Cell organelle

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Cell organelle refers to the specialized subunits within a cell that have specific functions. They are usually enclosed within their own lipid bilayers. The term "organelle" is derived from the word "organ" and refers to parts of the cell which function in a way similar to organs in the body.

Types of Cell Organelles[edit | edit source]

There are several types of cell organelles, each with a unique function.

  • Nucleus: The nucleus is the control center of the cell. It contains the cell's DNA and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.
  • Mitochondria: These are the powerhouses of the cell. They produce energy through respiration, and regulate cellular metabolism.
  • Ribosomes: Ribosomes are responsible for protein synthesis in the cell. They can be found either floating freely or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum: The endoplasmic reticulum is involved in protein and lipid synthesis. It is a network of tubules and vesicles that branch forming a reticulum.
  • Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus packages proteins inside the cell before they are sent to their destination.
  • Lysosomes: Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes to digest waste materials and cellular debris.
  • Peroxisomes: Peroxisomes are involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamines.
  • Centrosome: The centrosome is the main microtubule organizing center of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression.

Function of Cell Organelles[edit | edit source]

Cell organelles help in the survival of cells through various functions. They provide the cell with energy, regulate its metabolism and control the life and growth of the cell.

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD