Cerebellar granule cell

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Cerebellar granule cell
FunctionProcessing of motor and sensory information
Presynaptic connectionsMossy fibers
Postsynaptic connectionsPurkinje cells
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Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy
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The cerebellar granule cell is a type of neuron located in the cerebellum, a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control. These cells are among the smallest and most numerous neurons in the central nervous system.

Structure[edit | edit source]

Cerebellar granule cells are characterized by their small size and high density. They are located in the granule cell layer of the cerebellum. Each granule cell gives rise to four to five short dendrites that end in claw-like structures, which form synapses with the terminals of mossy fibers. The axon of a granule cell ascends into the molecular layer of the cerebellum, where it bifurcates into parallel fibers that run perpendicular to the dendritic trees of Purkinje cells.

Function[edit | edit source]

Cerebellar granule cells play a crucial role in the processing of motor and sensory information. They receive excitatory input from mossy fibers, which originate from various sources including the spinal cord, vestibular system, and cerebral cortex. The granule cells then relay this information to the Purkinje cells via their parallel fibers. This relay is essential for the fine-tuning of motor movements and coordination.

Neurotransmitter[edit | edit source]

The primary neurotransmitter used by cerebellar granule cells is glutamate, which is an excitatory neurotransmitter. This allows them to effectively transmit signals to the Purkinje cells and other neurons within the cerebellum.

Related Pages[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD