Central nervous system cyst

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Central nervous system cyst is a pathological condition characterized by the presence of a fluid-filled sac, or cyst, within the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord, and any cystic formation within these structures can lead to a variety of neurological symptoms.

Types of Central Nervous System Cysts[edit | edit source]

There are several types of CNS cysts, each with unique characteristics and potential complications. These include:

  • Arachnoid cysts: These are the most common type of CNS cysts. They form in the arachnoid membrane, one of the three layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
  • Colloid cysts: These cysts typically occur in the third ventricle of the brain and can block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, leading to increased intracranial pressure.
  • Dermoid cysts and Epidermoid cysts: These are congenital cysts that are typically present at birth. They result from the inclusion of ectodermal tissue during neural tube closure.
  • Pineal cysts: These cysts occur in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland in the brain. Most pineal cysts are asymptomatic and discovered incidentally.

Symptoms[edit | edit source]

The symptoms of a CNS cyst depend on its size and location. Small cysts may not cause any symptoms and may be discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. Larger cysts, or those located in certain areas of the brain or spinal cord, can cause symptoms such as headache, seizures, vertigo, and neurological deficits.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

Diagnosis of a CNS cyst typically involves imaging studies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. These studies can reveal the presence, size, and location of the cyst. In some cases, a lumbar puncture may be performed to analyze the cerebrospinal fluid.

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Treatment for a CNS cyst depends on the type of cyst, its size, and the symptoms it is causing. Options may include observation, medication to control symptoms, or surgery to remove the cyst.

See Also[edit | edit source]


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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD