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Medicine is a field of biology that focuses on the study, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of various diseases and medical conditions affecting the human body. Medicine encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and epidemiology. Physicians and other healthcare professionals work together to deliver medical care and improve the health and well-being of patients.


The history of medicine dates back to ancient civilizations, where various forms of traditional medicine and surgery were practiced. The development of modern medicine can be attributed to advances in scientific knowledge and research in various branches of biology, chemistry, and physics. Throughout history, numerous discoveries, such as vaccination, anesthesia, and antibiotics, have revolutionized medical practice and significantly improved patient outcomes.

Branches of medicine

Medicine can be divided into various branches, including:

  • Basic medical sciences: These disciplines provide the foundation for medical practice and include subjects such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics, and microbiology.
  • Clinical medicine: This branch focuses on the application of medical knowledge to diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases. Clinical medicine includes various medical specialties and subspecialties, such as internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics.
  • Preventive medicine: This field aims to prevent diseases and promote health through public health initiatives, vaccinations, and health education.
  • Medical research: This branch focuses on advancing medical knowledge through scientific research and the development of new diagnostic tools, treatments, and therapies.

Medical education

Medical education involves the training and certification of healthcare professionals, such as physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals. The training process usually begins with an undergraduate degree in medicine, followed by postgraduate specialization in a specific medical field. Medical education also includes continuing education and professional development for healthcare professionals throughout their careers.

Medical ethics

Medical ethics is an important aspect of medicine that deals with the moral principles and values that guide the practice of medicine. Key ethical principles include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Medical professionals must adhere to these principles and consider the ethical implications of their decisions when providing care to patients.

Medical practice

Medical practice involves the delivery of healthcare services to patients in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, and private practices. Physicians and other healthcare professionals work together to provide comprehensive care, which may include prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and management of medical conditions.

See also


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Medicine - Specialties and subspecialties

Cardiac surgery - Cardiothoracic surgery - Colorectal surgery - Ophthalmology - General surgery - Neurosurgery - Oral and maxillofacial surgery - Orthopedic surgery - Hand surgery - Otolaryngology - ENT - Pediatric surgery - Plastic surgery - Reproductive surgery - Surgical oncology - Transplant surgery - Trauma surgery - Urology - Andrology - Vascular surgery

Medicine Internal medicine - Allergy / Immunology - Angiology - Cardiology - Endocrinology - Gastroenterology - Hepatology - Geriatrics - Hematology - Hospital medicine - Infectious disease - Nephrology - Oncology - Pulmonology - Rheumatology
Obstetrics and gynaecology Gynaecology - Gynecologic oncology - Maternal–fetal medicine - Obstetrics - Reproductive endocrinology and infertility - Urogynecology
Diagnostic Radiology - Interventional radiology - Nuclear medicine - Pathology - Anatomical - Clinical pathology - Clinical chemistry - Cytopathology - Medical microbiology - Transfusion medicine
Other specialties Addiction medicine - Adolescent medicine - Anesthesiology - Dermatology - Disaster medicine - Diving medicine - Emergency medicine - Mass gathering medicine - Family medicine - General practice - Hospital medicine - Intensive care medicine - Medical genetics - Narcology - Neurology - Clinical neurophysiology - Occupational medicine - Ophthalmology - Oral medicine - Pain management - Palliative care - Pediatrics - Neonatology - Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) - Preventive medicine - Psychiatry -Addiction psychiatry - Radiation oncology - Reproductive medicine - Sexual medicine - Sleep medicine - Sports medicine - Transplantation medicine - Tropical medicine - Travel medicine - Venereology
Medical education Medical school - USMLE - Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery - Bachelor of Medical Sciences - Master of Medicine - Master of Surgery - Doctor of Medicine - Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine - Alternative medicine - Allied health - Dentistry - Podiatry - Pharmacy - Physiotherapy - Molecular oncology - Nanomedicine - Personalized medicine - Public health - Rural health - Therapy - Traditional medicine - Veterinary medicine - Physician - Chief physician - History of medicine
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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD, Dr.T