Otolaryngology is the branch of medicine that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head & neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. Practitioners are called otolaryngologists-head and neck surgeons, or sometimes otorhinolaryngologists (ORL). A somewhat outdated, but nevertheless commonly used, term for this speciality is ENT (ear, nose and throat).
Otolaryngologists are medical doctors who complete at least five years of surgical residency training (one year in general surgery, four years in otolaryngology - head and neck surgery). Following residency training, some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality fellowships which are usually one or two years in duration. As with all medical fellowships, acceptance is highly competitive.
Tests and procedures
List of common tests and procedures by otolaryngologists:
- Sinus surgery
- Sleep apnea surgery
- deviated nasal septum surgery
- Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy for children and adults
- Myringotomy or creating an opening in the ear drum
- Turbinate surgery
- Nasal endoscopy and sinus endoscopy
- Neck lesion removal
- Nasal septum repair
- Ear wax removal
|Head and Neck||Facial plastics||Otology||Neuro-otology||Rhinosinusology||Laryngology||Pediatrics|
|Surgical oncology||Facial cosmetics||Ear||Middle and inner ear||Sinusitis||Voice therapy||VeloPalatine-Insufficiency|
|Reconstruction||Maxillofacial||Hearing||Temporal bone||Allergy||Phono-surgery||Cleft Lip and Palate|
|Endocrine surgery||Trauma||Skull base||Anterior skull base||Airway|
|Dizziness||Apnea and snoring||Vascular Malformations|
Topics in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
- Deviated septum
- Laryngitis - inflammation of larynx and vocal cords producing hoarsness
- Pharyngitis - inflammation of the pharynx producing symptoms more or less similar to tonsilitis
- Snoring and sleep apnea
- Tonsillitis - inflammation of tonsils producing pain, odynophagia(painful swallowing), fever etc
Head and Neck/Reconstructive Surgery
- Head and neck cancer
- Thyroid cancer
- Hearing loss
- Otitis externa - outer ear or ear canal inflammation
- Otitis media - middle ear inflammation
- Otitis interna - inner ear inflammation
- Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise)
- Mandibular fracture repair
Glossary of otolaryngology
- Adenoid hypertrophy - An enlargement of the adenoids, often leading to nasal obstruction or breathing difficulties.
- Adenoidectomy - A surgical procedure to remove the adenoids, typically performed to alleviate nasal obstruction or chronic ear infections.
- Antral lavage - A medical procedure in which the maxillary sinus is washed out, often used to treat chronic sinusitis.
- Auricular hypertrichosis - Excessive hair growth on the ears.
- Autoinflation - A technique where the middle ear is aerated by blowing air through the Eustachian tube, typically to treat middle ear effusion.
- Bell's palsy - A sudden weakness or paralysis of the muscles on one side of the face, often caused by inflammation of the facial nerve.
- Bone-anchored hearing aid - A type of hearing aid that uses direct bone conduction to deliver sound.
- Buccal space - An area located between the cheek and the teeth, part of the oral cavity.
- Canine space - A facial space found adjacent to the upper canine teeth.
- Catarrh - Inflammation of a mucous membrane leading to excessive mucus production, especially in the nose and throat.
- Causes of hearing loss - Factors that can result in a decreased ability to hear, ranging from genetics to environmental causes.
- Craniofacial surgery - Surgical specialty focusing on correcting congenital and acquired deformities of the head, skull, face, and jaws.
- Custom-made medical device - A device tailored specifically for an individual patient's needs.
- Cystic hygroma - A benign growth that often appears as a large fluid-filled cyst, typically found in the neck.
- Deep temporal space - A fascial space located in the side of the head above the zygomatic arch.
- Diagnosis of hearing loss - Methods and tests used to determine the cause and severity of hearing impairment.
- Direct acoustic cochlear implant - A type of cochlear implant that stimulates the cochlea directly.
- Ear clearing - Techniques used to equalize the pressure in the middle ear, commonly practiced during diving or altitude changes.
- Ear hair - Hair growth that can occur in and around the ear canal.
- Facial feminization surgery - A set of reconstructive procedures designed to feminize the features of the face.
- Facial nerve paralysis - Loss of facial movement due to nerve damage.
- Facial rejuvenation - Cosmetic procedures that aim to restore a youthful appearance to the face.
- Forehead lift - A cosmetic surgery procedure to raise the eyebrows and reduce wrinkles on the forehead.
- Frontal sinus - One of the four pairs of paranasal sinuses, located in the frontal bone.
- Functional endoscopic sinus surgery - A minimally invasive procedure used to restore sinus ventilation and drainage.
- Head and neck cancer - Cancers that start in the tissues and organs of the head and neck.
- Head mirror - A medical instrument used to examine the nose and throat.
- Hearing loss - A partial or total inability to hear.
- History of tracheal intubation - The development and evolution of techniques and instruments used to access the trachea.
- House–Brackmann score - A scale used to evaluate the severity of facial nerve dysfunction.
- HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer - A subtype of oropharyngeal cancer associated with human papillomavirus infection.
- Infratemporal space - An anatomical space located below the zygomatic arch and deep to the masseter muscle.
- Killian's dehiscence - A weak area in the anterior wall of the esophagus where diverticula may develop.
- Laryngology - The study and treatment of diseases and disorders of the larynx or voice box.
- Mandibular setback surgery - A surgical procedure to reposition the lower jaw backward.
- Mental space (anatomy) - A fascial space of the face, below the lower lip and above the mentalis muscle.
- Microsurgery - A surgical procedure performed under a microscope on minute structures.
- Minimal-access cranial suspension - A minimally invasive facelift technique that suspends sagging facial tissue.
- Neck dissection - A surgical procedure for the treatment of head and neck cancer.
- Oral allergy syndrome - An allergic reaction in the mouth following the consumption of certain foods.
- Oropharyngeal cancer - Cancer that develops in the part of the throat behind the mouth.
- Oral cancer - Cancer that starts in the mouth or the oropharynx.
- Oxybuprocaine - A local anesthetic used primarily in ophthalmology.
- Paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer - Cancer that starts in the sinuses or the nasal cavity.
- Parapharyngeal abscess - A collection of pus between the pharynx and the neck muscles.
- Patient registration - The process of collecting and recording patient details upon their arrival at a medical facility.
- Pterygomandibular space - A fascial space located between the pterygoid muscles and the mandible.
- Reconstructive surgery - Procedures performed to restore the appearance and/or function of body parts affected by congenital defects, trauma, or disease.
- Restylane - A brand of hyaluronic acid filler used in cosmetic dermatology.
- Rhytidectomy - Also known as a facelift, a surgical procedure to improve visible signs of aging in the face and neck.
- Sialogogue - A substance that promotes the flow of saliva.
- Sling (implant) - A type of surgical implant used to support or reinforce a weakened anatomical structure.
- Stomatognathic system - The system that includes the mouth and its associated structures.
- Sublingual space - An anatomical space below the tongue.
- Submandibular space - A space located beneath the lower jaw.
- Submasseteric space - An area deep to the masseter muscle, part of the facial soft tissue.
- Submental space - An anatomical space found below the chin.
- Superficial muscular aponeurotic system - A layer of tissues and muscles in the face, targeted in facelift surgeries.
- Surgical airway management - Procedures to ensure open airways, such as intubation or tracheotomy.
- Thyroplasty - Surgery to improve the voice by altering the vocal cords.
- Thyrotomy - A surgical incision made into the thyroid gland.
- Tracheal intubation - The insertion of a tube into the trachea to ensure an open airway.
- Tracheotomy - A surgical procedure to create an opening into the trachea, usually to assist with breathing.
- Transnasal esophagoscopy - A diagnostic procedure in which an endoscope is passed through the nose to examine the esophagus.
- Tubomanometry - A diagnostic test to evaluate Eustachian tube function.
- Vocal cord dysfunction - Abnormal movement or paralysis of the vocal cords.
List of Otolaryngologists (USA)
- New Hampshire
- New Jersey
- New Mexico
- New York
- North Carolina
- North Dakota
- Rhode Island
- South Carolina
- South Dakota
- West Virginia
- American Academy of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
- Canadian Society of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
- The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society
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