2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

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2-Methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (2MBD deficiency) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the body's ability to break down certain amino acids used for energy. It falls under the category of organic acidemias, specifically a subtype of fatty acid oxidation disorders. This condition is caused by mutations in the ACADSB gene, which encodes the enzyme 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of the amino acid isoleucine, a component of proteins found in many foods.

Symptoms and Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

Symptoms of 2MBD deficiency can vary widely among affected individuals. They may include developmental delay, hypotonia (low muscle tone), seizures, and episodes of metabolic crisis, often triggered by periods of fasting or illness. Metabolic crises can lead to symptoms such as vomiting, lethargy, and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

Diagnosis of 2MBD deficiency typically involves biochemical tests that detect elevated levels of specific metabolites in the blood or urine, indicative of impaired isoleucine metabolism. Genetic testing can confirm a diagnosis by identifying mutations in the ACADSB gene.

Treatment and Management[edit | edit source]

There is no cure for 2MBD deficiency, but its symptoms can often be managed through dietary restrictions and medical interventions. Treatment usually involves a diet low in protein or specifically in isoleucine, to reduce the accumulation of toxic metabolites. During illness or other metabolic stress, affected individuals may require intravenous glucose to prevent metabolic crisis. Regular monitoring by a team of healthcare professionals, including a geneticist, dietitian, and neurologist, is essential for managing the condition.

Prognosis[edit | edit source]

The prognosis for individuals with 2MBD deficiency varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of the management plan. Early diagnosis and intervention can improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of severe metabolic crises.

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

2MBD deficiency is a very rare condition, though its exact prevalence is unknown. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two copies of the mutated gene, one from each parent, to be affected by the disorder.

Research[edit | edit source]

Research on 2MBD deficiency is ongoing, focusing on better understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of the disorder, developing more effective treatments, and improving screening and diagnosis methods.


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD