From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) is an aroma compound and flavor that is found in a variety of foods and plants. It is particularly noted for its presence in cooked rice, pandan leaves, and bread crust. It is also a significant component of the aroma of white bread, jasmine rice, and basmati rice, as well as the spice star anise and balsamic vinegar.

Chemical Structure and Properties[edit | edit source]


2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline has the molecular formula C6H9NO. It is a volatile compound, meaning it readily evaporates at room temperature, which allows its aroma to be easily detected. It is a heterocyclic compound, containing a ring of five atoms – four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom.

Occurrence and Production[edit | edit source]

2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline is found in a wide variety of foods and plants. It is a key aroma compound in the scent of cooked rice, particularly jasmine and basmati varieties. It is also found in pandan leaves, a common ingredient in Southeast Asian cuisine, and in the crust of white bread. Other sources include star anise and balsamic vinegar.

In plants, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is produced via the Maillard reaction, a type of non-enzymatic browning reaction that occurs when sugars and amino acids are heated together. In rice, it is thought to be produced from the amino acid proline.

Health Effects[edit | edit source]

While 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline is generally recognized as safe for consumption, it has been associated with some potential health effects. Some studies have suggested that it may have antioxidant properties, while others have indicated that it may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, more research is needed to fully understand these potential health benefits.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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