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Diabetes

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia


Editor-In-Chief: Prab R. Tumpati M.D.
Obesity, Sleep & Internal medicine
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Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome characterized by disordered metabolism and inappropriately high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) resulting from either low levels of the hormone insulin or from abnormal resistance to insulin's effects.

Main symptoms of diabetes.png

Insulin is an anabolic hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy, and also controls the body's fatty acid metabolism. There are two types of diabetes - type 1 diabetes that usually starts in early childhood and has higher genetic risk and the more common type 2 diabetes that can start in obese kids and adults. Up to 90 percent of the risk of type 2 diabetes is considered preventable according to research from Yale University and other places.

Etiology[edit | edit source]

The incidence of type 2 diabetes has gone up significantly in populations around the world including the United States in the past 50 years or so. This has to do with the misguided efforts at the various Governments including that of the United States to deal with the obesity epidemic. As most of the efforts at curbing obesity were too "fat centric" such as the United States failed and now withdrawn food pyramid, this lead to an explosion of insulin resistance as all these so called low fat foods tend to be high glycemic.

It is postulated that increased use of cereal grains might also have contributed to the raise in the epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes that some call it as diabetesity.

Types[edit | edit source]

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.

  1. Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. As a result, the body is unable to produce insulin, which is necessary to regulate blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes is typically diagnosed in children and young adults, and it is treated with insulin injections or an insulin pump.
  2. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. It is caused by the body's inability to properly use and store glucose, a condition known as insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, and it is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the disease. It can be managed with a combination of diet, exercise, and medications such as metformin or insulin.

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Gestational diabetes[edit | edit source]

Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy and affects women who have never had diabetes before. If you have gestational diabetes, your baby may be at higher risk for certain health issues. However, gestational diabetes usually disappears after the baby is born. It is important to note, however, that having gestational diabetes can increase a person's risk for developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Additionally, the child of a mother with gestational diabetes may be more likely to become obese in their childhood or teenage years and develop type 2 diabetes later on.

Prediabetes[edit | edit source]

Prediabetes is a condition in which a person's blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that 96 million adults in the United States, or over one third of the adult population, have prediabetes. Unfortunately, over 8 in 10 of these individuals are unaware that they have the condition. Prediabetes can increase a person's risk for developing type 2 diabetes, as well as increasing their risk for heart disease and stroke.

Facts on Diabetes[edit | edit source]

According to the Center's for Disease Control, here are the facts on diabetes:

  • Adults aged 65 years and older, 10.9 million, or 26.9% or had diabetes in 2010.
  • About 215,000 people younger than 20 years had diabetes (type 1 or • type 2) in the United States in 2010.
  • *About 1.9 million people aged 20 years or older were newly • diagnosed with diabetes in 2010 in the United States.
  • In 2005–2008, based on fasting glucose or hemoglobin A1c levels, • 35% of U.S. adults aged 20 years or older had prediabetes (50% of adults aged 65 years or older). Applying this percentage to the entire U.S. population in 2010 yields an estimated 79 million American adults aged 20 years or older with prediabetes.
  • Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure, nontraumatic lower-• limb amputations, and new cases of blindness among adults in the United States.
  • Diabetes is a major cause of heart disease and stroke.•
  • Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.•
  • Diabetes affects 25.8 million people
  • 8.3% of the U.S. population

Diagnosed with diabetes[edit | edit source]

  • 18.8 million people in the United States are currently diagnosed with diabetes.

Not diagnosed with diabetes

  • 7.0 million people have diabetes but not yet diagnosed.
  • Age ≥20 years about 25.6 million or 11.3% of all people in this age group have diabetes
  • Age ≥65 years 10.9 million or 26.9% of all people in this age group

Men - 13.0 million or 11.8% of all men aged 20 years or older Women - 12.6 million or 10.8% of all women aged 20 years or older

Non-Hispanic whites and diabetes 15.7 million or 10.2% of all non-Hispanic whites aged 20 years or older Non-Hispanic blacks and diabetes 4.9 million or 18.7% of all non-Hispanic blacks aged 20 years or older.

Diabetes Statistics per BRFSS survey 2010 in the Unites States

People in the United States were asked by telephone this question: Have you ever been told by a doctor that you have diabetes?

Here are the answers from the BRFSS survey in 2010. As can be seen from the following answers, most people with prediabetes are not aware of their situation. According to the statistics on prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome, up to a third of the adult population in fact have prediabetes although only a small fraction of them are actually aware of it.

Diabetes topics[edit | edit source]

Diabetes in the United States

Diabetes.png

Diabetes Testing[edit | edit source]

The A1C Test and Diabetes

Defines and explains the A1C diabetes blood test. Discusses using the test for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes and monitoring of glucose levels in people with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.


Glossary of diabetes[edit | edit source]

  • Ambulatory glucose profile Diabetes - a test that measures blood sugar levels throughout the day in order to assess glucose control and identify patterns that may be contributing to poor glucose control.
  • Amylin Diabetes - a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels.
  • Banting Lectures Diabetes - an annual lecture series named after Dr Frederick Banting, one of the discoverers of insulin.
  • Bardoxolone methyl Diabetes - a medication used to treat kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Basal rate Diabetes - the amount of insulin that is continuously delivered through an insulin pump in order to maintain a stable blood sugar level between meals and overnight.
  • Biomarkers of diabetes Diabetes - markers in the body that can be measured and used to diagnose or monitor diabetes.
  • Blood sugar level Diabetes - the amount of glucose present in the blood, which is used as a measure of glucose control in diabetes.
  • Blood sugar regulation Diabetes - the process by which the body maintains stable blood sugar levels through the production and release of insulin and other hormones.
  • C-peptide Diabetes - a protein produced by the pancreas in conjunction with insulin, which can be used as a marker of insulin production.
  • Carbohydrate counting Diabetes - a method of managing diabetes that involves tracking the amount of carbohydrates consumed in order to adjust insulin doses or other medications.
  • Central European Diabetes Association Diabetes - a professional organization for healthcare professionals involved in the care of patients with diabetes in central Europe.
  • Certified diabetes educator Diabetes - a healthcare professional who has specialized training and certification in diabetes education and management.
  • Charles George Lambie Diabetes - a British physician who is credited with the first description of diabetes insipidus in 1894.
  • Chromium in glucose metabolism Diabetes - the role of the mineral chromium in the regulation of blood sugar levels and insulin sensitivity.
  • Chronic Somogyi rebound Diabetes - a pattern of blood sugar fluctuations characterized by high blood sugar levels in the morning that can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin.
  • Clarke Error Grid Diabetes - a tool used to evaluate the accuracy of blood sugar measurements and the performance of blood sugar monitoring devices.
  • Complications of diabetes Diabetes - health problems that can occur as a result of poorly controlled diabetes, including heart disease, nerve damage, kidney disease, and vision loss.
  • Consensus error grid Diabetes - a tool used to evaluate the accuracy of blood sugar measurements and the performance of blood sugar monitoring devices, similar to the Clarke Error Grid.
  • Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes Diabetes - a form of diabetes that occurs in people with cystic fibrosis, a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems.
  • DESMOND (diabetes) Diabetes - a program in the United Kingdom that provides education and support to people with type 2 diabetes.
  • DLife Diabetes - a website and television program that provides information and support for people with diabetes.
  • Dawn phenomenon Diabetes - a pattern of blood sugar fluctuations that can occur in the morning, characterized by high blood sugar levels due to the release of hormones such as cortisol and growth hormone.
  • Diabetes Diabetes - a chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood, resulting from problems with insulin production or use.
  • Diabetes (journal) Diabetes - a medical journal that publishes research on all aspects of diabetes.
  • Diabetes Care Diabetes - a medical journal that publishes research on the prevention, treatment, and management of diabetes.
  • Diabetes Health Profile Diabetes - a tool used to assess the overall health and well-being of people with diabetes.
  • Diabetes Mine Diabetes - a website that provides information and resources for people with diabetes.
  • Diabetes Susceptibility in Japan Diabetes - a study that aims to identify genetic factors that may contribute to the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japan.
  • Diabetes alert dog Diabetes - a dog that is trained to detect changes in blood sugar levels and alert their owner, who has diabetes, to take action.
  • Diabetes and deafness Diabetes - the impact of diabetes on hearing and the challenges that deaf individuals with diabetes may face in managing the disease.
  • Diabetes and exercise Diabetes - the role of physical activity in the management of diabetes and the benefits of exercise for people with diabetes.
  • Diabetes and pregnancy Diabetes - the management of diabetes during pregnancy to ensure the health of both the mother and the baby.
  • Diabetes in Australia Diabetes - the prevalence and management of diabetes in Australia.
  • Diabetes in India Diabetes - the prevalence and management of diabetes in India.
  • Diabetes in Indigenous Australians Diabetes - the unique challenges and considerations for the management of diabetes in Indigenous Australians.
  • Diabetes in cats Diabetes - the diagnosis and management of diabetes in cats.
  • Diabetes in dogs Diabetes - the diagnosis and management of diabetes in dogs.
  • Diabetes management Diabetes - the various approaches and strategies used to effectively control blood sugar levels and manage the complications of diabetes.
  • Diabetic Hypoglycemia (journal) Diabetes - a medical journal that focuses on the prevention and treatment of hypoglycemia in people with diabetes.
  • Diabetic angiopathy Diabetes - damage to the blood vessels caused by diabetes, which can lead to complications such as heart disease and nerve damage.
  • Diabetic cardiomyopathy Diabetes - a form of heart disease that occurs in people with diabetes and is characterized by a weakening of the heart muscle.
  • Diabetic coma Diabetes - a medical emergency that occurs when blood sugar levels become extremely high or low, leading to a loss of consciousness.
  • Diabetic diet (low-carb) Diabetes - a dietary approach for the management of diabetes that involves reducing the intake of carbohydrates.
  • Diabetic embryopathy Diabetes - birth defects that can occur in the offspring of women with diabetes during pregnancy.
  • Diabetic foot Diabetes - a term used to describe foot problems that can occur as a result of diabetes, such as nerve damage and poor circulation.
  • Diabetic foot infection Diabetes - an infection of the foot that can occur in people with diabetes due to poor circulation and a weakened immune system.
  • Diabetic foot ulcer Diabetes - a sore or wound on the foot that is slow to heal and can occur in people with diabetes due to poor circulation and nerve damage.
  • Diabetic hypoglycemia Diabetes - a condition characterized by low blood sugar levels, which can occur in people with diabetes who are taking insulin or other medications that lower blood sugar.
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetes - a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes that occurs when the body breaks down fats for energy instead of glucose, leading to high levels of ketones in the blood.
  • Diabetic myonecrosis Diabetes - a rare complication of diabetes that involves muscle damage and breakdown.
  • Diabetic nephropathy Diabetes - kidney damage that can occur as a result of diabetes.
  • Diabetic neuropathy Diabetes - nerve damage that can occur as a result of diabetes, which can lead to problems with the feet, hands, and other parts of the body.
  • Diabetic retinopathy Diabetes - damage to the blood vessels in the retina of the eye that can lead to vision loss, a common complication of diabetes.
  • Diabulimia Diabetes - a term used to describe the intentional withholding of insulin by people with type 1 diabetes in an attempt to lose weight.
  • Diet in diabetes Diabetes - the role of diet in the management of diabetes, including the importance of carbohydrates, fiber, and other nutrients.
  • Diet-induced obesity model Diabetes - a laboratory model in which obesity is induced through diet in order to study the development and consequences of obesity.
  • Double diabetes Diabetes - a term used to describe the co-occurrence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the same individual.
  • ENDIA Diabetes - a study in Australia that aims to identify the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes in young children.
  • Edmonton protocol Diabetes - a treatment approach for type 1 diabetes that involves the transplantation of insulin-producing cells into the pancreas.
  • Epidemiology of diabetes Diabetes - the study of the frequency, distribution, and determinants of diabetes in a population.
  • Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome Diabetes - the study of the frequency, distribution, and determinants of metabolic syndrome, a group of risk factors that increase the risk of developing diabetes and other health problems.
  • Epigenetics of diabetes Type 2 Diabetes - the study of how changes in gene expression, rather than changes in the genetic code itself, can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
  • Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy Diabetes - a rare form of chronic pancreatitis that can lead to diabetes and other health problems.
  • First Nations and diabetes Diabetes - the unique challenges and considerations for the management of diabetes in Indigenous populations in Canada.
  • Flame of Hope (diabetes) Diabetes - a global campaign to raise awareness of diabetes and support people with the disease.
  • Fructosamine Diabetes - a measure of blood sugar control that reflects the average level of glucose in the blood over the past 1-3 weeks.
  • Fundus photography Diabetes - a specialized type of photography that captures images of the back of the eye, which can be used to assess the health of retina.
  • Gastric inhibitory polypeptide Diabetes - a hormone produced by cells in the stomach that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by inhibiting the production of glucose in the liver and increasing the uptake of glucose by cells.
  • Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes Diabetes - the role of inherited genetic variations in the development of type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes Diabetes - a form of diabetes that develops during pregnancy and usually resolves after delivery.
  • Glossary of diabetes Diabetes - a list of terms related to diabetes, including definitions and explanations.
  • Glucagon rescue Diabetes - a treatment approach for severe hypoglycemia that involves the use of glucagon, a hormone that raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the liver to release stored glycogen.
  • Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) Diabetes - a hormone produced by cells in the intestine that helps to regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating the production of insulin and inhibiting the production of glucagon.
  • Glucerna Diabetes - a brand of nutritional products specifically formulated for people with diabetes.
  • Gluconeogenesis Diabetes - the process by which the body produces glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as proteins and fats.
  • Glucose-elevating agent Diabetes - a substance that raises blood sugar levels, such as glucose tablets or corn syrup.
  • Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) Diabetes - a measure of blood sugar control that reflects the average level of glucose in the blood over the past 2-3 months.
  • Glycemic Diabetes - related to the effect of a food or substance on blood sugar levels.
  • Glycemic efficacy Diabetes - The ability of a food or other substance to raise blood sugar levels.
  • Glycemic index Diabetes - A measure of how quickly a food raises blood sugar levels, with higher values indicating a faster rise.
  • Glycemic load Diabetes - A measure of the total effect of a food on blood sugar levels, taking into account both the glycemic index and the amount of carbohydrates in the food.
  • Glycogenolysis Diabetes - The breakdown of glycogen (a complex carbohydrate stored in the liver and muscles) into glucose, which can be used for energy.
  • Glycosuria Diabetes - The presence of glucose in the urine, which can be a sign of uncontrolled diabetes or other conditions.
  • HLA-DQ2 Diabetes - A type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that has been associated with an increased risk of developing celiac disease and type 1 diabetes.
  • Hibiscus tea Diabetes - A beverage made from the dried calyces (sepals) of the hibiscus plant, which has a tart, cranberry-like flavor Some research suggests that hibiscus tea may have a number of potential health benefits, including lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels.
  • History of diabetes Diabetes - A timeline of significant events and developments in the understanding and treatment of diabetes, a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood.
  • Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) Diabetes - A mathematical model used to estimate insulin resistance and beta cell function in people with diabetes or at risk of developing the condition.
  • Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) Diabetes - A serious complication of diabetes characterized by very high blood sugar levels and dehydration It can lead to coma and death if not treated promptly.
  • Hyperosmolar syndrome Diabetes - Another term for hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS).
  • Hyperproinsulinemia Diabetes - High levels of insulin in the blood, which can be a sign of insulin resistance or a condition called insulinoma (a rare, benign tumor of the pancreas that produces too much insulin).
  • Inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism Diabetes - Rare genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to process carbohydrates properly.
  • Insulin analog Diabetes - A modified form of insulin that is designed to act more quickly or slowly than regular insulin, depending on the specific type.
  • Insulin aspart Diabetes - A fast-acting insulin analog that is used to lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • Insulin degludec/insulin aspart Diabetes - A combination product containing both insulin degludec (a long-acting insulin analog) and insulin aspart (a fast-acting insulin analog) It is used to lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • Insulin index Diabetes - A measure of the relative potency of different types of insulin, with higher values indicating a stronger effect on blood sugar levels.
  • Insulin lispro Diabetes - A fast-acting insulin analog that is used to lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • Insulin resistance Diabetes - A condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels It is a common feature of type 2 diabetes and is also associated with other conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome.
  • Islet cell transplantation Diabetes - A medical procedure in which islet cells (which produce insulin) from a donor pancreas are transplanted into a person with diabetes in an effort to restore normal insulin production.
  • Ketosis-prone diabetes Diabetes - A type of diabetes that is characterized by the development of ketoacidosis (a serious complication of diabetes in which the body produces high levels of ketones, a byproduct of fat breakdown) in the absence of high blood sugar levels.
  • Laminopathy Diabetes - A group of inherited disorders that are caused by mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes a protein called lamin A/C Laminopathies can affect many different systems in the body, including the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems Some forms of laminopathy have been associated with diabetes.
  • Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) Diabetes - A form of type 1 diabetes that occurs in adults and is caused by autoimmune destruction of the islet cells of the pancreas It is often misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes.
  • LifeScan Diabetes - A company that manufactures and sells glucose monitoring systems and other products for people with diabetes.
  • Lifestyle causes of type 2 diabetes Diabetes - Factors such as diet, physical activity, and obesity that can increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
  • Lipoatrophic diabetes Diabetes - A rare form of diabetes that is characterized by a loss of fat tissue, particularly in the face and limbs, and the development of insulin resistance.
  • Lipohypertrophy Diabetes - The abnormal accumulation of fat tissue under the skin, often in areas where insulin is injected It can interfere with insulin absorption and lead to unstable blood sugar levels.
  • Lipotoxicity Diabetes - Damage to cells or tissues caused by the accumulation of fat In the context of diabetes, it refers to the harmful effects of excess fat on the beta cells of the pancreas, which produce insulin.
  • List of sportspeople with diabetes Diabetes - A list of notable athletes who have been diagnosed with diabetes.
  • Lorena Alarcon-Casas Wright Diabetes - A Mexican researcher who has made significant contributions to the understanding of the genetic basis of diabetes and related conditions.
  • MODY 1 Diabetes - A form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) that is caused by mutations in the HNF1A gene It is characterized by the development of diabetes in adolescence or early adulthood, and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
  • MODY 2 Diabetes - A form of MODY that is caused by mutations in the GCK gene It is characterized by the development of diabetes in infancy or early childhood, and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
  • MODY 3 Diabetes - A form of MODY that is caused by mutations in the HNF4A gene It is characterized by the development of diabetes in adolescence or early adulthood, and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
  • MODY 4 Diabetes - A form of MODY that is caused by mutations in the HNF1B gene It is characterized by the development of diabetes in adolescence or early adulthood, and is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern.
  • MODY 6 Diabetes - A form of MODY that is caused by mutations in the NEUROD1 gene It is characterized by the development of diabetes in adolescence.
  • Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) Diabetes - A rare form of diabetes that is caused by mutations in genes that regulate insulin production It typically develops in adolescence or early adulthood and is characterized by the gradual onset of high blood sugar levels.
  • Metabolic Score for Insulin Resistance (MSI-R) Diabetes - A tool used to assess insulin resistance and the risk of developing diabetes It is based on measures of blood sugar, cholesterol, and other markers of metabolism.
  • Metabolic syndrome Diabetes - A group of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, including high blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess triglycerides, low good cholesterol and or large waist circumference.
  • Minkowski Prize Diabetes - A prize awarded for outstanding contributions to the field of diabetes research.
  • Muscle atrophy Diabetes - The wasting or decrease in size of muscle tissue.
  • NOD mice Diabetes - A strain of mice that is commonly used in research on autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes.
  • Necrobiosis lipoidica Diabetes - a skin condition that is more common in people with diabetes and is characterized by yellowish-brown, round, or oval patches on the skin, usually on the lower legs.
  • Neonatal diabetes Diabetes - a rare form of diabetes that occurs in infants and is characterized by high blood sugar levels and the need for insulin treatment.
  • Nightscout Diabetes - a system for continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) that allows real-time access to CGM data through the internet.
  • OneTouch Ultra Diabetes - a brand of blood glucose meter used to measure blood sugar levels.
  • Ossabaw Island Hog Diabetes - a breed of pig that is used in research on diabetes and obesity due to its ability to develop diabetes and related conditions when fed a high-fat diet.
  • Outline of diabetes Diabetes - a summary of the main points and topics related to diabetes, including the different types of diabetes, causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and management.
  • Permanent neonatal diabetes Diabetes - a rare form of neonatal diabetes that is caused by genetic defects and requires lifelong insulin treatment.
  • Polyol pathway Diabetes - a metabolic pathway involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates that can contribute to the development of diabetic complications.
  • Portal hypothesis Diabetes - a theory that suggests that high blood sugar levels in diabetes can lead to the accumulation of toxic substances in the liver, which can then cause damage to other organs.
  • Pramlintide Diabetes - a synthetic version of the hormone amylin that is used to treat type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
  • Prediabetes Diabetes - a condition in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
  • Prevention of type 2 diabetes Diabetes - strategies and interventions to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, including lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, and medications.
  • Proinsulin Diabetes - a precursor to the hormone insulin that is produced in the pancreas and converted to insulin.
  • Proximal diabetic neuropathy Diabetes - a type of nerve damage that affects the thighs, hips, buttocks, and legs and is more common in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index Diabetes - a measure of how sensitive the body is to insulin, used to assess the effectiveness of insulin treatment in people with diabetes.
  • Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome Diabetes - a rare genetic disorder that causes kidney abnormalities and an increased risk of developing diabetes.
  • SPINA-GBeta Diabetes - a computer program used to predict the likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes based on genetic and environmental factors.
  • SPINA-GR Diabetes - a computer program used to calculate the daily insulin requirements of people with type 1 diabetes based on their age, weight, and physical activity level.
  • St Vincent Declaration Diabetes - a set of goals and targets for the prevention and management of diabetes, adopted by the International Diabetes Federation in 1989.
  • Steroid diabetes Diabetes - a temporary form of diabetes that can occur as a side effect of taking high doses of steroids.
  • Subclinical diabetes Diabetes - a form of diabetes that is characterized by blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes.
  • Sugary drink tax Diabetes - a tax on sugary drinks, such as soda, that is intended to reduce the consumption of these drinks and improve public health.
  • Thrifty gene hypothesis Diabetes - a theory that suggests that certain genetic variations may increase the risk of developing diabetes in response to a high-calorie diet and sedentary.
  • Thrifty phenotype Diabetes - a theory that suggests that certain environmental exposures or conditions in early life, such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins, may increase the risk of developing diabetes later in life.
  • Transient neonatal diabetes Diabetes - a form of neonatal diabetes that is caused by genetic defects and typically resolves within a few weeks to months after birth.
  • Type 1 diabetes Diabetes - a form of diabetes that is caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and requires lifelong insulin treatment.
  • Type 2 diabetes Diabetes - a form of diabetes that is characterized by insulin resistance and the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin It is the most common form of diabetes and is often associated with obesity and sedentary lifestyle.
  • Type 3 diabetes Diabetes - a proposed classification of diabetes that is also known as brain diabetes or Alzheimer's diabetes and is characterized by insulin resistance in the brain.
  • Type 3c diabetes Diabetes - a proposed classification of diabetes that is also known as pancreatogenic diabetes and is caused by damage to the pancreas, such as from pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery.
  • Untethered regimen Diabetes - a type of insulin delivery system that allows people with diabetes to monitor and adjust their insulin doses without being attached to a continuous glucose monitor or insulin pump.
  • Wolcott–Rallison syndrome Diabetes - a rare genetic disorder that causes abnormal insulin production and an increased risk of developing diabetes.
  • World Diabetes Day Diabetes - a global awareness campaign that is held on November 14 each year to educate people about diabetes and its impact on individuals and communities around the world

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