Cellular neuroscience

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Cellular Neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that studies the neurons at a cellular level. This includes morphology and physiological properties of single neurons. Cellular neuroscience is a vital part of understanding the brain and the nervous system.

Overview[edit | edit source]

Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together. Neurons are similar to other cells in the human body in a number of ways, but there is one key difference between neurons and other cells. Neurons are specialized to transmit information throughout the body.

Cellular Components[edit | edit source]

Neurons are made up of several parts, each with a specific function. Some of these parts include the cell body, axon, and dendrites. The cell body is the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus. The axon is the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body, and the dendrites bring information to the cell body.

Neuronal Communication[edit | edit source]

Neurons communicate with each other through an electrochemical process. Information is transmitted down the axon in the form of an electrical signal called an action potential. When the electrical signal gets to the end of the axon, it triggers the release of a chemical messenger, or neurotransmitter, which binds to receptors on the receiving neuron’s dendrites.

Research and Techniques[edit | edit source]

Research in cellular neuroscience can involve a variety of techniques ranging from microscopic to genetic. Some common techniques used include electrophysiology, optogenetics, and immunohistochemistry.

Clinical Relevance[edit | edit source]

Understanding the cells of the nervous system and the way they function is a crucial part of understanding the brain and the diseases that affect it. This knowledge can be applied in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.

See Also[edit | edit source]

Cellular neuroscience Resources
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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD