteries for the liver.
  • Splenic artery: This is the largest branch of the celiac trunk. It travels towards the spleen, giving off several branches to the pancreas along its course.

Clinical Significance[edit | edit source]

The celiac trunk is of clinical importance in conditions such as celiac artery compression syndrome, where the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm compresses the celiac trunk, leading to abdominal pain and weight loss. It is also significant in the management of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, where the celiac trunk may be embolized to control hemorrhage.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD