Transfusion medicine

From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

Transfusion Medicine is a specialized branch of Hematology that focuses on the transfusion of blood and blood components. It encompasses all aspects of blood banking, transfusion therapy, and immunohematology, which ensure the safe and effective collection, processing, testing, and distribution of blood.

Kell and extended Rh antigen blood typing
Main symptoms of acute hemolytic reaction
Daily Operations in the Blood Bank Aboard USNS Comfort (49826610101)
Blood Types
Serology interpretation of antibody panel for blood group antigens

Overview[edit | edit source]

Transfusion medicine is a critical field in clinical medicine and surgery, providing lifesaving blood products for patients who require transfusions due to conditions like severe anemia, traumatic injuries, or during surgical procedures. Specialists in this field, known as transfusionists, are responsible for matching donor blood with recipients, minimizing the risk of transfusion-related complications.

Blood Components[edit | edit source]

Transfusion medicine utilizes several blood components, including:

  • Red Blood Cells (RBCs) – for treating anemia and acute blood loss.
  • Platelets – for patients with low platelet counts or function, often used in cancer therapy.
  • Plasma – for clotting disorders or to replace lost blood volume.
  • Cryoprecipitate – for specific clotting factor deficiencies.

Blood Typing and Crossmatching[edit | edit source]

A critical aspect of transfusion medicine is ensuring compatibility between donor blood and recipient, which includes:

  • Blood Typing – determining the ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood groups.
  • Crossmatching – a laboratory test to ensure that a recipient's blood is compatible with potential donor blood.

Immunohematology[edit | edit source]

Immunohematology, a sub-discipline of transfusion medicine, deals with the immune aspects of blood transfusions, such as the study of antigens, antibodies, and other related components.

Transfusion Therapy[edit | edit source]

Transfusion therapy involves the administration of blood components and is guided by principles that include:

  • Indications for transfusion based on clinical assessment.
  • Informed consent from the patient or their representative.
  • Monitoring for adverse reactions during and after the transfusion.

Transfusion Reactions[edit | edit source]

Transfusion medicine also addresses potential transfusion reactions, including:

Transfusion Safety[edit | edit source]

Ensuring the safety of blood products is a top priority, involving:

Training and Certification[edit | edit source]

Physicians specializing in transfusion medicine typically undergo residency training in pathology or hematology and then complete a fellowship in transfusion medicine. They are certified through boards like the American Board of Pathology.

Role in Modern Healthcare[edit | edit source]

Transfusion medicine plays an essential role in modern healthcare, supporting a wide range of medical and surgical procedures. It is continually evolving with advances in blood safety, immunohematology research, and the development of blood substitutes.

Glossary of Transfusion Medicine[edit | edit source]

  • ABO blood group system - The primary blood group system in humans, determining the presence of antigens and antibodies in the blood, crucial for ensuring compatibility in blood transfusion.
  • Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction - A severe, potentially life-threatening reaction that occurs when the transfused blood is not compatible with the recipient's blood type, leading to rapid destruction of the donor red blood cells.
  • Allergic transfusion reaction - A type of transfusion reaction characterized by allergic symptoms, such as hives, itching, and fever, typically occurring soon after the transfusion begins.
  • American Society for Apheresis - A professional organization dedicated to advancing the practice and research of apheresis medicine, including the therapeutic removal of components from the blood.
  • Anemia in pregnancy - A common condition during pregnancy due to increased iron and nutrient demands, sometimes requiring treatment through dietary supplementation or blood transfusion.
  • Anemia - A condition marked by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, leading to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Anemia may necessitate blood transfusion as part of the treatment.
  • Antibody elution - A laboratory technique used to remove antibodies from the surface of red blood cells, important in diagnosing and treating certain blood transfusion complications.
  • Antifibrinolytic - A medication or substance that prevents the breakdown of fibrin, used to reduce bleeding during surgery and in conditions with excessive bleeding.
  • Antihemorrhagic - A drug or treatment that stops bleeding. These agents play a crucial role in managing bleeding disorders and during surgeries to minimize blood loss.
  • Apheresis - A medical technology used to remove specific blood components from a donor or patient. It is employed in treatments such as plasma exchange and in collecting specific blood products for transfusion.
  • Aquaporin-3 - A protein that forms water channels in the cell membrane, implicated in transporting glycerol and water in and out of cells, including those in the skin and kidneys.
  • Arnault Tzanck - A medical researcher known for his contributions to dermatology and the Tzanck test, which is used to diagnose certain skin lesions and conditions.
  • Auberger's blood group - A less common blood group antigen system, significant in blood transfusion medicine for its role in transfusion reactions and in maternal-fetal medicine for its impact on hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • Augustine blood group system - A classification system for human blood based on the presence or absence of specific antigens. Knowledge of various blood group systems is essential for safe blood transfusion practices.
  • Autoimmune hemolytic anemia - A condition where the immune system attacks and destroys the body's own red blood cells, leading to anemia. Treatment may include blood transfusion, immunosuppressive drugs, and other therapies.
  • Autologous blood therapy - A blood conservation method where a patient's own blood is collected and reinfused, either during surgery or after an injury, minimizing the risk of transfusion-related complications.
  • Autotransfusion - The process of collecting and reinfusing the patient's own blood during or after surgery, particularly in operations with expected significant blood loss.
  • Autotransfusionist - A healthcare professional specialized in performing autotransfusion, responsible for collecting, processing, and reinfusing a patient's blood.
  • Autotransplantation - The transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same individual, used in various medical treatments, including managing certain blood disorders.
  • BTSB anti-D scandal - Refers to a controversy involving the Blood Transfusion Service Board (BTSB) in which anti-D immunoglobulin contaminated with Hepatitis C virus was distributed, highlighting the importance of safety and screening in blood products.
  • Band 3 anion transport protein - A protein that facilitates the exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the plasma membrane of red blood cells, significant for maintaining cell shape and ion balance.
  • Basigin - A transmembrane glycoprotein involved in various physiological and pathological processes, including the maturation of red blood cells and the progression of certain diseases.
  • Bleeding - The loss of blood from the circulatory system. Controlling bleeding is a fundamental aspect of transfusion medicine, utilizing various strategies including transfusion of blood products.
  • Blood bank - A facility that collects, stores, processes, and distributes blood and blood products to meet the needs of patients requiring transfusion therapy.
  • Blood compatibility testing - A series of tests, including * ABO and * Rh typing, antibody screening, and * cross-matching, to ensure safe blood transfusion by matching donor and recipient blood types.
  • Blood donation - The process by which a volunteer donor gives blood, which is then used in blood transfusions or made into medications. The process is critical for maintaining a supply of blood for healthcare systems.
  • Blood plasma - The liquid component of blood that carries cells and proteins throughout the body. It is used in * plasmapheresis and for making * plasma products for transfusion.
  • Blood product - Any therapeutic substance prepared from human blood, including red blood cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate, used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
  • Blood substitute - An artificial product used to mimic and fulfill some functions of biological blood, aimed at providing an alternative to blood transfusions in certain situations.
  • Blood transfusion - The process of transferring blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously, a critical component of emergency and surgical care, as well as chronic disease management.
  • Blood type - The classification of human blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells. The most well-known are the * ABO and * Rh blood group systems.
  • C1GALT1 - An enzyme involved in the synthesis of the core 1 structure of O-glycans, which play a role in various biological processes, including the immune response and blood group antigen expression.
  • C4A - A gene that encodes for a protein component of the complement system, which is part of the immune system that enhances the ability to clear pathogens from an organism.
  • CD151 - A protein that plays a role in cell adhesion and cell signaling in various cell types, including those involved in vascular integrity and angiogenesis.
  • CD44 - A cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and migration, particularly in the context of immune responses and hematopoiesis.
  • CD59 - A protein that regulates the complement system to prevent damage to host tissue, playing a crucial role in protecting blood cells from lysis.
  • Cadaveric blood transfusion - A rarely used practice of transfusing blood from deceased donors, historically significant but largely replaced by live donor blood donations due to safety concerns.
  • Cis AB - A rare variant of the * ABO blood group system in which both A and B antigens are encoded on the same chromosome, affecting blood transfusion and organ transplantation practices.
  • Cohn process - A method for fractionating blood plasma into its components, such as albumin, gamma globulin, and fibrinogen, used in the preparation of various plasma-derived medications.
  • Cold autoimmune hemolytic anemia - A form of * autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by cold-reacting antibodies that agglutinate and lyse red blood cells at low temperatures.
  • Colton antigen system - One of the many human blood group systems, characterized by antigens on the red blood cell surface that can influence blood transfusion compatibility.
  • Community Blood Services of Illinois - A regional blood center that collects, processes, and provides blood and blood products for local hospitals and healthcare facilities, illustrating the role of community-based organizations in the blood supply chain.
  • Complement component 4 - A protein involved in the complement system, essential for innate immunity and implicated in the clearance of pathogens and immune complexes.
  • Complement receptor 1 - A receptor on the surface of blood cells and immune cells that binds components of the complement system, playing a role in the immune response and clearance of foreign particles.
  • Convalescent plasma - Plasma collected from individuals who have recovered from an illness and developed antibodies against the pathogen, used as a treatment for infectious diseases by transferring passive immunity.
  • Coombs test - A blood test used to detect antibodies that act against the surface of the patient's own red blood cells, important in diagnosing conditions like autoimmune hemolytic anemia and in evaluating compatibility for blood transfusion.
  • Cross-matching - A laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to ensure compatibility between the donor and recipient blood, reducing the risk of transfusion reactions.
  • Cryoprecipitate - A component of blood plasma that is rich in clotting factors, including fibrinogen, factor VIII, and von Willebrand factor, used to treat conditions such as hemophilia and von Willebrand disease.
  • Cryosupernatant - The plasma fraction remaining after cryoprecipitate has been removed, containing most plasma proteins except those that precipitate at cold temperatures. It's used in therapeutic plasma exchange and for patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).
  • Damage control surgery - Surgical intervention focusing on stabilizing a patient by controlling bleeding and contamination, then postponing definitive surgery until the patient's condition is optimized. In transfusion medicine, this concept emphasizes the importance of rapid blood product support in trauma.
  • Decay-accelerating factor - A protein that regulates the complement system on cell surfaces, protecting cells from being damaged by their own immune system. It's significant in understanding how blood products interact with the immune system.
  • Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction - A transfusion reaction that occurs days to weeks after a blood transfusion, characterized by the destruction of transfused red blood cells by alloantibodies not detected during pre-transfusion testing.
  • Diego antigen system - A blood group system that includes antigens found on red blood cells, important for transfusion medicine, especially in populations where these antigens are prevalent.
  • Donath–Landsteiner hemolytic anemia - A rare form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia characterized by the presence of Donath-Landsteiner antibodies that lead to paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria, typically following viral infections in children.
  • Duffy antigen system - A set of antigens on red blood cells that are of clinical significance in transfusion medicine due to their implications for blood transfusion compatibility and susceptibility to certain infections.
  • Emergency bleeding control - Techniques and strategies used to quickly control bleeding in emergency situations, which may include the application of tourniquets, pressure dressings, and the administration of antifibrinolytic drugs.
  • Er blood group system - A classification of human blood based on the presence of the Er antigen. Like other minor blood group systems, it has implications for transfusion compatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • Exchange transfusion - A blood transfusion procedure where the patient's blood is removed and replaced with donor blood or plasma, used in the treatment of severe jaundice, polycythemia, or poisoning.
  • Febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction - The most common type of transfusion reaction, characterized by fever and chills without evidence of hemolysis, often caused by antibodies against donor white blood cells.
  • Fresh frozen plasma - Plasma that is separated from donated blood and frozen within hours of collection, used to treat patients with clotting factor deficiencies, liver failure, or those requiring massive transfusion.
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding - Bleeding that occurs within the gastrointestinal tract, which can range from minor to life-threatening. Management may require transfusion of red blood cells, platelets, or plasma products.
  • Gestational thrombocytopenia - A common, usually benign condition characterized by a mild decrease in platelet count during pregnancy, not typically requiring treatment but may be monitored with platelet counts and possibly addressed with transfusion in severe cases.
  • Globoside - A type of glycosphingolipid found in red blood cell membranes that can act as an antigen in certain blood group systems. Understanding these molecules is important for transfusion compatibility and research into blood group antigens.
  • Glycophorin C - A protein present on the surface of red blood cells, playing a role in determining blood group antigens. Mutations in this protein are associated with the Gerbich blood group system.
  • Granulocyte transfusion - The transfusion of granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, used as a temporary measure to fight infections in patients with neutropenia who are not responding to antibiotics.
  • Gulf Coast Regional Blood Center - An example of a regional blood center that collects, tests, and distributes blood and blood components to hospitals and healthcare facilities, playing a vital role in the community's healthcare system.
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (ABO) - A form of hemolytic disease of the newborn resulting from ABO blood group incompatibility between the mother and fetus, less severe than Rh incompatibility.
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell), * Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-RhE), * Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Rhc) - These terms refer to specific types of hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by maternal antibodies against the Kell, RhE, and Rhc antigens on the fetal red blood cells, respectively, leading to fetal anemia and other complications.
  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn - A condition where antibodies in a pregnant woman's blood destroy her baby's red blood cells. It can be caused by incompatibility between the mother's and baby's blood groups, such as Rh or ABO incompatibilities.
  • Hemoperfusion - A treatment method where a patient's blood is passed through an adsorbent substance to remove toxins, used in certain poisonings and drug overdoses, highlighting the importance of cleansing blood outside the body in specific medical conditions.
  • Hemotherapy - The treatment of disease by the infusion of blood or blood components, a broad term that encompasses various types of blood transfusions and the administration of blood products to treat a variety of conditions.
  • Hh blood group - A rare blood group system, also known as the Bombay phenotype, characterized by the absence of A, B, and H antigens on red blood cells, significant for its implications in blood transfusion and organ transplantation.
  • Human blood group systems - The classification of human blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells, including but not limited to the ABO and Rh systems, important for ensuring compatibility in blood transfusions.
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) - A set of genes that encode for proteins on the surface of cells that are responsible for regulating the immune system in humans, crucial for organ transplantation and transfusion medicine to prevent immune rejection.
  • Human platelet antigen - Antigens present on platelets that can be targets of the immune system, leading to conditions such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia when there is an incompatibility between the mother and fetus.
  • ICAM4 - A protein that acts as a receptor for the integrins found on the surface of red blood cells, involved in immune responses and potentially in the processes of sickle cell disease and malaria infection.
  • ISBT 128 - A global standard for the identification, labeling, and information transfer of human blood, tissue, and organ products across international borders, ensuring safety and traceability in transfusion medicine.
  • Iatrogenic anemia - Anemia caused by medical treatment, particularly due to frequent blood draws in hospitalized patients, underscoring the need for careful management of blood sampling in vulnerable populations.
  • Ii antigen system - A blood group system related to the development of certain antibodies that can impact transfusion medicine and pregnancy, part of the broader context of understanding immune responses to blood group antigens.
  • Immunoglobulin therapy - The administration of pooled human immunoglobulin (antibodies) intravenously or subcutaneously to treat various autoimmune, infectious, and idiopathic diseases, showcasing the therapeutic use of components derived from blood.
  • Immunohaematology - A branch of haematology that studies the immunological aspects of blood transfusion, including the identification of blood group antigens, antibodies, and compatibility testing, crucial for ensuring safe transfusion practices.
  • Indian blood group system - A classification of human blood that is significant in the population of the Indian subcontinent, with implications for transfusion medicine and genetic studies.
  • International Society of Blood Transfusion - A global organization that promotes the study and advancement of transfusion medicine through education, standardization, and research.
  • Intraoperative blood salvage - The collection and reinfusion of the patient's own blood lost during surgery, minimizing the need for allogenic blood transfusions.
  • Intrauterine transfusion - A medical procedure to transfuse blood to a fetus still in the uterus, typically used to treat severe cases of fetal anemia.
  • Irish Blood Transfusion Service - The national organization responsible for the collection, testing, processing, and distribution of blood and blood products across Ireland.
  • Jehovah's Witnesses and blood transfusions - A religious group known for their refusal of blood transfusions on biblical grounds, leading to the development of bloodless surgery techniques.
  • Junior blood group system - A minor blood group system with clinical significance in transfusion medicine, particularly in the context of hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • Kell antigen system - A blood group system that includes important antigens present on the red blood cells, significant for transfusion compatibility and in hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • Kidd antigen system - A system that includes antigens Jka and Jkb on red blood cells, important in transfusion medicine for their role in transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
  • LU domain - Refers to the Lutheran blood group system, which includes antigens important in blood transfusion and has implications for autoimmune and infectious diseases.
  • Lan blood group system - A classification system for human blood based on the presence of Lan antigen, relevant in transfusion medicine for its potential role in transfusion reactions.
  • Leukapheresis - A procedure to reduce a high white blood cell count, commonly used in the treatment of leukemia or to collect granulocytes for transfusion.
  • Leukoreduction - The process of removing white blood cells from blood products prior to transfusion to reduce the risk of febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions and other complications.
  • Lewis antigen system - A blood group system that includes antigens not only on red blood cells but also in body fluids, involved in transfusion medicine and maternal-fetal compatibility.
  • Lutheran antigen system - A blood group system that can affect transfusion compatibility and pregnancy, including antigens on the red cell surface involved in various cellular functions.
  • MNS antigen system - A human blood group system that includes several antigens on the surface of red blood cells, important in transfusion medicine for its role in transfusion reactions.
  • Mixed-field agglutination - A phenomenon observed in blood typing when there are two populations of red blood cells, often seen after a transfusion or in certain blood disorders.
  • Monocyte monolayer assay - A laboratory test used to predict the severity of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn by assessing the maternal antibody's ability to bind to antigens on fetal red blood cells.
  • NHS Blood and Transplant - An organization responsible for the donation, storage, and transplantation of blood, organs, tissues, and stem cells in the UK, ensuring the safe and efficient delivery of these vital services.
  • Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia - A condition where a fetus develops a low platelet count due to the mother's immune system attacking fetal platelets, often requiring careful monitoring and treatment, including transfusions.
  • Neonatal red cell transfusion - The administration of red blood cells to a newborn to treat or prevent complications arising from anemia, with considerations for the unique physiological needs of neonates.
  • Northfield Laboratories - A company known for its development of blood substitutes, highlighting the ongoing research into alternatives to traditional blood transfusions.
  • Osborn v. Irwin Memorial Blood Bank - A landmark legal case involving the responsibility of blood banks for the transmission of HIV through transfusions, underscoring the importance of blood safety and screening.
  • P1PK blood group system - A classification of antigens on red blood cells with relevance to transfusion medicine, particularly in the context of rare blood types and hemolytic transfusion reactions.
  • Packed red blood cells - Red blood cells that have been separated from whole blood for transfusion, used to increase oxygen-carrying capacity in patients with anemia or blood loss.
  • Pathogen reduction using riboflavin and UV light - A technology to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections by treating blood products with riboflavin (vitamin B2) and ultraviolet light, which inactivate pathogens while preserving the function of the blood components.
  • Plasma frozen within 24 hours - Plasma that is separated from whole blood and frozen within 24 hours of collection, preserving clotting factors and other proteins for therapeutic use.
  • Plasmapheresis - A procedure in which plasma is separated from the blood cells and removed from the body, with the cells then returned to the patient, often used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and in collecting plasma for transfusion.
  • Platelet transfusion refractoriness - A condition in which patients repeatedly show poor post-transfusion platelet increments, often due to alloimmunization against HLA or platelet-specific antigens.
  • Platelet transfusion - The infusion of platelets to a recipient to prevent or treat bleeding associated with platelet deficiency or dysfunction, common in various medical and surgical conditions.
  • Platelet-poor plasma - Plasma from which most of the platelets have been removed, used in certain clinical situations where the presence of platelets could be problematic.
  • Platelet-rich fibrin - A second-generation platelet concentrate used in tissue regeneration and wound healing, highlighting the therapeutic applications of blood components beyond transfusion.
  • Platelet-rich plasma - A concentration of platelets in a small volume of plasma, used therapeutically for its high growth factor content to promote healing of injured tendons, ligaments, muscles, and joints.
  • Platelet - A small blood cell that plays a crucial role in blood clotting. Platelet transfusions are used to treat or prevent bleeding in patients with low platelet counts or dysfunctional platelets.
  • Plateletpheresis - The process of collecting platelets from a donor, where blood is drawn, platelets are separated and collected, and the remaining blood components are returned to the donor.
  • Post-transfusion purpura - A rare but serious condition that occurs after a blood transfusion, characterized by a severe drop in platelet count leading to bleeding, often caused by an immune response to transfused platelets.
  • Postpartum bleeding - Significant bleeding following childbirth, which can lead to maternal morbidity and mortality. Management may include transfusion of blood products to restore blood volume and clotting factors.
  • Prothrombin complex concentrate - A concentrated clotting factor product derived from plasma, used to quickly restore blood coagulation in patients with acute bleeding disorders or those undergoing certain medications that affect coagulation.
  • RHAG - A gene that encodes the Rh-associated glycoprotein, part of the Rh blood group system, crucial for the structural integrity of the red blood cell membrane and for the transport of ammonium.
  • Rh blood group system - A major blood group system after ABO, determining the presence or absence of the RhD antigen on the surface of red blood cells, significant in transfusion medicine and obstetrics.
  • Rh deficiency syndrome - A rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a lack of Rh antigens on the red blood cells, leading to a fragile cell membrane and chronic hemolytic anemia.
  • Rh disease - Also known as hemolytic disease of the newborn due to Rh incompatibility, where the mother's immune system attacks the Rh-positive fetal red blood cells, potentially leading to severe anemia in the fetus.
  • Rho(D) immune globulin - A blood product given to Rh-negative mothers during and after pregnancy to prevent the development of antibodies against Rh-positive fetal red blood cells, thereby preventing Rh disease in subsequent pregnancies.
  • SEMA7A - A gene that encodes Semaphorin-7A, a protein involved in immune regulation and neural development, illustrating the complex interactions between the nervous system and the immune response.
  • Samuel Armstrong Lane - A pioneering figure in the history of surgery, credited with performing one of the first successful blood transfusions in the 19th century.
  • Secretor status - Refers to the ability of an individual to secrete blood group antigens into bodily fluids. Secretor status can influence susceptibility to certain diseases and conditions.
  • Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency - The most common primary immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by an absence or severe reduction of immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood and bodily fluids, which can affect the selection of blood products for transfusion.
  • Serious Hazards of Transfusion (SHOT) - A UK-based hemovigilance scheme that collects and analyzes data on adverse events and reactions related to blood transfusion, aiming to improve the safety of blood transfusion practices.
  • Solvent detergent plasma - Plasma treated with solvent detergent to inactivate lipid-enveloped viruses, providing an additional layer of safety for transfusion recipients by reducing the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections.
  • Stem cell fat grafting - A regenerative medicine technique that involves the transplantation of fat enriched with stem cells, illustrating the intersection of transfusion medicine with regenerative therapies, where blood products and derivatives are used to enhance healing and tissue regeneration.
  • Syngenic - Referring to genetically identical organisms, such as identical twins. In transfusion and transplantation medicine, syngenic donors are ideal due to the minimal risk of immune rejection.
  • Tranexamic acid - A medication used to treat or prevent excessive blood loss from major trauma, surgery, tooth removal, nosebleeds, and heavy menstruation. It is an antifibrinolytic that works by slowing the breakdown of blood clots.
  • Transdermal optical imaging - A non-invasive imaging technique that uses light to capture blood flow images under the skin, potentially useful for monitoring various blood-related conditions and the effects of transfusion therapies.
  • Transfusion hemosiderosis - A condition resulting from the accumulation of excess iron in the body due to frequent blood transfusions, leading to organ damage over time and requiring management with iron chelation therapy.
  • Transfusion medicine - A branch of medicine that focuses on the transfusion of blood and blood components, including the collection, testing, preparation, and appropriate use of blood products to treat various medical conditions.
  • Transfusion practitioner - A healthcare professional specialized in the field of transfusion medicine, responsible for ensuring the safe, effective, and appropriate use of blood and blood products within a healthcare setting.
  • Transfusion therapy (Sickle-cell disease) - The use of blood transfusions to treat sickle cell disease, either to increase the normal red blood cell count during a sickle cell crisis or as a preventive measure to decrease the risk of complications.
  • Transfusion transmitted infection - An infection that can be passed from donor to recipient through the transfusion of contaminated blood products, highlighting the importance of rigorous screening and testing of all donated blood.
  • Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) - A potentially life-threatening complication of blood transfusion characterized by an acute overload of the circulatory system, leading to symptoms such as hypertension, pulmonary edema, and respiratory distress.
  • Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) - A rare but often fatal complication of blood transfusion where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues, emphasizing the need for irradiation of blood products in vulnerable patients.
  • Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) - A serious adverse reaction to blood transfusion involving acute lung injury and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, representing one of the leading causes of transfusion-related mortality.
  • Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) - The alteration of the recipient's immune system following transfusion, with potential implications for infection risk, cancer recurrence, and autoimmune disease.
  • Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome - A condition in monochorionic multiple pregnancies where blood moves from one twin to the other through shared placental blood vessels, potentially requiring intrauterine blood transfusion for management.
  • Vel blood group - A human blood group characterized by the presence or absence of the Vel antigen on red blood cells, with significance in transfusion medicine due to the potential for severe transfusion reactions.
  • Vitalant - One of the largest non-profit blood service providers in the United States, involved in the collection, testing, and distribution of blood and blood components to hospitals and healthcare facilities.
  • Washed red blood cells - Red blood cells that have been processed to remove most of the plasma, used in transfusions to reduce the risk of reactions in patients with a history of allergic responses to transfused blood.
  • Whole blood - Blood drawn directly from the donor and used without separation into its components, less commonly used in modern transfusion practices which favor component therapy for specific clinical needs.
  • XK (protein) - A protein associated with the Kx blood group system, which plays a role in the structural integrity of the red blood cell membrane and is linked to McLeod syndrome.
  • Xenotransfusion - The transfusion of blood or blood products from one species to another, an area of research exploring the feasibility of using animal blood to address human blood supply shortages.
  • Xg antigen system - A blood group system based on the presence or absence of the Xg antigen on red blood cells, with minor clinical significance in transfusion medicine.
  • Young blood transfusion - A controversial and largely experimental treatment concept involving the transfusion of blood from young donors to older recipients, purported to convey anti-aging benefits but lacking robust scientific evidence.
  • Yt antigen system - A blood group system that includes antigens of clinical significance in transfusion medicine, particularly in the context of kidney transplantation and rare transfusion reactions.

Transfusion medicine Resources
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