Cerebral palsy athetoid

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Alternate names[edit | edit source]

Athetoid cerebral palsy; Cerebral palsy dyskinetic

Definition[edit | edit source]

Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is a subtype of cerebral palsy (CP). Cerebral palsy is a group of non-progressive, permanent disorders that causes limitation of activity by affecting the developing motor control circuit.

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

  • Cerebral palsy overall is the most common cause of childhood disability, occurring in 1.5 to 2.5 per 1000 live births.
  • Dyskinetic or athetoid type cerebral palsy makes up 12% to 14% of the cerebral palsy cases overall.
  • This calculates to around 1.8 to 3.5 cases per 10000 live births for dyskinetic cerebral palsy.

Cause[edit | edit source]

Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

  • Dyskinetic cerebral palsy, like all forms of cerebral palsy, is a clinical diagnosis. [1][1].
  • The history should identify risk factors for athetoid cerebral palsy, such as perinatal asphyxia or severe hyperbilirubinemia in the perinatal period.
  • The physical exam is an important part of evaluating a patient with dyskinetic cerebral palsy.
  • Common clinical findings in dyskinetic cerebral palsy include the following:
  • In early infancy: Delayed motor development, reduced spontaneous movements, variable tone with movements while hypotonic at rest, and persistence of primitive reflexes.
  • By age 2 to 3: Involuntary movements are more apparent along with abnormal posturing. This includes head being persistently turned to one side, extension in the supine position, flexion, and shoulder retraction while prone.
  • Other than the clinical history and physical exam, as mentioned above, neuroimaging is helpful in the assessment of athetoid cerebral palsy.
  • 70% of patients with dyskinetic cerebral palsy have lesions found on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in the basal ganglia or thalamus.

Treatment[edit | edit source]

  • Management of dyskinetic CP centers around the management of symptoms and aims at improvement in the quality of life for the patient.
  • This involves the management of dystonia and choreoathetosis, as well as helping with associated pain, disability, and discomfort.
  • There is also a focus on the treatment of comorbidities that are non-motor.
  • These comorbidities include epilepsy and depression.
  • Other issues include ensuring optimal nutrition, possibilities of contractures, and orthopedic complications.
  • There are medications that are often used in the treatment of dyskinetic cerebral palsy; however, most of them show low efficacy.
  • The most commonly used drug in DCP is oral baclofen, a GABA-B agonist.
  • Trihexyphenidyl is often used for dystonia. Efficacy for both of these drugs in DCP is, however, low.

Medications that are often used as an attempt to manage movement symptoms are below.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Li X, Arya K. Athetoid Cerebral Palsy. [Updated 2021 Jan 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563160/
  2. Li X, Arya K. Athetoid Cerebral Palsy. [Updated 2021 Jan 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK563160/

NIH genetic and rare disease info[edit source]

Cerebral palsy athetoid is a rare disease.

Cerebral palsy athetoid Resources

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