2-arachidonylglycerol

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2-Arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) is a endocannabinoid involved in the regulation of various physiological processes. It is an ester formed from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and glycerol. It is present at relatively high levels in the central nervous system, with lesser amounts in other tissues.

Biosynthesis[edit | edit source]

2-AG is synthesized primarily by the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL). DAGL cleaves diacylglycerol (DAG), a membrane lipid, to release 2-AG. This process is a key step in the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays a role in the regulation of various physiological processes.

Physiological roles[edit | edit source]

2-AG is a full agonist of the cannabinoid receptor CB1, which is predominantly located in the brain, and the CB2 receptor, which is primarily found in cells of the immune system. It is considered a neurotransmitter, as it is released from neurons in response to depolarization. It has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, including pain, inflammation, and neuroprotection.

2-AG also plays a role in the regulation of appetite, immune system function, and pain management. It is also involved in the neuroplasticity that underlies learning and memory.

Pharmacology[edit | edit source]

2-AG's effects are primarily mediated through cannabinoid receptors. However, it is also a substrate for the enzyme monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), which converts 2-AG to arachidonic acid and glycerol. Inhibition of MAGL can increase 2-AG levels and has been explored as a therapeutic strategy for various conditions, including neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation.

See also[edit | edit source]

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD