1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid

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1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid is a metabolite of caffeine found in the human body. It is one of the primary metabolites of caffeine, along with paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline.

Metabolism[edit | edit source]

Caffeine is metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme system (specifically, the 1A2 isozyme) into three primary metabolites: paraxanthine, theobromine, and theophylline. Each of these metabolites is further metabolized and then excreted in the urine. 1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid is one of the final metabolites in this process.

Biological Effects[edit | edit source]

The biological effects of 1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid are not as well-studied as those of caffeine and its other primary metabolites. However, it is known that it has less impact on the central nervous system than caffeine. It does not have the same stimulant effects or potential for addiction as caffeine.

Health Implications[edit | edit source]

The health implications of 1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid are not fully understood. However, it is known that individuals with certain genetic variations in the cytochrome P450 system may metabolize caffeine differently, leading to different levels of 1,3,7-Trimethyluric acid and other metabolites. This could potentially impact health, although more research is needed in this area.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD