Cell and molecular biology

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Cell and Molecular Biology is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. This field covers the study of molecular structures and the dynamics of cellular activities such as DNA replication, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell function.

Overview[edit | edit source]

Cell and molecular biology involve the study of cells and their physiological properties, cellular structures, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division, death and cell function. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level as it encompasses prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Knowing the components of cells and how cells work is fundamental to all biological sciences while also being essential for research in bio-medical fields such as cancer, and other diseases.

History[edit | edit source]

The concept of cell and molecular biology was first proposed by Robert Hooke in 1665, who, in his book Micrographia, proposed the idea that life is composed of cells. However, the theory was not widely accepted until the 19th century with the advent of the microscope. The study of cells is done on a microscopic or molecular level, which includes the use of microscopy and molecular biology tools.

Key Concepts[edit | edit source]

Cell Theory[edit | edit source]

The cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

DNA and Genetics[edit | edit source]

DNA is the genetic material that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms. The study of DNA and genetics allows scientists to understand the blueprint of life and how life continues from generation to generation.

Protein Synthesis[edit | edit source]

Protein synthesis is the process in which cells make proteins. It involves decoding the information in DNA into a specific protein. This process is divided into two parts: transcription and translation.

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD