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Female is the feminine gender in the human race as opposed to the male or musculine gender.

Abstract female figure at WIPO headquarters

Female Gender in Humans

The female gender, characterized by its distinct physiological, genetic, and hormonal attributes, stands in contrast to the male gender within the human species. While both genders contribute to the reproductive process, the female role is unique and involves specialized systems and functions.

Genetic and Physiological Foundations

In humans, gender is primarily determined by chromosomes. Females typically possess two X chromosomes (XX), which differentiates them from males who have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). This chromosomal configuration underpins the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics associated with females.

Hormonal Regulation

The female reproductive system and the associated physiological processes are heavily regulated by hormones, primarily:

  • Estrogen: This hormone plays a critical role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system. It also affects bone density, skin health, and mood.
  • Progesterone: Integral to the menstrual cycle and pregnancy, it prepares the body for conception and helps maintain the early stages of pregnancy.
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH): These pituitary hormones regulate the ovarian cycle and stimulate the production of estrogen and progesterone.

Reproductive Cycle

The female reproductive system operates on a roughly 28-day cycle known as the menstrual cycle. This cycle involves several stages:

Sociocultural Considerations

In various cultures and historical contexts, the female gender has been associated with specific roles, rights, and responsibilities. It's important to understand and differentiate between the biological aspects of being female and the gender roles ascribed by society, which can vary considerably across cultures and epochs.

See Also


  • Sherwood, Lauralee (2016). Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1305445512.
  • Fausto-Sterling, Anne (2000). Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0465077144.
  • Gray's Anatomy (2016). The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0702052309.
  • Oakley, Ann (1985). Sex, Gender and Society. Gower. ISBN 978-0566056880.


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD