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2022-02-19 Ear inspection

Otorhinolaryngology, commonly known as Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) medicine, is a specialized medical and surgical domain concerned with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of conditions affecting the ears, nose, throat, and related regions of the head and neck[1]. Derived from the Greek words otos for ear, rhinos for nose, and laryngos for throat, practitioners in this field are typically known as otorhinolaryngologists, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons.

Subspecialties and Scope[edit | edit source]

Otorhinolaryngology encompasses several subspecialties that focus on specific aspects of ear, nose, and throat health:

  • Audiology and Otology: This subspecialty focuses on treating hearing impairment, ear infections, balance disorders, tinnitus, and some disorders associated with the cranial nerves.
  • Rhinology: Rhinologists specialize in managing diseases affecting the nose and sinuses, including allergies, sinusitis, and disorders related to smell.
  • Laryngology: Focusing on the throat, laryngologists manage conditions affecting the larynx and the upper aero-digestive tract, such as voice and swallowing disorders.
  • Head and Neck Surgery: This field is primarily concerned with the management of benign and malignant tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. It also involves reconstructive surgery within these areas.

Education and Training[edit | edit source]

Becoming an otorhinolaryngologist requires comprehensive education and rigorous training. Initially, a medical degree (either Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) or Doctor of Medicine (MD)) is mandatory. This is followed by a dedicated residency program in otorhinolaryngology, where the medical graduates acquire in-depth knowledge about common ENT diseases, surgical procedures, and emergency care. For those seeking further specialization, fellowship training is available[2].

Common Procedures[edit | edit source]

Otorhinolaryngologists perform a wide range of diagnostic and surgical procedures tailored to the specific needs of the patient. These include tympanoplasty (surgery of the ear), rhinoplasty (surgery of the nose), laryngectomy (removal of the larynx), and endoscopic sinus surgery. Furthermore, they may also implement procedures to address sleep disorders such as snoring and obstructive sleep apnea[3].

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

External Links[edit | edit source]

American Academy of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery ENT UK: British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD