Central fissure

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Central Fissure of the brain, also known as the fissure of Rolando or the Rolandic fissure, is a prominent landmark of the brain's surface anatomy. It separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe, two of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex. The central fissure plays a crucial role in dividing the brain into functional and anatomical regions.

Anatomy[edit | edit source]

The Central Fissure begins near the top of the brain, just behind the forehead, and extends downward and backward, ending near the lateral sulcus (Sylvian fissure). It is one of the most easily identifiable fissures on the surface of the brain due to its deep groove. The precise location and angle of the central fissure can vary slightly from person to person.

Function[edit | edit source]

The brain regions that lie immediately in front of and behind the Central Fissure are critically important for motor and sensory functions. The precentral gyrus, located just in front of the fissure, contains the primary motor cortex, which is responsible for controlling voluntary movements of the body. The postcentral gyrus, located just behind the fissure, contains the primary sensory cortex, which is responsible for processing tactile information from the body.

Clinical Significance[edit | edit source]

The Central Fissure's location and relation to critical areas of the brain make it an important landmark in neurosurgery and neuroimaging. Understanding its position helps in diagnosing and treating neurological conditions, such as stroke, epilepsy, and brain tumors, that can affect the motor and sensory functions of the body.

History[edit | edit source]

The Central Fissure was first described by Italian anatomist Luigi Rolando in the early 19th century, which is why it is sometimes referred to as the fissure of Rolando. Its discovery was pivotal in the development of neurological anatomy, allowing scientists and doctors to better understand the functional organization of the brain.

See Also[edit | edit source]

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD