From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as iso-octane, is an important component of gasoline, often used in standardized definitions of the octane rating. It is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2. This is a highly branched alkane used in laboratory research, but it is rarely found in nature.

Chemical Structure and Properties[edit | edit source]

2,2,4-Trimethylpentane is a branched alkane, which means it has a carbon atom that is connected to more than two other carbon atoms. The molecule has a total of eight carbon atoms and eighteen hydrogen atoms. The structure of 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane is such that it has a central chain of three carbon atoms, with three methyl groups (CH3) attached to the second carbon atom in the chain.

The physical properties of 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane are typical of alkanes. It is a colorless liquid at room temperature, with a boiling point of 99.2 degrees Celsius and a melting point of -107.4 degrees Celsius. It is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and diethyl ether.

Uses[edit | edit source]

The primary use of 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane is as a reference fuel in octane rating scales. The octane number of a fuel is a measure of its resistance to knocking or pinging in a spark-ignition internal combustion engine. 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane has an octane rating of 100, which means it is highly resistant to knocking.

In addition to its use in fuel, 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane is also used in the production of high purity metals, where it serves as a solvent in the extraction process.

Safety and Health Effects[edit | edit source]

Exposure to 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. It can also cause dizziness, headache, and in severe cases, unconsciousness. Long-term exposure can lead to more serious health effects such as liver and kidney damage.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD