# Critical value

## Critical Value[edit | edit source]

A critical value is a concept commonly used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is a specific value or range of values that is used to determine whether to reject or fail to reject a null hypothesis. The critical value is derived from a probability distribution, such as the standard normal distribution or t-distribution, and is based on the desired level of significance for the test.

### Definition[edit | edit source]

In statistical hypothesis testing, a null hypothesis is a statement that assumes there is no significant difference or relationship between variables. The alternative hypothesis, on the other hand, suggests that there is a significant difference or relationship. The critical value is used to determine which hypothesis to accept or reject.

The critical value is determined by the desired level of significance, often denoted as alpha (α). This level of significance represents the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true. Commonly used levels of significance include 0.05 (5%) and 0.01 (1%).

### Calculation[edit | edit source]

The calculation of critical values depends on the specific probability distribution being used. For example, if the test statistic follows a standard normal distribution, the critical value can be obtained from a standard normal distribution table or using statistical software.

In some cases, critical values are obtained using a t-distribution instead of a standard normal distribution. This is typically done when the sample size is small or when the population standard deviation is unknown. The degrees of freedom, which depend on the sample size, are used to determine the appropriate critical value from the t-distribution.

### Interpretation[edit | edit source]

Once the critical value is determined, it is compared to the test statistic calculated from the sample data. If the test statistic is greater than or equal to the critical value, the null hypothesis is rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Conversely, if the test statistic is less than the critical value, the null hypothesis is not rejected.

It is important to note that the critical value is specific to the chosen level of significance. A higher level of significance, such as 0.10 (10%), will result in a lower critical value, making it easier to reject the null hypothesis. Conversely, a lower level of significance, such as 0.01 (1%), will result in a higher critical value, making it more difficult to reject the null hypothesis.

### Application[edit | edit source]

Critical values are widely used in various fields, including scientific research, quality control, and business decision-making. They provide a standardized approach to hypothesis testing, allowing researchers and analysts to make informed decisions based on statistical evidence.

In addition to hypothesis testing, critical values are also used in confidence interval estimation. Confidence intervals provide a range of values within which the true population parameter is likely to fall. The critical value is used to determine the width of the confidence interval, which reflects the desired level of confidence.

### See Also[edit | edit source]

- Hypothesis Testing
- Null Hypothesis
- Alternative Hypothesis
- Level of Significance
- Test Statistic
- Confidence Interval

### References[edit | edit source]

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