Cellular division

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Cellular Division is a biological process by which a cell divides into two or more cells. It is a fundamental process in the life of an organism, allowing for growth, reproduction, and repair of damaged tissues. There are two main types of cellular division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis[edit | edit source]

Mitosis is a type of cellular division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth. It is a continuous process that is divided into four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

Prophase[edit | edit source]

During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible. The nuclear envelope breaks down and the mitotic spindle begins to form.

Metaphase[edit | edit source]

In metaphase, the chromosomes align at the metaphase plate, an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two spindle poles. The kinetochores of the chromosomes are attached to the spindle fibers.

Anaphase[edit | edit source]

During anaphase, the sister chromatids separate from each other and are pulled towards opposite ends of the cell. The protein that holds the chromatids together is broken down, allowing them to separate.

Telophase[edit | edit source]

In telophase, the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell. The cell elongates and the nuclear envelopes form around the chromosomes at each pole.

Meiosis[edit | edit source]

Meiosis is a type of cellular division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.

Meiosis I[edit | edit source]

Meiosis I is the first division and is often called the reductional division because it reduces the number of chromosomes from diploid to haploid.

Meiosis II[edit | edit source]

Meiosis II is the second division and is often called the equational division because it produces cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell.

Significance[edit | edit source]

Cellular division is crucial for the survival of all living organisms. It allows for growth and development, tissue repair, and reproduction. Errors in cellular division can lead to diseases such as cancer.

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD