From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid that acts as a neurotransmitter and is involved in a variety of physiological processes. It is a type of glycerol ester of arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid.

Structure and Synthesis[edit | edit source]

2-Arachidonoylglycerol is a glycerol molecule esterified to arachidonic acid. It is synthesized in the body from diacylglycerol (DAG) by the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). The synthesis of 2-AG is a two-step process. First, phospholipase C (PLC) cleaves phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to produce DAG. Then, DAGL converts DAG into 2-AG.

Function[edit | edit source]

2-AG acts as a full agonist at the CB1 receptor and the CB2 receptor, the two main cannabinoid receptors in the body. It is involved in a variety of physiological processes, including pain sensation, mood, appetite, and memory. 2-AG also plays a role in the immune system, acting as an anti-inflammatory agent and modulating the release of cytokines.

Metabolism[edit | edit source]

2-AG is primarily metabolized by the enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which converts it into arachidonic acid and glycerol. It can also be metabolized by other enzymes, such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).

Clinical Significance[edit | edit source]

Alterations in 2-AG signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. As such, modulation of the 2-AG system may have therapeutic potential in these conditions.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD