Metabolic syndrome

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Editor-In-Chief: Prab R Tumpati, MD
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A man with metabolic syndrome showing central obesity

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions — increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar level, excess body fat around the waist and abnormal cholesterol levels — that occur together, increasing your risk of heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.[1]

Introduction[edit | edit source]

Metabolic syndrome, also known as metabolic syndrome X, cardiometabolic syndrome, syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome, Reaven's syndrome (named after Gerald Reaven), or CHAOS (in Australia),[2] is a disorder of energy utilization and storage. It is characterized by the presence of at least three out of five specific medical conditions: abdominal (central) obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density cholesterol (HDL) levels.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

A diagnosis of metabolic syndrome is made when a patient has at least three of the aforementioned conditions. Although the symptoms are diverse, they all result from insulin resistance – a state in which cells fail to respond normally to insulin. In many cases, metabolic syndrome is related to an individual's lifestyle, but it can also be genetic.

Prevalence[edit | edit source]

In the United States, approximately 34% of the adult population has been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, and the prevalence of this condition increases with age.[3]

Risk and Complications[edit | edit source]

Patients with metabolic syndrome have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure, and diabetes. Metabolic syndrome and prediabetes can be considered the same disorder, just diagnosed by a different set of biomarkers.[4]

Treatment and Management[edit | edit source]

The mainstay of treatment for metabolic syndrome is lifestyle modification. This includes a healthy diet, regular physical activity, weight loss for those overweight or obese, and cessation of smoking. In some cases, medication may be used to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or elevated blood glucose levels.[5]

See Also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

Metabolic syndrome Resources
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Contributors: Prab R. Tumpati, MD