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== Anatomy ==

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. It is an old science, having its beginnings in prehistoric times. Anatomy is inherently tied to developmental biology, embryology, comparative anatomy, evolutionary biology, and phylogeny, as these are the processes by which anatomy is generated, both over immediate and long-term timescales. Anatomy and physiology, which study the structure and function of organisms and their parts respectively, make a natural pair of related disciplines.

Histology[edit | edit source]

Histology is the study of the microscopic structure of tissues. It is an essential tool of biology and medicine. Histopathology, the microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease, involves the histological examination of samples taken from the body (biopsies and surgical resections) or at autopsy. These are typically examined under a microscope by a pathologist.

Pathology[edit | edit source]

Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology also refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is often used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease, mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples.

Pharmacology[edit | edit source]

Pharmacology is the branch of biology that is concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

Surgery[edit | edit source]

Surgery is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

Radiology[edit | edit source]

Radiology is the medical discipline that uses medical imaging to diagnose and treat diseases within the bodies of animals, including humans.

Psychiatry[edit | edit source]

Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. These include various maladaptations related to mood, behaviour, cognition, and perceptions.

Dermatology[edit | edit source]

Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin. It is a speciality with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist is a specialist doctor who manages diseases related to skin, hair, nails, and some cosmetic problems.

Gastroenterology[edit | edit source]

Gastroenterology is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders. Diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouth into anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this speciality.

Cardiology[edit | edit source]

Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the disorders of the heart as well as some parts of the circulatory system. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and electrophysiology.


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD