Cervical agenesis

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Cervical agenesis is a rare congenital condition in which the cervix is either completely absent or significantly underdeveloped. This condition is a type of Müllerian agenesis, which refers to the underdevelopment or absence of any part of the female reproductive system. Cervical agenesis can lead to various health complications, primarily related to menstruation and fertility.

Causes and Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

The exact cause of cervical agenesis is not well understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic abnormalities or disruptions in fetal development during the early stages of pregnancy. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examinations, ultrasound imaging, and sometimes MRI scans to assess the structure of the reproductive organs.

Symptoms and Complications[edit | edit source]

Women with cervical agenesis may not experience symptoms until puberty, when they fail to menstruate (amenorrhea), despite having normal development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast growth and pubic hair. This condition can lead to hematometra, a painful accumulation of menstrual blood in the uterus, since the blood cannot exit the body due to the absence of a cervix.

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Treatment options for cervical agenesis are limited and often focus on managing symptoms and preserving fertility if possible. Surgical creation of a vagina (vaginoplasty) may be considered for those with concurrent vaginal agenesis. However, creating a functional cervix is not typically feasible. Fertility treatment options may include in vitro fertilization (IVF) with the use of a gestational carrier. Regular monitoring and management of potential complications, such as the risk of endometriosis or infections, are crucial for individuals with this condition.

Impact on Fertility and Psychological Well-being[edit | edit source]

Cervical agenesis significantly impacts an individual's fertility and can pose challenges to conception and pregnancy. Women with this condition may experience psychological distress, including feelings of inadequacy, depression, and anxiety related to their diagnosis and its implications for fertility and sexual health.

Conclusion[edit | edit source]

Cervical agenesis is a complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach to care, involving gynecologists, reproductive specialists, and mental health professionals. Advances in medical science, including assisted reproductive technologies, offer hope for individuals affected by this condition to achieve pregnancy, albeit through alternative methods such as the use of gestational carriers.


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD