Cellular adoptive immunotherapy

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

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Adoptive T-cell therapy.png

Cellular adoptive immunotherapy is a form of immunotherapy that involves the transfer of immune cells into a patient to help fight diseases, particularly cancer. This therapeutic approach leverages the body's own immune system to target and destroy malignant cells.

Overview[edit | edit source]

Cellular adoptive immunotherapy is based on the principle of enhancing the natural ability of T cells and other immune cells to combat cancer. The process typically involves isolating immune cells from a patient or a donor, expanding or modifying them in a laboratory, and then infusing them back into the patient.

Types of Cellular Adoptive Immunotherapy[edit | edit source]

There are several types of cellular adoptive immunotherapy, including:

Mechanism of Action[edit | edit source]

The mechanism of action for cellular adoptive immunotherapy varies depending on the type of cells used. Generally, the infused immune cells are designed to recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of cancer cells, leading to their destruction. This can occur through direct cytotoxic effects, the release of cytokines, or the activation of other components of the immune system.

Clinical Applications[edit | edit source]

Cellular adoptive immunotherapy has shown promise in treating various types of cancer, including leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate its efficacy in other malignancies and to optimize treatment protocols.

Advantages and Challenges[edit | edit source]

Advantages[edit | edit source]

  • Targeted approach: Cellular adoptive immunotherapy can specifically target cancer cells, potentially reducing damage to healthy tissues.
  • Potential for long-term remission: Some patients have experienced durable responses and long-term remission following treatment.

Challenges[edit | edit source]

  • Complex and costly: The process of isolating, expanding, and modifying immune cells is complex and expensive.
  • Side effects: Patients may experience side effects such as cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity.

Future Directions[edit | edit source]

Research is ongoing to improve the efficacy and safety of cellular adoptive immunotherapy. Advances in genetic engineering, better understanding of tumor microenvironments, and combination therapies are areas of active investigation.

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

External Links[edit | edit source]

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD