From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

1-Naphthylamine is an organic compound with the formula C10H7NH2. It is a derivative of naphthalene, consisting of an amine group attached to the 1-position of the naphthalene ring. 1-Naphthylamine is an important intermediate in the synthesis of various dyes, pigments, and other chemical compounds. Historically, it was used extensively in the manufacture of azo dyes. However, its use has significantly declined due to its carcinogenic properties.

Properties[edit | edit source]

1-Naphthylamine appears as a white to slightly reddish crystalline solid, which turns dark upon exposure to air due to oxidation. It is sparingly soluble in water but more soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and diethyl ether. The compound has a melting point of 50-55 °C and a boiling point of 300 °C.

Synthesis[edit | edit source]

1-Naphthylamine can be synthesized through the reduction of 1-nitronaphthalene with iron and hydrochloric acid, a process that involves the conversion of the nitro group to an amino group. Another method involves the amination of naphthalene through the Hofmann-Martius rearrangement, which requires the presence of an acid catalyst.

Applications[edit | edit source]

Historically, 1-Naphthylamine was used in the synthesis of azo dyes, which are compounds characterized by their vivid colors and used in dyeing textiles and in the production of colored papers and food colorants. However, due to its carcinogenicity, its use in dye manufacture has been largely phased out in favor of safer alternatives.

Health Hazards[edit | edit source]

1-Naphthylamine is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), indicating that there is sufficient evidence to conclude that it is carcinogenic to humans. Exposure to 1-naphthylamine has been linked to an increased risk of bladder cancer among workers in industries that used the compound. As a result, its industrial use is highly regulated, and it is no longer used in consumer products.

Environmental Impact[edit | edit source]

1-Naphthylamine can be released into the environment through industrial effluents and waste disposal. In the environment, it may pose a risk to aquatic life due to its toxicity and potential for bioaccumulation. Measures to reduce its environmental impact include treatment of industrial effluents and proper disposal of chemical waste.

Regulation[edit | edit source]

Due to its carcinogenic properties, the use and handling of 1-Naphthylamine are subject to strict regulations in many countries. These regulations aim to protect workers in industries that may still use the compound and to minimize its release into the environment.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD