1,4-Dihydropyridine

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1,4-Dihydropyridine


1,4-Dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) is a heterocyclic compound that is commonly used as a precursor in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical drugs. It is a class of compounds that contain a pyridine ring, which is a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms. The 1,4-DHP ring system is a key structural motif in many natural products and pharmaceuticals.

Structure and Properties[edit | edit source]

The structure of 1,4-DHP consists of a six-membered ring with four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms. The nitrogen atoms are located at the 1 and 4 positions, hence the name 1,4-Dihydropyridine. The compound is characterized by its aromaticity, which contributes to its stability and reactivity.

1,4-DHP is a colorless, crystalline solid that is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and dimethylformamide (DMF). It has a melting point of approximately 300 degrees Celsius.

Synthesis[edit | edit source]

1,4-DHP can be synthesized through the Hantzsch Dihydropyridine Synthesis, a multi-component reaction that involves the condensation of two equivalents of a β-ketoester, one equivalent of an aldehyde, and one equivalent of ammonium acetate. The reaction proceeds through a series of condensation and cyclization steps to yield the 1,4-DHP product.

Applications[edit | edit source]

1,4-DHP is primarily used as a precursor in the synthesis of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly those used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. These drugs, known as calcium channel blockers, work by inhibiting the influx of calcium ions into cardiac and smooth muscle cells, thereby reducing muscle contraction and lowering blood pressure.

Some examples of 1,4-DHP-derived calcium channel blockers include Nifedipine, Amlodipine, and Felodipine. These drugs are commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and certain types of arrhythmia.

Safety[edit | edit source]

As with all chemicals, proper safety precautions should be taken when handling 1,4-DHP. It should be stored in a cool, dry place and kept away from open flames and sources of ignition. In case of skin or eye contact, rinse immediately with plenty of water.

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD