Central diabetes insipidus

From WikiMD's Wellness Encyclopedia

Other Names: Diabetes insipidus neurogenic; Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus; Pituitary diabetes insipidus; Diabetes insipidus neurohypophyseal; Diabetes insipidus cranial type; Neurogenic diabetes insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus (DI) is a form of DI that occurs when the body has lower than normal levels of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin), which is characterized by frequent urination.

Central DI results from damage to the pituitary gland, which disrupts the normal storage and release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). When this hormone reaches the kidneys, it directs them to make less urine.

Cause[edit | edit source]

  • Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition in which the kidneys are unable to prevent the excretion of water. DI is a different disease than diabetes, though both share common symptoms of excessive urination and thirst.
  • Central diabetes insipidus is a form of DI that occurs when the body has a lower than normal amount of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). ADH is also called vasopressin. ADH is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. ADH is then stored and released from the pituitary gland. This is a small gland at the base of the brain.
  • ADH controls the amount of water excreted in urine. Without ADH, the kidneys do not work properly to keep enough water in the body. The result is a rapid loss of water from the body in the form of dilute urine. This results in the need to drink large amounts of water due to extreme thirst and to make up for excessive water loss in the urine (10 to 15 liters a day).
  • The reduced level of ADH may be caused by damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. This damage may be due to surgery, infection, inflammation, tumor, or injury to the brain.
  • In rare cases, central diabetes insipidus is caused by a genetic problem.

Signs and symptoms[edit | edit source]

The major symptoms of central diabetes insipidus (DI) include urinating too much (polyuria), getting up at night to urinate (nocturia), and drinking too much liquids (polydipsia).

For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. 80%-99% of people have these symptoms

30%-79% of people have these symptoms

  • Anxiety(Excessive, persistent worry and fear)
  • Depressivity(Depression)
  • Excessive daytime somnolence(Excessive daytime sleepiness)
  • Fever
  • Headache(Headaches)
  • Lethargy

5%-29% of people have these symptoms

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

The health care provider will ask about your medical history and symptoms.

Tests that may be ordered include:

  • Blood sodium and osmolarity
  • Desmopressin (DDAVP) challenge
  • MRI of the head
  • Urinalysis
  • Urine concentration
  • Urine output

Treatment[edit | edit source]

The cause of the underlying condition will be treated.

  • Vasopressin (desmopressin, DDAVP) is given either as a nasal spray, tablets, or injections. This controls urine output and fluid balance and prevents dehydration.
  • In mild cases, drinking more water may be all that is needed. If the body's thirst control is not working (for example, if the hypothalamus is damaged), a prescription for a certain amount of water intake may also be needed to ensure proper hydration.

Prognosis[edit | edit source]

Outcome depends on the cause. If treated, central diabetes insipidus usually does not cause severe problems or result in early death.

Possible Complications

Not drinking enough fluids can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

When taking vasopressin and your body's thirst control is not normal, drinking more fluids than your body needs can cause dangerous electrolyte imbalance.


Health science - Medicine - Nephrology - edit
Diseases of the glomerulus
Lupus nephritis | Post-infectious glomerulonephritis | Minimal change disease | Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis | Diabetic nephropathy
Diseases of the proximal convoluted tubules
Fanconi syndrome (Type II renal tubular acidosis) | renal cell carcinoma
Diseases of the distal convoluted tubules
pseudohypoaldosteronism (Type IV renal tubular acidosis)
Diseases of the collecting duct
Type I renal tubular acidosis
Tumours of the kidney
renal cell carcinoma | Wilms' tumour (children)
Diseases of the renal vasculature
renal artery stenosis | vasculitis | atheroembolic disease
Tubulointerstitial diseases of the kidney
Drug-induced interstitial nephritis | Obstructive nephropathy | Radiation nephritis | Reflux nephropathy | Sarcoidosis
Genetic diseases of the kidney/syndromes associated with kidney dysfunction
Alport syndrome | Polycystic kidney disease | Wilms' tumour (children)

von Hippel-Lindau syndrome | Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma | Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome | Hereditary renal carcinoma

Genetic diseases of the kidney/syndromes associated with kidney dysfunction

Chronic Kidney Disease

Anemia in CKD | Causes of CKD | CKD Overview | CKD Tests and Diagnosis | Diabetic Kidney Disease | Eating Right for CKD | High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease | Managing CKD | Mineral and Bone Disorder in CKD | Nutrition for Advanced CKD in Adults | Preventing CKD | Quick Reference on UACR & GFR

Kidney Failure

Eating and Nutrition for Hemodialysis | Financial Help for Treatment of Kidney Failure | Hemodialysis | Kidney Failure | Kidney Transplant | Peritoneal Dialysis

Other Kidney Topics

Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease | Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease | Diabetes Insipidus | Ectopic Kidney | Glomerular Diseases | Goodpasture Syndrome | Henoch-Schönlein Purpura | IgA Nephropathy | Kidney Dysplasia | Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) | Kidney Stones | Lupus Nephritis | Medullary Sponge Kidney | Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults | Pain Medicine and Kidney Damage | Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) | Renal Artery Stenosis | Renal Tubular Acidosis | Simple Kidney Cysts | Solitary Kidney | Your Kidneys and How They Work | Your Urinary Tract and How It Works

NIH genetic and rare disease info[edit source]

Central diabetes insipidus is a rare disease.


Central diabetes insipidus Resources
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