Glycogen storage disease type IV
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|Glycogen storage disease type IV|
|Other names||Andersen's triad, Andersen’s Disease|
Glycogen storage disease type IV is a form of glycogen storage disease, which is caused by an inborn error of metabolism. It is the result of a mutation in the GBE1 gene, which causes a defect in the glycogen branching enzyme. Therefore, glycogen is not made properly and abnormal glycogen molecules accumulate in cells; most severely in cardiac and muscle cells. The severity of this disease varies on the amount of enzyme produced. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV is autosomal recessive, which means each parent has a mutant copy of the gene but show no symptoms of the disease. It affects 1 in 800,000 individuals worldwide, with 3% of all Glycogen Storage Diseases being type IV.
Human pathology[edit | edit source]
It is a result of the absence of the glycogen branching enzyme, which is critical in the production of glycogen. This leads to very long unbranched glucose chains being stored in glycogen. The long unbranched molecules have a low solubility which leads to glycogen precipitation in the liver. These deposits subsequently build up in the body tissue, especially the heart and liver. The inability to breakdown glycogen in muscle cells causes muscle weakness. The probable end result is cirrhosis and death within 5 years. In adults, the activity of the enzyme is higher and symptoms do not appear until later in life.
Variant types[edit | edit source]
Fatal perinatal neuromuscular type[edit | edit source]
- Excess fluid builds up around fetus and in the fetus’ body
- Fetus have condition called akinesia deformation sequence
- Causes decrease in fetal movement and stiffness of joints after birth
- Infants have low muscle tone and muscle wasting
- Do not survive past newborn stage due to weakened heart and lungs
Congenital muscular type[edit | edit source]
- Develops in early infancy
- Babies have dilated cardiomyopathy, preventing heart from pumping efficiently
- Only survive a few months
Progressive hepatic type[edit | edit source]
- Infants have difficulty gaining weight
- Develop enlarged liver and cirrhosis, that is irreversible
- High BP in hepatic portal vein and buildup of fluid in abdominal cavity
- Die of liver failure in early childhood
Non-progressive hepatic type[edit | edit source]
- Same as progressive, but liver disease is not as severe
- Do not usually develop cirrhosis
- Usually show muscle weakness and hypotonia
- Survive into adulthood
- Life expectancy varies on severity of symptoms
Childhood neuromuscular type[edit | edit source]
- Develops in late childhood
- Has myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy
- Varies greatly
- Some have mild muscle weakness
- Some have severe cardiomyopathy and die in early adulthood
Diagnosis[edit | edit source]
An assay of α 1,4 1,4 glucan transferases.
Terminology[edit | edit source]
It is also known as:
- Glycogenosis type IV
- Glycogen branching enzyme deficiency
- Polyglucosan body disease
In animals[edit | edit source]
The disease has been reported in the Norwegian Forest Cat, where it causes skeletal muscle, heart, and CNS degeneration in animals greater than 5 months old. It has not been associated with cirrhosis or liver failure.
References[edit | edit source]
- "Andersen Disease (GSD IV)".
- "Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV." Genetics Home Reference. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 10 Sept. 2015. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.
- Andersen's disease (Dorothy Hansine Andersen) at Who Named It?
- McKusick, Victor A.; Kniffin, Cassandra L. (May 2, 2016). "OMIM Entry 263570 - Polyglucosan body neuropathy, adult form". Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 7 March 2017.
- "Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) activity causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), an autosomal recessive error of metabolism. Abnormal glycogen accumulates in myocytes, hepatocytes, and neurons, causing variably progressive, benign to lethal organ dysfunctions. A naturally occurring orthologue of human GSD IV was described previously in Norwegian Forest cats (NFC)."
[edit | edit source]
Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD