Quinolone antibiotic

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Quinolone antibiotics constitute a class of antibacterial drugs known for their wide spectrum and potent activity against a broad range of bacteria. Originally discovered in the 1960s, these compounds have undergone numerous modifications to enhance their effectiveness and safety profile[1].

Chemistry and Mechanism of Action[edit | edit source]

Quinolones are synthetic antibiotics characterized by a core structure containing a bicyclic ring. They act primarily by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which are essential enzymes in the replication of bacterial DNA, thereby halting bacterial multiplication[2].

Generations and Spectrum of Activity[edit | edit source]

Quinolones are usually classified into generations based on their antimicrobial spectrum. The first generation primarily target Gram-negative bacteria, while the later generations show improved activity against Gram-positive bacteria and atypical pathogens. Some widely used quinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin[3].

Clinical Use and Resistance[edit | edit source]

Quinolones are frequently prescribed for a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and some sexually transmitted infections. However, the misuse and overuse of these antibiotics have led to the emergence of quinolone-resistant bacterial strains, posing a significant challenge in the field of infectious disease[4].

Adverse Effects and Precautions[edit | edit source]

While generally well-tolerated, quinolones can have side effects, including gastrointestinal upset, skin reactions, and CNS effects such as dizziness or confusion. In rare cases, they can cause tendon rupture or QT interval prolongation. Due to these potential risks, use of quinolones is often reserved for specific cases where the benefits outweigh potential harms[5].

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Quinolones". U.S. National Library of Medicine, Bookshelf. Retrieved 2023-06-20.
  2. "Quinolones: A Comprehensive Review". American Family Physician. 2017.
  3. "Quinolone Resistance in Escherichia coli". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007. pp. 1–7.
  4. "FDA Drug Safety Communication". U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Retrieved 2023-06-20.
Quinolone antibiotic Resources
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