2-Hydroxybutyrate

From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

2-Hydroxybutyrate (also known as 2-HB) is a ketone body that is produced in the liver and used as a source of energy by the body. It is a type of organic compound that is classified as a hydroxy acid and a beta hydroxy acid.

Structure and Properties[edit | edit source]

2-Hydroxybutyrate is a chiral molecule with two possible enantiomers: D-2-Hydroxybutyrate and L-2-Hydroxybutyrate. The D-isomer is the biologically active form, while the L-isomer is less common and less active. The molecule consists of a four-carbon backbone with a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the second carbon atom, hence the name 2-Hydroxybutyrate.

Biological Role[edit | edit source]

In the human body, 2-Hydroxybutyrate is produced in the liver from the breakdown of fatty acids and amino acids. It is then transported to other tissues, such as the brain, heart, and muscles, where it is used as a source of energy. This process is particularly important during periods of fasting or intense exercise, when glucose levels are low.

2-Hydroxybutyrate also plays a role in the regulation of blood sugar levels and insulin sensitivity. Elevated levels of 2-Hydroxybutyrate in the blood can be an early indicator of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Clinical Significance[edit | edit source]

Measurement of 2-Hydroxybutyrate levels in the blood can be used as a diagnostic tool in medicine. Elevated levels can indicate a number of conditions, including ketosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, and metabolic acidosis. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for these conditions.

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD