Glossary of medicine

From WikiMD's Food, Medicine & Wellness Encyclopedia

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Editor-In-Chief: Prab R Tumpati, MD
Obesity, Sleep & Internal medicine
Founder, WikiMD Wellnesspedia &
W8MD medical weight loss NYC and sleep center NYC


Medicine is a vast field with a rich history and an ever-evolving lexicon. This glossary serves as a comprehensive guide for students, professionals, and anyone interested in understanding medical terminology. While not exhaustive, it provides key definitions and explanations for commonly used terms in medicine.

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A[edit | edit source]

  • AANAT - an enzyme that makes melatonin
  • Abate - become less in amount or intensity; make less active or intense
  • Abatement - the act of abating; an interruption in the intensity or amount of something
  • Abbreviated - (of clothing) very short; cut short in duration
  • abbreviation - shortening something by omitting parts of it; a shortened form of a word or phrase
  • Abdomen - the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • Abdominal aorta - a branch of the descending aorta
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm - an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta associated with old age and hypertension
  • Abdominal cavity - the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • Abdominal - of or relating to or near the abdomen;  the muscles of the abdomen
  • Abdominoplasty - cosmetic surgery of the abdomen to remove wrinkles and tighten the skin over the stomach
  • Abducent nerve - a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
  • abducent - especially of muscles; drawing away from the midline of the body or from an adjacent part;  a small motor nerve supplying the lateral rectus muscle of the eye
  • Abductor muscle - a muscle that draws a body part away from the median line
  • abductor - a muscle that draws a body part away from the median line; someone who unlawfully seizes and detains a victim (usually for ransom)
  • Aberration - an optical phenomenon resulting from the failure of a lens or mirror to produce a good image; a disorder in one's mental state; a state or condition markedly different from the norm
  • Abiotrophy - a loss of vitality and a degeneration of cells and tissues not due to any apparent injury
  • Ablate - remove an organ or bodily structure; wear away through erosion or vaporization
  • ablation - surgical removal of a body part or tissue; the erosive process that reduces the size of glaciers
  • Abnormal - much greater than the normal; not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm; departing from the normal in e.g. intelligence and development
  • Abortifacient - causing abortion;  a drug (or other chemical agent) that causes abortion
  • Abortion - termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
  • Abortive - failing to accomplish an intended result
  • Abrade - wear away; rub hard or scrub
  • Abrasion - erosion by friction; an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off; the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
  • abruptio placentae - a disorder of pregnancy in which the placenta prematurely separates from the wall of the uterus
  • Abruption - an instance of sudden interruption
  • abscess - symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • Abscission - the act of cutting something off; shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant
  • absent - lost in thought; showing preoccupation; not in a specified place physically or mentally; verb go away or leave
  • Absenteeism - habitual absence from work
  • Absinthe - strong green liqueur flavored with wormwood and anise; aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
  • Absolute threshold - the lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect
  • absorbed - taken in through the pores of a surface; retained without reflection; giving or marked by complete attention to
  • Abstemious - sparing in consumption of especially food and drink; marked by temperance in indulgence
  • Abstinence - act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite; the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • abutment - a masonry support that touches and directly receives thrust or pressure of an arch or bridge; point of contact between two objects or parts
  • Acanthocyte - an abnormal red blood cell that has thorny projections of protoplasm
  • Acantholysis - a breakdown of a cell layer in the epidermis (as in pemphigus)
  • Acanthoma - a neoplasm originating in the epidermis
  • Acanthosis nigricans - a skin disease characterized by dark wartlike patches in the body folds; can be benign or malignant
  • Acanthosis - an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)
  • Acapnia - a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal; can result from deep or rapid breathing
  • Acariasis - infestation with itch mites
  • Acaricide - a chemical agent used to kill mites
  • Acathexis - (psychoanalysis) a lack of cathexis; a condition in which significant objects or memories arouse no emotion in an individual
  • Accessory nerve - arises from two sets of roots (cranial and spinal) that unite to form the nerve
  • accessory - furnishing added support;  a supplementary component that improves capability; clothing that is worn or carried, but not part of your main clothing; someone who helps another person commit a crime
  • Accident - anything that happens by chance without an apparent cause; a mishap; especially one causing injury or death
  • Accoucheur - a physician specializing in obstetrics
  • Accoucheuse - a woman skilled in aiding the delivery of babies
  • Accreditation - the act of granting credit or recognition (especially with respect to educational institution that maintains suitable standards)
  • Acellular - not made up of or divided into cells
  • Acentric chromosome - a chromosome lacking a centromere
  • acentric - not centered or having no center; lacking a centromere
  • Acetabular - of the cup shaped socket that receives the head of the thigh bone
  • acetabulum - the cup shaped hollow in the hipbone into which the head of the femur fits to form a ball and socket joint
  • acetaldehyde - a colorless volatile water soluble liquid aldehyde used chiefly in manufacture of acetic acid and perfumes and drugs
  • acetaminophen - an analgesic for mild pain; also used as an antipyretic; (Datril, Tylenol, Panadol, Phenaphen, Tempra, and Anacin III are trademarks of brands of acetaminophen tablets)
  • acetate - a salt or ester of acetic acid; a fabric made from fibers of cellulose acetate
  • acetic acid - a colorless pungent liquid widely used in manufacturing plastics and pharmaceuticals
  • Acetone - the simplest ketone; a highly inflammable liquid widely used as an organic solvent and as material for making plastics
  • Acetyl chloride - colorless liquid acyl chloride (CH3COCl) that has a pungent odor
  • acetylcholine - a neurotransmitter that is a derivative of choline; released at the ends of nerve fibers in the somatic and parasympathetic nervous systems
  • AChE - a dull persistent (usually moderately intense) pain; verb have a desire for something or someone who is not present; be the source of pain; feel physical pain
  • Achilles tendon - a large tendon that runs from the heel to the calf
  • Achlorhydria - an abnormal deficiency or absence of free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice; often associated with severe anemias and cancer of the stomach
  • Achondroplasia - an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • achondroplastic - of or relating to achondroplasia
  • Achromycin - an antibiotic (trade name Achromycin) derived from microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces and used broadly to treat infections
  • Acid rain - rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
  • Acidosis - abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Acinus - one of the small sacs or saclike dilations in a compound gland; one of the small drupes making up an aggregate or multiple fruit like a blackberry
  • Acne rosacea - a skin disease of adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face enlarge resulting in a flushed appearance
  • Acne vulgaris - the most common form of acne; usually affects people from puberty to young adulthood
  • Acoustic aphasia - an impairment in understanding spoken language that is not attributable to hearing loss
  • Acoustic nerve - a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • acoustic - of or relating to the science of acoustics;  a remedy for hearing loss or deafness
  • acquired - gotten through environmental forces
  • acquisition - the act of contracting or assuming or acquiring possession of something; something acquired; an ability that has been acquired by training; the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge
  • Acrocentric chromosome - a chromosome with the centromere near one end so that one chromosomal arm is short and one is long
  • acrocentric - having a subterminal centromere
  • Acrocyanosis - cyanosis of the extremities; can occur when a spasm of the blood vessels is caused by exposure to cold or by strong emotion
  • Acromion - the outermost point of the spine of the shoulder blade
  • Acrophobia - a morbid fear of great heights
  • Acrylamide - a white crystalline amide of propenoic acid can damage the nervous system and is carcinogenic in laboratory animals
  • acrylonitrile - a colorless liquid unsaturated nitrile made from propene
  • ACT UP - make itself felt as a recurring pain; misbehave badly; act in a silly or improper way
  • actin - one of the proteins into which actomyosin can be split; can exist in either a globular or a fibrous form
  • Actinic keratosis - an overgrowth of skin layers resulting from extended exposure to the sun
  • Actinic - relating to or exhibiting actinism
  • Actinomycosis - disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • Activase - a thrombolytic agent (trade name Activase) that causes fibrinolysis at the site of a blood clot; used in treating acute myocardial infarction
  • Activated carbon - powdered or granular carbon used for purifying by adsorption; given orally (as a slurry) it is an antidote for some kinds of poisons
  • Activated charcoal - powdered or granular carbon used for purifying by adsorption; given orally (as a slurry) it is an antidote for some kinds of poisons
  • activating - causing motion or action or change;  the activity of causing to have energy and be active
  • activation - making active and effective (as a bomb); stimulation of activity in an organism or chemical; the activity of causing to have energy and be active
  • active immunity - a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease causing antigens
  • Active site - the part of an enzyme or antibody where the chemical reaction occurs
  • Acuity - sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart); a quick and penetrating intelligence
  • acupressure - treatment of symptoms by applying pressure with the fingers to specific pressure points on the body
  • Acupuncture - treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
  • Acute angle - an angle less than 90 degrees but more than 0 degrees
  • Acute kidney failure - renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract
  • Acute leukemia - rapidly progressing leukemia
  • acute lymphoblastic leukemia - acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of immature lymphoblast like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood; most common in children
  • acute lymphocytic leukemia - acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of immature lymphoblast like cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and blood; most common in children
  • acute myeloid leukemia - acute leukemia characterized by proliferation of granular leukocytes; most common in adolescents and young adults
  • Acute renal failure - renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract
  • Acyclovir - an oral antiviral drug (trade name Zovirax) used to treat genital herpes; does not cure the disease but relieves the symptoms
  • Ad lib - with little or no preparation or forethought; said or done without having been planned or written in advance;  remark made spontaneously without prior preparation; verb perform without preparation
  • Adam's apple - the largest cartilage of the larynx; tropical shrub having glossy foliage and fragrant nocturnal flowers with crimped or wavy corollas; northern India to Thailand
  • Adamantine - having the hardness of a diamond; consisting of or having the hardness of adamant; impervious to pleas, persuasion, requests, reason
  • adaptability - the ability to change (or be changed) to fit changed circumstances
  • Addison's disease - a glandular disorder caused by failure of function of the cortex of the adrenal gland and marked by anemia and prostration with brownish skin
  • adduction - (physiology) moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body
  • Adductor muscle - a muscle that draws a body part toward the median line
  • adductor - a muscle that draws a body part toward the median line
  • Adenine - (biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
  • Adenine - (biochemistry) purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
  • Adenitis - inflammation of a gland or lymph node
  • Adenocarcinoma - malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
  • Adenoidectomy - surgical removal of the adenoids; commonly performed along with tonsillectomy
  • adenoma - a benign epithelial tumor of glandular origin
  • Adenomyosis - the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • adenopathy - a glandular disease or enlargement of glandular tissue (especially of the lymph glands)
  • Adenosine deaminase - an enzyme found in mammals that can catalyze the deamination of adenosine into inosine and ammonia
  • Adenosine diphosphate - an ester of adenosine that is converted to ATP for energy storage
  • adenosine triphosphate - a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
  • Adenosine - (biochemistry) a nucleoside that is a structural component of nucleic acids; it is present in all living cells in a combined form as a constituent of DNA and RNA and ADP and ATP and AMP
  • adenovirus - any of a group of viruses including those that in humans cause upper respiratory infections or infectious pinkeye
  • Adherence - faithful support for a religion or cause or political party; the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
  • Adhesive bandage - bandage consisting of a medical dressing of plain absorbent gauze held in place by a plastic or fabric tape coated with adhesive
  • Adhesive - tending to adhere;  a substance that unites or bonds surfaces together
  • adipose tissue - a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs
  • Adipose - composed of animal fat
  • Adiposity - having the property of containing fat
  • Adjacent - near or close to but not necessarily touching; nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space; having a common boundary or edge; touching
  • adjuvant - enhancing the action of a medical treatment; furnishing added support;  an additive that enhances the effectiveness of medical treatment
  • Admission - the act of admitting someone to enter; an acknowledgment of the truth of something; the fee charged for admission
  • Adnexa - an accessory or adjoining anatomical parts or appendages (especially of the embryo)
  • Adrenal cortex - the cortex of the adrenal gland; secretes corticosterone and sex hormones
  • Adrenal gland - either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • Adrenal medulla - the medulla of the adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine
  • adrenal - of or pertaining to the adrenal glands or their secretions; near the kidneys;  either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • Adrenalectomy - surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands
  • Adrenaline - a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • adrenocortical - of or derived from the cortex of the adrenal glands
  • Adult - (of animals) fully developed;  any mature animal; a fully developed person from maturity onward
  • adulterant - making impure or corrupt by adding extraneous materials;  any substance that adulterates (lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance)
  • Adventitia - an enveloping or covering membrane or layer of body tissue
  • Adventitious - associated by chance and not an integral part
  • adverse - in an opposing direction; contrary to your interests or welfare
  • advertisement - a public promotion of some product or service
  • Aedes aegypti - mosquito that transmits yellow fever and dengue
  • Aedes albopictus - striped native of Japan thriving in southwestern and midwestern United States and spreading to the Caribbean; potential carrier of serious diseases
  • Aerobic exercise - exercise that increases the need for oxygen
  • aerobic - depending on free oxygen or air; based on or using the principles of aerobics; enhancing respiratory and circulatory efficiency
  • Aerophagia - swallowing air (usually followed by belching and discomfort and flatulence)
  • Aerosol - a dispenser that holds a substance under pressure and that can release it as a fine spray (usually by means of a propellant gas); a cloud of solid or liquid particles in a gas
  • aerosolize - disperse as an aerosol; become dispersed as an aerosol
  • aerosolized - in the form of ultramicroscopic solid or liquid particles dispersed or suspended in air or gas
  • Aerospace medicine - the study and treatment of disorders associated with flight (especially with space flight)
  • Aesculapius - son of Apollo; a hero and the Roman god of medicine and healing; his daughters were Hygeia and Panacea
  • aesthetician - a philosopher who specializes in the nature of beauty; a worker skilled in giving beauty treatments (manicures and facials etc.)
  • Aetiology - the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • Afferent nerve - a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system
  • Afferent - of nerves and nerve impulses; conveying sensory information from the sense organs to the CNS;  a nerve that passes impulses from receptors toward or to the central nervous system
  • aflatoxin - a potent carcinogen from the fungus Aspergillus; can be produced and stored for use as a bioweapon
  • African American - pertaining to or characteristic of Americans of African ancestry;  an American whose ancestors were born in Africa
  • African - of or relating to the nations of Africa or their peoples;  a native or inhabitant of Africa
  • Africanized bee - a strain of bees that originated in Brazil in the 1950s as a cross between an aggressive African bee and a honeybee; retains most of the traits of the African bee; now spread as far north as Texas
  • after - located farther aft;  behind or in the rear; happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
  • Afterbirth - the placenta and fetal membranes that are expelled from the uterus after the baby is born
  • Afterimage - an image (usually a negative image) that persists after stimulation has ceased
  • agammaglobulinemia - a rare immunological disorder characterized by the virtual absence of gamma globulin in the blood and consequent susceptibility to infection
  • Ageless - continuing forever or indefinitely
  • Agenesis - imperfect development; nondevelopment of a part
  • Agent Orange - a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
  • agglutinin - an antibody that causes agglutination of a specific antigen
  • Aggressive - having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends; characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight; tending to spread quickly
  • Aging - growing old;  the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age; acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • Agitated depression - a state of clinical depression in which the person exhibits irritability and restlessness
  • agitated - troubled emotionally and usually deeply; physically disturbed or set in motion; thrown from side to side
  • Agnate - related on the father's side;  one related on the father's side
  • agnosia - inability to recognize objects by use of the senses
  • Agoraphobia - a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
  • Agranulocytosis - an acute blood disorder (often caused by radiation or drug therapy) characterized by severe reduction in granulocytes
  • Aid station - (military) a station located near a combat area for giving first aid to the wounded
  • Ailurophobia - a morbid fear of cats
  • Air bag - a safety restraint in an automobile; the bag inflates on collision and prevents the driver or passenger from being thrown forward
  • Airborne - moved or conveyed by or through air
  • Airsickness - motion sickness experienced while traveling by air (especially during turbulence)
  • Akinesia - motionlessness attributable to a temporary paralysis
  • Alanine - a crystalline amino acid that occurs in many proteins
  • alarm clock - a clock that wakes sleeper at preset time
  • Albers - United States painter born in Germany; works characterized by simple geometrical patterns in various colors (1888 1976)
  • Albert Sabin - United States microbiologist (born in Poland) who developed the Sabin vaccine that is taken orally against poliomyelitis (born 1906)
  • Albert Schweitzer - French philosopher and physician and organist who spent most of his life as a medical missionary in Gabon (1875 1965)
  • Albert - prince consort of Queen Victoria of England (1819 1861)
  • albinism - the congenital absence of pigmentation in the eyes and skin and hair
  • Albino - a person with congenital albinism: white hair and milky skin; eyes are usually pink
  • Albuginea - whitish tunic
  • albumin - a simple water soluble protein found in many animal tissues and liquids
  • Albuminuria - the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • Alcohol abuse - excessive use of alcohol and alcoholic drinks
  • Alcohol - a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • Alcoholics Anonymous - an international organization that provides a support group for persons trying to overcome alcoholism
  • aldosterone - a corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland; regulates salt (sodium and potassium) and water balance
  • Aldosteronism - a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • Alembic - an obsolete kind of container used for distillation; two retorts connected by a tube
  • alendronate - a tablet (trade name Fosamax) prescribed to prevent or treat osteoporosis in women after menopause
  • Aletta Jacobs - Dutch physician who opened the first birth control clinic in the world in Amsterdam (1854 1929)
  • Aleut - the language spoken by the Aleut; a member of the people inhabiting the Aleutian Islands and western Alaska
  • Alexander Fleming - English bacteriologist who discovered penicillin (1881 1955)
  • Alexander Wilson - Scottish ornithologist in the United States (1766 1813)
  • Alexia - inability to perceive written words
  • Algophobia - a morbid fear of pain
  • Alice Hamilton - United States toxicologist known for her work on industrial poisons (1869 1970)
  • Alienist - a psychiatrist and specialist in the legal aspects of mental illness
  • alimentary canal - tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • Alimentary - of or providing nourishment
  • alkaline - relating to or containing an alkali; having a pH greater than 7
  • Alkaloid - natural bases containing nitrogen found in plants
  • Alkalosis - abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Alkaptonuria - a rare recessive metabolic anomaly marked by ochronosis and the presence of alkapton in the urine
  • Alkurma hemorrhagic fever Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is caused by Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a tick-borne virus of the Flavivirus family
  • Alkyl group - any of a series of univalent groups of the general formula CnH2n+1 derived from aliphatic hydrocarbons
  • Allele - either of a pair (or series) of alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus on a particular chromosome and that control the same character
  • Allelic - of or relating to alleles
  • allergen - any substance that can cause an allergy
  • Allergic reaction - hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • Allergic rhinitis - rhinitis caused by an allergic reaction
  • allergic - having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor); characterized by or caused by allergy
  • allergist - a physician skilled in the diagnosis and treatment of allergies
  • Allergy - hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • Allis - European shad
  • allogeneic - denoting or relating to cells or tissues from individuals belonging to the same species but genetically dissimilar (and hence immunologically incompatible)
  • Allograft - tissue or organ transplanted from a donor of the same species but different genetic makeup; recipient's immune system must be suppressed to prevent rejection of the graft
  • Allopathic - of or relating to the practice of allopathy
  • Allopathy - the usual method of treating disease with remedies that produce effects differing from those produced by the disease itself
  • Allopurinol - a drug (trade name Zyloprim) used to treat gout and other conditions in which there is an excessive buildup of uric acid
  • Alopecia areata - patchy baldness
  • alopecia - loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers; in humans it can result from heredity or hormonal imbalance or certain diseases or drugs and treatments (chemotherapy for cancer)
  • Alpha blocker - any of various drugs that block alpha adrenergic receptors; used in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia; relaxes the muscles of the prostate and bladder
  • Alpha fetoprotein - an abnormally large amount of this fetoprotein in the fetus can signal an abnormality of the neural tube (as spina bifida or anencephaly)
  • alpha interferon - a form of interferon that is produced endogenously and commercially for its pharmacological effects (including regulation of the immune system and antiviral and antineoplastic effects)
  • Alpha particle - a positively charged particle that is the nucleus of the helium atom; emitted from natural or radioactive isotopes
  • Alpha wave - the normal brainwave in the electroencephalogram of a person who is awake but relaxed; occurs with a frequency of 8 12 hertz
  • alpha - early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;  the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet; the beginning of a series or sequence
  • alpha - early testing stage of a software or hardware product; first in order of importance;  the 1st letter of the Greek alphabet; the beginning of a series or sequence
  • Alprazolam - an antianxiety agent (trade name Xanax) of the benzodiazepine class
  • alternating - (of a current) reversing direction; occurring by turns; first one and then the other
  • Alternative medicine - the practice of medicine without the use of drugs; may involve herbal medicines or self awareness or biofeedback or acupuncture
  • alternative - necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities; pertaining to unconventional choices; allowing a choice;  one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
  • Altitude sickness - effects (as nosebleed or nausea) of oxygen deficiency in the blood and tissues at high altitudes
  • Altruism - the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others
  • Aluminum - a silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite
  • Alveolar process - a ridge that forms the borders of the upper and lower jaws and contains the sockets of the teeth
  • Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma - form of rhabdomyosarcoma occuring mainly in adolescents and young adults
  • alveolar - pertaining to the tiny air sacs of the lungs; pertaining to the alveolar ridge;  a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • Alveolus - a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways; a bony socket in the alveolar ridge that holds a tooth
  • Amanita phalloides - extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup shaped base; differs from edible Agaricus only in its white gills
  • Amastia - absence of the mammary glands (either through surgery or developmental defect)
  • Amaurosis - partial or total loss of sight without pathology of the eye; caused by disease of optic nerve or retina or brain
  • Ambidextrous - marked by deliberate deceptiveness especially by pretending one set of feelings and acting under the influence of another; equally skillful with each hand
  • Ambient - completely enveloping
  • Amblyopia - visual impairment without apparent organic pathology
  • Ambulance - a vehicle that takes people to and from hospitals
  • Ambulant - able to walk about
  • ambulatory - relating to or adapted for walking; able to walk about;  a covered walkway (as in a cloister)
  • Ameba - naked freshwater or marine or parasitic protozoa that form temporary pseudopods for feeding and locomotion
  • amebiasis - infection by a disease causing ameba
  • Amebic dysentery - inflammation of the intestines caused by Endamoeba histolytica; usually acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated with feces; characterized by severe diarrhea
  • amebic - pertaining to or resembling amoebae
  • Amelia - congenital absence of an arm or leg
  • Amelioration - the act of relieving ills and changing for the better
  • Amenia - absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow
  • Amenorrhea - absence or suppression of normal menstrual flow
  • American dog tick - common tick that can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia
  • American Sign Language - the sign language used in the United States
  • Americium - a radioactive transuranic metallic element; discovered by bombarding uranium with helium atoms
  • Amine - a compound derived from ammonia by replacing hydrogen atoms by univalent hydrocarbon radicals
  • Amino acid - organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
  • amino - pertaining to or containing any of a group of organic compounds of nitrogen derived from ammonia;  the radical NH2
  • Aminoaciduria - abnormal presence of amino acids in the urine; usually a symptom of metabolic defects
  • Aminotransferase - a class of transferases that catalyze transamination (that transfer an amino group from an amino acid to another compound)
  • Amiodarone - an antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Cordarone) that has potentially fatal side effects and is used to control serious heart rhythm problems only when safer agents have been ineffective
  • Amitriptyline - a tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Elavil) with serious side effects; interacts with many other medications
  • Ammonia - a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3); a water solution of ammonia
  • amnesia - partial or total loss of memory
  • Amnesic aphasia - inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
  • amnesic - suffering from a partial loss of memory; of or relating to or caused by amnesia;  a person suffering from amnesia
  • Amnestic aphasia - inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
  • amnestic - of or relating to or caused by amnesia
  • Amniocentesis - (pregnancy) extraction by centesis of amniotic fluid from a pregnant woman (after the 15th week of pregnancy) to aid in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities
  • Amnion - thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo of higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
  • Amniotic fluid - the serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion
  • Amniotic sac - thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo of higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
  • amniotic - of or related to the amnion or characterized by developing an amnion
  • Amoeba - naked freshwater or marine or parasitic protozoa that form temporary pseudopods for feeding and locomotion
  • Amoebiasis - infection by a disease causing ameba
  • Amoxicillin - an antibiotic; a semisynthetic oral penicillin (trade names Amoxil and Larotid and Polymox and Trimox and Augmentin) used to treat bacterial infections
  • Amphetamine - a central nervous system stimulant that increases energy and decreases appetite; used to treat narcolepsy and some forms of depression
  • Amphidiploid - (genetics) an organism or cell having a diploid set of chromosomes from each parent
  • Ampicillin - semisynthetic penicillin (trade names Principen and Polycillin and SK Ampicillin)
  • ampulla - a flask that has two handles; used by Romans for wines or oils; the dilated portion of a canal or duct especially of the semicircular canals of the ear
  • ampullary - of or related to an ampulla
  • Amputation - a surgical removal of all or part of a limb; a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
  • Amuck - in a murderous frenzy as if possessed by a demon;  in a murderous frenzy; wildly; without self control
  • Amygdaloid - shaped like an almond;  volcanic rock in which rounded cavities formed by expanding gas have subsequently become filled with mineral deposits
  • amylase - any of a group of proteins found in saliva and pancreatic juice and parts of plants; help convert starch to sugar
  • Amyloidosis - a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis - thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs
  • Amyotrophy - progressive wasting of muscle tissues
  • Anaerobic exercise - exercise that builds muscles through tension
  • anaerobic - living or active in the absence of free oxygen; not aerobic
  • Anaesthesia - loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • anaesthetist - a specialist who administers an anesthetic to a patient before he is treated
  • Analbuminemia - an abnormally low level of albumin in the blood serum
  • Analeptic - stimulating the central nervous system;  a medication used as a stimulant to the central nervous system
  • Analgesia - absence of the sense of pain without loss of consciousness
  • Analgesic - capable of relieving pain;  a medicine used to relieve pain
  • Analog - of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input;  something having the property of being analogous to something else
  • Analogous - corresponding in function but not in evolutionary origin; similar or equivalent in some respects though otherwise dissimilar
  • Anaphase - the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
  • anaphylactic - related to the hypersensitivity known as anaphylaxis
  • Anaphylaxis - hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
  • Anaplasia - loss of structural differentiation within a cell or group of cells often with increased capacity for multiplication, as in a malignant tumor
  • Anaplasmosis - a disease of cattle that is transmitted by cattle ticks; similar to Texas fever
  • anaplastic - of or relating to anaplasia
  • Anasarca - generalized edema with accumulation of serum in subcutaneous connective tissue
  • Anastomosis - a natural or surgical joining of parts or branches of tubular structures so as to make or become continuous
  • anatomical - of or relating to the structure of the body; of or relating to the branch of morphology that studies the structure of organisms;  an expression that relates to anatomy
  • anatomist - an expert in anatomy
  • Anatomy - a detailed analysis; the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals; alternative names for the body of a human being
  • androgen - male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics
  • Androgenic - of or related to the male hormone androgen
  • android - an automaton that resembles a human being
  • Androphobia - a morbid fear of men
  • Androsterone - an androgenic hormone that is less active than testosterone
  • anemia - genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • Anemic - lacking vigor or energy; relating to anemia or suffering from anemia
  • Anencephaly - a defect in brain development resulting in small or missing brain hemispheres
  • anergy - inactivity and lack of energy; reduction or lack of an immune response to a specific antigen
  • Anesthesia - loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • Anesthesiologist - a specialist who administers an anesthetic to a patient before he is treated
  • Anesthesiology - the branch of medical science that studies and applies anesthetics
  • Anesthetic - characterized by insensibility;  a drug that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations
  • Anesthetist - a specialist who administers an anesthetic to a patient before he is treated
  • Aneuploid - having a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number
  • Aneuploidy - an abnormality involving a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number (one chromosome set is incomplete)
  • aneurysm - a cardiovascular disease characterized by a saclike widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery wall
  • Aneurysmal - relating to or affected by an aneurysm
  • Angiitis - inflammation of a blood vessel or lymph duct
  • angina pectoris - a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • Angina - any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain; a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • angiogenesis inhibitor - a drug that is designed to prevent the growth of blood vessels that nourish tumors
  • angiogenesis - the formation of new blood vessels
  • Angiogram - an X ray representation of blood vessels made after the injection of a radiopaque substance
  • Angiography - roentgenographic examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium; produces an angiogram
  • Angiology - the branch of medical science that studies the blood and lymph vessels and their disorders
  • Angiopathy - any disease of the blood vessels or lymph ducts
  • Angioplasty - an operation to repair a damaged blood vessel or unblock a coronary artery
  • Angiosarcoma - a rare malignant neoplasm arising from vascular tissue; usually occurs in the breast and skin and is believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels
  • Angiosperm - plants having seeds in a closed ovary
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme - proteolytic enzyme that converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II
  • angiotensin converting enzyme - proteolytic enzyme that converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II
  • angiotensin I - a physiologically inactive form of angiotensin that is the precursor to angiotensin II
  • angiotensin II - a potent vasopressor agent formed from angiotensin I
  • angiotensin - any of several vasoconstrictor substances (trade name Hypertensin) that cause narrowing of blood vessels
  • Angry - feeling or showing anger; (of the elements) as if showing violent anger; severely inflamed and painful
  • Anhedonia - an inability to experience pleasure
  • Anhidrosis - failure of the sweat glands
  • Aniline - oily poisonous liquid amine obtained from nitrobenzene and used to make dyes and plastics and medicines
  • Animal - of the nature of or characteristic of or derived from an animal or animals; marked by the appetites and passions of the body;  a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
  • Anion - a negatively charged ion
  • Aniseikonia - visual defect in which the shape and size of an ocular image differ in the two eyes
  • Anisometropia - difference in the refractive power of the two eyes
  • Ankle joint - a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus
  • Ankle - a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus
  • Ankyloglossia - a congenital anomaly in which the mucous membrane under the tongue is too short limiting the mobility of the tongue
  • Ankylose - undergo ankylosis; produce ankylosis by surgery
  • ankylosing spondylitis - a chronic form of spondylitis primarily in males and marked by impaired mobility of the spine; sometimes leads to ankylosis
  • Ankylosis - abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a joint
  • Anlage - an organ in its earliest stage of development; the foundation for subsequent development
  • Annealing - hardening something by heat treatment
  • Annotate - add explanatory notes to or supply with critical comments; provide interlinear explanations for words or phrases
  • Annotation - the act of adding notes; a comment or instruction (usually added)
  • annular - shaped like a ring
  • annulus - (Fungi) remnant of the partial veil that in mature mushrooms surrounds the lower part of the stem; a toroidal shape
  • Anomaly - (astronomy) position of a planet as defined by its angular distance from its perihelion (as observed from the sun); a person who is unusual; deviation from the normal or common order or form or rule
  • Anomia - type genus of the family Anomiidae: saddle oysters; inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
  • Anomic aphasia - inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
  • anomic - socially disoriented
  • anonymous - having no known name or identity or known source; not known or lacking marked individuality
  • Anorectic - causing loss of appetite; suffering from anorexia nervosa; pathologically thin;  a person suffering from anorexia nervosa
  • Anorexia nervosa - (psychiatry) a psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated
  • Anorexia - a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
  • Anorexic - suffering from anorexia nervosa; pathologically thin;  a person suffering from anorexia nervosa
  • Anorexigenic - causing loss of appetite
  • Anorgasmia - absence of an orgasm in sexual relations
  • Anosmia - absence of the sense of smell (as by damage to olfactory nasal tissue or the olfactory nerve or by obstruction of the nasal passages)
  • Anovulation - the absence of ovulation due to immaturity or post maturity or pregnancy or oral contraceptive pills or dysfunction of the ovary
  • Anoxia - severe hypoxia; absence of oxygen in inspired gases or in arterial blood or in the tissues
  • Anoxic - relating to or marked by a severe deficiency of oxygen in tissues or organs
  • antagonist - a drug that neutralizes or counteracts the effects of another drug; a muscle that relaxes while another contracts; someone who offers opposition
  • antenatal - occurring or existing before birth
  • Anterior pituitary - the anterior lobe of the pituitary body; primarily glandular in nature
  • Anterior - earlier in time; of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body;  a tooth situated at the front of the mouth
  • Anterograde amnesia - loss of memory for events immediately following a trauma; sometimes in effect for events during and for a long time following the trauma
  • Anterograde - of amnesia; affecting time immediately following trauma
  • Anthelmintic - capable of expelling or destroying parasitic worms;  a medication capable of causing the evacuation of parasitic intestinal worms
  • anthropologist - a social scientist who specializes in anthropology
  • Anthropology - the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
  • Anthropometry - measurement and study of the human body and its parts and capacities
  • Anti inflammatory - a medicine intended to reduce inflammation
  • Antibacterial - destroying bacteria or inhibiting their growth;  any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • Antibiotic - of or relating to antibiotic drugs;  a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
  • antibody - any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • Anticholinergic - inhibiting or blocking the action of acetylcholine at a receptor site;  a substance that opposes or blocks the action of acetylcholine
  • Anticipation - something expected (as on the basis of a norm); pleasurable expectation; wishing with confidence of fulfillment; the act of predicting (as by reasoning about the future)
  • anticipatory - in anticipation
  • Anticoagulant - medicine that prevents or retards the clotting of blood
  • Anticonvulsant - a drug used to treat or prevent convulsions (as in epilepsy)
  • Antidepressant - any of a class of drugs used to treat depression; often have undesirable side effects
  • Antidiuretic - a drug that limits the formation of urine
  • antidiuretic - a drug that limits the formation of urine
  • Antidote - a remedy that stops or controls the effects of a poison
  • Antidromic - conducting nerve impulses in a direction opposite to normal
  • Antiemetic - a drug that prevents or alleviates nausea and vomiting
  • Antiflatulent - any agent that reduces intestinal gas
  • antifreeze - a liquid added to the water in a cooling system to lower its freezing point
  • Antifungal agent - any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  • Antifungal - capable of destroying fungi;  any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  • antigen - any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • antigenic - of or relating to antigens
  • Antihistamine - a medicine used to treat allergies and hypersensitive reactions and colds; works by counteracting the effects of histamine on a receptor site
  • Antihypertensive - a drug that reduces high blood pressure
  • Antimalarial - a medicinal drug used to prevent or treat malaria
  • Antimetabolite - an antineoplastic drug that inhibits the utilization of a metabolite
  • Antimicrobial - capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of disease causing microorganisms;  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • Antimony - a metallic element having four allotropic forms; used in a wide variety of alloys; found in stibnite
  • antineoplastic antibiotic - an antibiotic drug used as an antineoplastic in chemotherapy
  • Antioxidant - substance that inhibits oxidation or inhibits reactions promoted by oxygen or peroxides
  • Antiparallel - (especially of vectors) parallel but oppositely directed
  • Antiprotozoal drug - a medicinal drug used to fight diseases (like malaria) that are caused by protozoa
  • Antiprotozoal - a medicinal drug used to fight diseases (like malaria) that are caused by protozoa
  • Antipsychotic - tranquilizer used to treat psychotic conditions when a calming effect is desired
  • Antipyretic - preventing or alleviating fever;  any medicine that lowers body temperature to prevent or alleviate fever
  • antiquary - an expert or collector of antiquities
  • Antisepsis - the process of inhibiting the growth and multiplication of microorganisms; (of non living objects) the state of being free of pathogenic organisms
  • Antiserum - blood serum containing antibodies against specific antigens; provides immunity to a disease
  • Antispasmodic - a drug used to relieve or prevent spasms (especially of the smooth muscles)
  • antithyroid - having the effect of counteracting excessive thyroid activity
  • Antitoxin - an antibody that can neutralize a specific toxin
  • Antivenin - an antitoxin that counteracts the effects of venom from the bite of a snake or insect or other animal
  • Antiviral agent - any drug that destroys viruses
  • Antiviral drug - any drug that destroys viruses
  • Antiviral - inhibiting or stopping the growth and reproduction of viruses;  any drug that destroys viruses
  • Anton Chekhov - Russian dramatist whose plays are concerned with the difficulty of communication between people (1860 1904)
  • Antrum - a natural cavity or hollow in a bone
  • Anvil - a heavy block of iron or steel on which hot metals are shaped by hammering; the ossicle between the malleus and the stapes
  • Anxiety disorder - a cover term for a variety of mental disorders in which severe anxiety is a salient symptom
  • Anxiety - a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill defined) misfortune; a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • anxiolytic - anxiety relieving;  a tranquilizer used to relieve anxiety and reduce tension and irritability
  • aorta - the large trunk artery that carries blood from the left ventricle of the heart to branch arteries
  • Aortal - of or relating to the aorta
  • Aortic aneurysm - an aneurysm of the aorta
  • Aortic arch - the part of the aorta that arches and turns downward
  • Aortic stenosis - abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve
  • aortic valve - a semilunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta; prevents blood from flowing from the aorta back into the heart
  • Aortic - of or relating to the aorta
  • Aortitis - inflammation of the aorta
  • Aperient - mildly laxative;  a purging medicine; stimulates evacuation of the bowels
  • Apgar score - an assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant; involves heart rate and muscle tone and respiratory effort and color and reflex responsiveness
  • Aphagia - loss of the ability to swallow
  • Aphakia - absence of the natural lens of the eye (usually resulting from the removal of cataracts)
  • aphasia - inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
  • Aphonia - a disorder of the vocal organs that results in the loss of voice
  • aphthous ulcer - a blister on the mucous membranes of the lips or mouth or gastrointestinal tract
  • Apical - situated at an apex
  • Aplasia - failure of some tissue or organ to develop
  • Aplastic anemia - anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure
  • apnea - transient cessation of respiration
  • Apneic - of or relating to apnea
  • apocrine gland - a large sweat gland that produces both a fluid and an apocrine secretion; in human beings located in hairy regions of the body
  • Apollo - (Greek mythology) Greek god of light; god of prophesy and poetry and music and healing; son of Zeus and Leto; twin brother of Artemis
  • Apomorphine - a morphine derivative that is not as strong as morphine; used as an emetic and in small doses as a sedative
  • aponeurotic - of or relating to an aponeurosis
  • Apoplexy - a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
  • apparatus - equipment designed to serve a specific function; (anatomy) a group of body parts that work together to perform a given function
  • Appendectomy - surgical removal of the vermiform appendix
  • Appendiceal something to do with the appendix
  • Appendicitis - inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  • appendix - a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch; supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book
  • Appetite - a feeling of craving something
  • Apprehension - the act of apprehending (especially apprehending a criminal); painful expectation; fearful expectation or anticipation; the cognitive condition of someone who understands
  • apraxia - inability to make purposeful movements
  • Aquaphobia - a morbid fear of drowning
  • Aqueduct - a conduit that resembles a bridge but carries water over a valley
  • aqueous humor - the limpid fluid within the eyeball between the cornea and the lens
  • Aqueous humour - the limpid fluid within the eyeball between the cornea and the lens
  • aqueous - produced by the action of water; similar to or containing or dissolved in water
  • Arabidopsis thaliana - a small invasive self pollinating weed with small white flowers; much studied by plant geneticists; the first higher plant whose complete genome sequence was described
  • Arachnophobia - a morbid fear of spiders
  • Arch support - a support for the arch of the foot
  • Archaeology - the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures
  • Archipallium - the olfactory cortex of the cerebrum
  • arctic - extremely cold; of or relating to the Arctic; at or near the north pole;  a waterproof overshoe that protects shoes from water or snow; the regions north of the Arctic Circle centered on the North Pole
  • arcuate - forming or resembling an arch
  • Arcus senilis - an whitish deposit in the shape of an arc that is sometimes seen in the cornea
  • Areca nut - seed of betel palm; chewed with leaves of the betel pepper and lime as a digestive stimulant and narcotic in southeastern Asia
  • Areflexia - absence of a reflex; a sign of possible nerve damage
  • Arenaviridae - a family of arborviruses carried by arthropods
  • Arenavirus - animal viruses belonging to the family Arenaviridae
  • Areola - small circular area such as that around the human nipple or an inflamed area around a pimple or insect bite; small space in a tissue or body part such as the area between veins on a leaf or an insect's wing
  • Argentina - type genus of the Argentinidae: argentines; a republic in southern South America; second largest country in South America
  • Arginine - a bitter tasting amino acid found in proteins and necessary for nutrition; its absence from the diet leads to a reduced production of spermatozoa
  • argon - a colorless and odorless inert gas; one of the six inert gases; comprises approximately 1% of the earth's atmosphere
  • Aristotle - one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers; pupil of Plato; teacher of Alexander the Great (384 322 BC)
  • armed - (used of persons or the military) characterized by having or bearing arms; (used of plants and animals) furnished with bristles and thorns; having arms or arms as specified; used especially in combination
  • Arnica montana - herb of pasture and open woodland throughout most of Europe and western Asia having orange yellow daisylike flower heads that when dried are used as a stimulant and to treat bruises and swellings
  • arousal - the act of arousing; awakening from sleep; a state of heightened physiological activity; mutual sexual fondling prior to sexual intercourse
  • arrayed - in ceremonial attire and paraphernalia
  • Arrhythmia - an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
  • Arsenic trioxide - a white powdered poisonous trioxide of arsenic; used in manufacturing glass and as a pesticide (rat poison) and weed killer
  • Arsine - a poisonous colorless flammable gas used in organic synthesis and to dope transistors and as a poison gas in warfare
  • art exhibition - an exhibition of art objects (paintings or statues)
  • Arteria femoralis - the chief artery of the thigh; a continuation of the external iliac artery
  • Arterial blood - blood found in arteries
  • arterial pressure - the pressure of the circulating blood on the arteries
  • arterial - of or involving or contained in the arteries
  • arteriogram - an X ray of an artery filled with a contrast medium
  • arteriography - roentgenographic examination of arteries
  • Arteriole - one of the small thin walled arteries that end in capillaries
  • Arteriolosclerosis - sclerosis of the arterioles
  • Arteriosclerosis - sclerosis of the arterial walls
  • arteriosclerotic - affected by arteriosclerosis
  • arteriovenous - connecting an artery to a vein
  • Arteritis - inflammation of an artery
  • artery - a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic; a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body
  • Artery a blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart (except pulmonary arteries that carry deoxygenated blood)
  • Arthralgia - pain in a joint or joints
  • Arthritis - inflammation of a joint or joints
  • Arthrocentesis - removal of fluid from a joint by centesis
  • Arthrodesis - the surgical fixation of a joint which is intended to result in bone fusion
  • Arthrogram - an X ray of a joint after the injection of a contrast medium
  • Arthropathy - a pathology or abnormality of a joint
  • Arthroplasty - surgical reconstruction or replacement of a malformed or degenerated joint
  • Arthroscope - a type of endoscope that is inserted into a joint for visual examination
  • Arthroscopy - a minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint; the surgeon examines the joint with an arthroscope while making repairs through a small incision
  • Arthur Mitchell - United States dancer who formed the first Black classical ballet company (born in 1934)
  • Articular - relating to or affecting the joints of the body
  • Artificial heart - a pump that replaces the natural heart
  • Artificial insemination - the introduction of semen into the oviduct or uterus by some means other than sexual intercourse
  • Artificial kidney - a machine that uses dialysis to remove impurities and waste products from the bloodstream before returning the blood to the patient's body
  • Artificial pacemaker - an implanted electronic device that takes over the function of the natural cardiac pacemaker
  • Artificial skin - a synthetic covering with two layers used experimentally to treat burn victims
  • artificial - artificially formal; contrived by art rather than nature; not arising from natural growth or characterized by vital processes
  • asbestos - a fibrous amphibole; used for making fireproof articles; inhaling fibers can cause asbestosis or lung cancer
  • Asbestosis - lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles
  • Ascariasis - infestation of the human intestine with Ascaris roundworms
  • Ascaris - type genus of the family Ascaridae: roundworms with a three lipped mouth
  • Ascending aorta - the ascending part of the aorta as it emerges from the left ventricle
  • ascending - moving or going or growing upward;  the act of changing location in an upward direction
  • ascites - accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • Asclepius - son of Apollo; a hero and the Roman god of medicine and healing; his daughters were Hygeia and Panacea
  • Ascorbic acid - a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables; prevents scurvy
  • Ascospore - sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus
  • Ascus - saclike structure in which ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes
  • Aseptic - free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms
  • Asexual - not having or involving sex
  • Asian influenza - influenza caused by the Asian virus that was first isolated in 1957
  • Asparaginase - antineoplastic drug (trade name Elspar) sometimes used to treat lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Asparagine - a crystalline amino acid found in proteins and in many plants (e.g., asparagus)
  • Aspartame - an artificial sweetener made from aspartic acid; used as a calorie free sweetener
  • Aspartic acid - a crystalline amino acid found in proteins and occurring naturally in sugar beets and sugar cane
  • Aspergillus - genus of common molds causing food spoilage and some pathogenic to plants and animals
  • asphyxia - a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas
  • Aspirate - a consonant proced with aspiration; verb suck in (air); proce with aspiration; of stop sounds; remove as if by suction
  • Aspiration pneumonia - inflammation of the lungs caused by inhaling or choking on vomitus; may occur during unconsciousness (anesthesia or drunkenness or seizure or cardiac arrest)
  • aspiration - a will to succeed; a manner of articulation involving an audible release of breath; the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing; a cherished desire
  • Aspirator - a pump that draws air or another gas through a liquid
  • Assistant - of or relating to a person who is subordinate to another;  a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose
  • Assisted suicide - suicide of a terminally ill person that involves an assistant who serves to make dying as painless and dignified as possible
  • assisted - having help; often used as a combining form
  • assistive - giving assistance
  • associated - related to or accompanying; joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
  • association cortex - cortical areas that are neither motor or sensory but are thought to be involved in higher processing of information
  • Assortative mating - mating of individuals having more traits in common than likely in random mating
  • astatic - not static or stable
  • Astereognosis - a loss of the ability to recognize objects by handling them
  • asthenia - an abnormal loss of strength
  • Asthenic - having a slender physique; lacking strength or vigor
  • asthma - respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • Asthmatic - relating to breathing with a whistling sound;  a person suffering from asthma
  • Astigmatic - of or relating to a defect in the eye or in a lens caused by a deviation from spherical curvature which prevents light rays from meeting at a common focus and so results in distorted images
  • Astraphobia - a morbid fear of thunder and lightning
  • astringent - tending to draw together or constrict soft organic tissue; sour or bitter in taste;  a drug that causes contraction of body tissues and canals
  • astrocyte - comparatively large neuroglial cell
  • astronomer - a physicist who studies astronomy
  • Asymptomatic - having no symptoms of illness or disease
  • asystole - absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • Atavism - a reappearance of an earlier characteristic
  • ataxia - inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
  • Atelectasis - collapse of an expanded lung (especially in infants); also failure of pulmonary alveoli to expand at birth
  • Ateliosis - a form of infantilism characterized by physical underdevelopment but normal intelligence
  • Atherogenesis - the formation of atheromas on the walls of the arteries as in atherosclerosis
  • atheroma - a fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery; can obstruct blood flow
  • Atherosclerosis - a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • Atherosclerotic - of or relating to atherosclerosis
  • Athetosis - a continuous succession of slow, writhing, involuntary movements of the hands and feet and other body parts
  • Athlete's foot - fungal infection of the feet
  • athlete - a person trained to compete in sports
  • Athletic training - the course of practice and exercise and diet undertaken by an athlete
  • atlas - a figure of a man used as a supporting column; the 1st cervical vertebra; a collection of maps in book form; (Greek mythology) a Titan who was forced by Zeus to bear the sky on his shoulders
  • Atonia - lack of normal muscular tension or tonus
  • Atonic - used of syllables; characterized by a lack of tonus
  • Atopic dermatitis - a severe form of dermatitis characterized by atopy
  • atopy - an allergic reaction that becomes apparent in a sensitized person only minutes after contact
  • Atorvastatin - an oral drug (trade name Lipitor) that is effective in lowering triglycerides; potent in reducing LDL cholesterol because higher doses can be given
  • Atresia - an abnormal condition in which a normal opening or tube in the body (as the urethra) is closed or absent
  • atrial fibrillation - fibrillation of the muscles of the atria of the heart
  • Atrial septal defect - an abnormal opening between the left and right atria of the heart
  • Atrial - of or relating to a cavity or chamber in the body (especially one of the upper chambers of the heart)
  • atrial - of or relating to a cavity or chamber in the body (especially one of the upper chambers of the heart)
  • atrioventricular node - a node of specialized heart muscle located in the septal wall of the right atrium; receives impulses from the sinoatrial node and transmits them to atrioventricular bundle
  • Atrioventricular - relating to or affecting the atria and ventricles of the heart
  • atrioventricular - relating to or affecting the atria and ventricles of the heart
  • atrium - the central area in a building; open to the sky; any chamber that is connected to other chambers or passageways (especially one of the two upper chambers of the heart)
  • atrophic - relating to or characterized by atrophy
  • atrophy - any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse; verb undergo atrophy
  • Attention deficit disorder - a condition (mostly in boys) characterized by behavioral and learning disorders
  • attention deficit disorder - a condition (mostly in boys) characterized by behavioral and learning disorders
  • Attention getting - likely to attract attention; seizing the attention
  • Attentional - of or relating to attention
  • Attenuate - reduced in strength; verb become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude; weaken the consistency of (a chemical substance)
  • attenuated - of an electrical signal; reduced in amplitude with little or no distortion; reduced in strength
  • Attenuator - an electrical device for attenuating the strength of an electrical signal
  • Atypical pneumonia - an acute respiratory disease marked by high fever and coughing; caused by mycoplasma; primarily affecting children and young adults
  • Atypical - deviating from normal expectations; somewhat odd, strange, or abnormal; not representative of a group, class, or type
  • atypical - deviating from normal expectations; somewhat odd, strange, or abnormal; not representative of a group, class, or type
  • audiogram - a graphical representation of a person's auditory sensitivity to sound
  • Audiology - the measurement of hearing
  • Audiometry - measuring sensitivity of hearing; the measurement of hearing
  • Auditory agnosia - inability to recognize or understand the meaning of spoken words
  • Auditory aphasia - an impairment in understanding spoken language that is not attributable to hearing loss
  • Auditory cortex - the cortical area that receives auditory information from the medial geniculate body
  • auditory nerve - a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • Auditory perception - the perception of sound as a meaningful phenomenon
  • Auditory tube - either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum
  • auditory - of or relating to the process of hearing
  • Auricle - the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear; a small conical pouch projecting from the upper anterior part of each atrium of the heart
  • auricular - pertaining to an auricle of the heart; relating to or perceived by or shaped like the organ of hearing; of or relating to near the ear
  • Auscultate - examine by auscultation
  • Auscultation - listening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)
  • Autism - (psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people
  • autoantibody - an antibody acting against tissues of the organism that produces it
  • Autochthonous - of rocks, deposits, etc.; found where they and their constituents were formed; originating where it is found
  • Autoclave - a device for heating substances above their boiling point; used to manufacture chemicals or to sterilize surgical instruments; verb subject to the action of an autoclave
  • Autogamy - self fertilization in plants
  • Autogenic training - training patients in self induced relaxation
  • autogenic - originating within the body
  • Autogenous - originating within the body
  • Autograft - tissue that is taken from one site and grafted to another site on the same person
  • Autoimmune disease - any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
  • Autoimmune - of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body
  • Autoimmunity - production of antibodies against the tissues of your own body; produces autoimmune disease or hypersensitivity reactions
  • Autoinjector - a hypodermic syringe to use in injecting yourself with a liquid
  • Autologous - derived from organisms of the selfsame individual
  • Autolysis - lysis of plant or animal tissue by an internal process
  • Automatism - any reaction that occurs automatically without conscious thought or reflection (especially the undirected behavior seen in psychomotor epilepsy)
  • autonomic nervous system - the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
  • autonomic - relating to or controlled by the autonomic nervous system
  • Autonomy - immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence; personal independence
  • autopsy - an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease; verb perform an autopsy on a dead body; do a post mortem
  • Autoradiograph - a radiogram produced by radiation emitted by the specimen being photographed
  • Autoradiography - producing a radiograph by means of the radiation emitted from the specimen being photographed
  • Autoregulation - (physiology) processes that maintain a generally constant physiological state in a cell or organism
  • Autosomal - of or relating to an autosome
  • Autosome - any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; appear in pairs in body cells but as single chromosomes in spermatozoa
  • Autotroph - plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  • Avascular - without blood vessels
  • avian - pertaining to or characteristic of birds
  • Aviation medicine - the study and treatment of disorders associated with flight (especially with space flight)
  • Avulse - separate by avulsion
  • Avuncular - like an uncle in kindness or indulgence; being or relating to an uncle
  • axial - situated on or along or in the direction of an axis; of or relating to or resembling an axis of rotation; relating to or attached to the axis
  • axilla - the hollow under the arm where it is joined to the shoulder
  • axillary artery - the part of the main artery of the arm that lies in the armpit and is continuous with the subclavian artery above and the brachial artery below
  • axillary vein - a continuation of the basilic vein and brachial vein that becomes the subclavian vein
  • axillary - of or relating to the armpit; of or relating to the axil
  • Ayurveda - (Sanskrit) an ancient medical treatise summarizing the Hindu art of healing and prolonging life; sometimes regarded as a 5th Veda
  • Azathioprine - an immunosuppressive drug (trade name Imuran) used to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
  • Azerbaijan - a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia; formerly an Asian soviet
  • Azoospermia - Absence of motile, and hence viable spermatozoa in semen.
  • Azotemia - accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine
  • Aztreonam - an antibiotic (trade name Azactam) used against severe infections; has minimal side effects

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

B[edit | edit source]

  • Baby powder - powder used to prevent a baby's diaper from chafing
  • Baby walker - an enclosing framework on casters or wheels; helps babies learn to walk
  • bacillary - formed like a bacillus; relating to or produced by or containing bacilli
  • Bacillus anthracis - a species of bacillus that causes anthrax in humans and in animals (cattle and swine and sheep and rabbits and mice and guinea pigs); can be used a bioweapon
  • Bacillus - aerobic rod shaped spore producing bacterium; often occurring in chainlike formations; found primarily in soil
  • bacitracin - a polypeptide antibiotic of known chemical structure effective against several types of Gram positive organisms; usually applied locally
  • Back brace - a brace worn to support the back
  • Backcross - mate a hybrid of the first generation with one of its parents
  • Background radiation - radiation coming from sources other than those being observed
  • Bacteremia - transient presence of bacteria (or other microorganisms) in the blood
  • bacterial toxin - any endotoxin or exotoxin formed in or elaborated by bacterial cells
  • Bacterial - relating to or caused by bacteria
  • bactericidal - preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms
  • bacteriologist - a biologist who studies bacteria
  • Bacteriology - the branch of medical science that studies bacteria in relation to disease
  • Bacteriophage - a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
  • bacteriostatic - of or relating to or causing bacteriostasis
  • Bagassosis - alveolitis caused by inhaling bagasse (sugarcane dust)
  • Baker's yeast - used as a leaven in baking and brewing
  • Baker - someone who bakes bread or cake; someone who bakes commercially
  • Balanitis - inflammation of the head of the penis
  • Balanoposthitis - inflammation of both the head of the penis and the foreskin
  • Baldness - the condition of having no hair on the top of the head
  • balloon - large tough nonrigid bag filled with gas or heated air; small thin inflatable rubber bag with narrow neck; verb become inflated; ride in a hot air balloon
  • Ballottement - a palpatory technique for feeling a floating object in the body (especially for determining the position of a fetus by feeling the rebound of the fetus after a quick digital tap on the wall of the uterus)
  • Bambino - a young child
  • Banti's syndrome - a disease characterized by congestion and enlargement of the spleen; accompanied by anemia or cirrhosis
  • Bar chart - a chart with bars whose lengths are proportional to quantities
  • Bar graph - a chart with bars whose lengths are proportional to quantities
  • barium enema - contrast medium is injected into the rectum and x rays are taken to search for lesions
  • Barium - a soft silvery metallic element of the alkali earth group; found in barite
  • Barker - someone who stands in front of a show (as at a carnival) and gives a loud colorful sales talk to potential customers; informal terms for dogs
  • Baroreceptor - a sensory receptor that responds to pressure
  • Basal metabolic rate - the rate at which heat is produced by an individual in a resting state
  • Basal temperature - body temperature in the morning before rising or moving about or eating anything
  • basal - of primary importance; serving as or forming a base; especially of leaves; located at the base of a plant or stem; especially arising directly from the root or rootstock or a root like stem
  • based - having a base of operations (often used as a combining form); having a base; having a basis; often used as combining terms; being derived from (often followed by `on' or `upon')
  • basilar artery - an unpaired artery; supplies the pons and cerebellum and the back part of the cerebrum and the inner ear
  • Basilar - of or relating to or located at the base
  • basketball - a game played on a court by two opposing teams of 5 players; points are scored by throwing the ball through an elevated horizontal hoop; an inflated ball used in playing basketball
  • basophil - a leukocyte with basophilic granules easily stained by basic stains
  • Basophilia - the tendency of cells to stain with basic dyes
  • Battle fatigue - a mental disorder caused by stress of active warfare
  • Bayes - English mathematician for whom Bayes' theorem is named (1702 1761)
  • Bed bug - bug of temperate regions that infests especially beds and feeds on human blood
  • Bedsore - a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
  • Bee sting - a sting inflicted by a bee
  • Behavior therapy - psychotherapy that seeks to extinguish or inhibit abnormal or maladaptive behavior by reinforcing desired behavior and extinguishing undesired behavior
  • Belching - the forceful expulsion of something from inside; a reflex that expels wind noisily from the stomach through the mouth
  • benediction - a ceremonial prayer invoking divine protection; the act of praying for divine protection
  • benign prostatic hyperplasia - enlarged prostate; appears to be part of the natural aging process
  • Benign tumor - a tumor that is not cancerous
  • benign - pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence; kindness of disposition or manner; not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
  • Benignity - the quality of being kind and gentle; a kind act
  • Benjamin Spock - United States pediatrician whose many books on child care influenced the upbringing of children around the world (1903 1998)
  • Benjamin - (Old Testament) the youngest and best loved son of Jacob and Rachel and one of the twelve forebears of the tribes of Israel; gum resin used especially in treating skin irritation
  • Benzene - a colorless liquid hydrocarbon; highly inflammable; carcinogenic; the simplest of the aromatic compounds
  • Benzocaine - a white crystalline ester used as a local anesthetic
  • Benzodiazepine - any of several similar lipophilic amines used as tranquilizers or sedatives or hypnotics or muscle relaxants; chronic use can lead to dependency
  • Benzoyl peroxide - a white crystalline peroxide used in bleaching (flour or oils or fats) and as a catalyst for free radical reactions
  • Benzylpenicillin - the penicillin that constitutes the principal component of many commercial antibiotics
  • bereavement - state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one
  • beriberi - avitaminosis caused by lack of thiamine (vitamin B1)
  • Bernard - French physiologist noted for research on secretions of the alimentary canal and the glycogenic function of the liver (1813 1878)
  • Berserk - in a murderous frenzy as if possessed by a demon;  one of the ancient Norse warriors legendary for working themselves into a frenzy before a battle and fighting with reckless savagery and insane fury
  • Beryllium - a light strong brittle grey toxic bivalent metallic element
  • Berzelius - Swedish chemist who discovered three new elements and determined the atomic weights of many others (1779 1848)
  • Beta blocker - any of various drugs used in treating hypertension or arrhythmia; decreases force and rate of heart contractions by blocking beta adrenergic receptors of the autonomic nervous system
  • Beta Carotene - an isomer of carotene that is found in dark green and dark yellow fruits and vegetables
  • Beta cell - a cell that produces insulin in the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas
  • Beta Endorphin - an endorphin produced by the pituitary gland that suppresses pain
  • Beta particle - a high speed electron or positron emitted in the decay of a radioactive isotope
  • beta - preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product; second in order of importance;  the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet; beets
  • Betel nut - seed of betel palm; chewed with leaves of the betel pepper and lime as a digestive stimulant and narcotic in southeastern Asia
  • bibliographer - someone trained in compiling bibliographies
  • Bicarbonate - a salt of carbonic acid (containing the anion HCO3) in which one hydrogen atom has been replaced; an acid carbonate
  • Biceps - any skeletal muscle having two origins (but especially the muscle that flexes the forearm)
  • Bicornuate - having two horns or horn shaped parts
  • Bicuspid valve - valve with two cusps; situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  • Bicuspid - having two cusps or points (especially a molar tooth);  a tooth having two cusps or points; located between the incisors and the molars
  • bicycle - a wheeled vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals; verb ride a bicycle
  • Bifid - divided into two lobes
  • Bilateral - having two sides or parts; affecting or undertaken by two parties; having identical parts on each side of an axis
  • Bile acid - any of the steroid acids generated in the liver and stored with bile
  • bile duct - a duct formed by the hepatic and cystic ducts; opens into the duodenum
  • Bilharzia - an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • Bilharziasis - an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • biliary - relating to the bile ducts or the gallbladder; relating to or containing bile
  • Bilious - suffering from or suggesting a liver disorder or gastric distress; relating to or containing bile; irritable as if suffering from indigestion
  • Biliousness - gastric distress caused by a disorder of the liver or gall bladder; a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger
  • bilirubin - an orange yellow pigment in the bile that forms as a product of hemoglobin; excess amounts in the blood produce the yellow appearance observed in jaundice
  • Binaural - relating to or having or hearing with two ears
  • binocular vision - vision involving the use of both eyes
  • Binocular - relating to both eyes
  • Binomial theorem - a theorem giving the expansion of a binomial raised to a given power
  • Binucleate - having two nuclei
  • Biochemical - of or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms
  • biochemist - someone with special training in biochemistry
  • biochemistry - the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry
  • Bioethics - the branch of ethics that studies moral values in the biomedical sciences
  • Biofeedback - a training program in which a person is given information about physiological processes (heart rate or blood pressure) that is not normally available with the goal of gaining conscious control of them
  • biologic - pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  • Biological agent - any bacterium or virus or toxin that could be used in biological warfare
  • biological - of parents and children; related by blood; pertaining to biology or to life and living things
  • biologist - (biology) a scientist who studies living organisms
  • Biology - the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms; all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • biopsy - examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease
  • Biosafety level - the level of safety from exposure to infectious agents; depends on work practices and safety equipment and facilities
  • Biosafety - safety from exposure to infectious agents
  • Biostatistics - a branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis
  • Bioterrorism - terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare
  • Biotin - a B vitamin that aids in body growth
  • Bipolar disorder - a mental disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression
  • bipolar - having two poles; of, pertaining to, or occurring in both polar regions; of or relating to manic depressive illness
  • Birmingham - a city in central England; 2nd largest English city and an important industrial and transportation center; the largest city in Alabama; located in northeastern Alabama
  • Birth control - limiting the number of children born
  • Birth defect - a defect that is present at birth
  • Birth rate - the ratio of live births in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 population per year
  • Birth trauma - emotional injury inflicted on an infant by events incident to birth that is alleged to appear in symbolic form in patients with mental illness; physical injury to an infant during the birth process
  • birth - the event of being born; the time when something begins (especially life); the process of giving birth; the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents; verb cause_to_be_born
  • Birthmark - a blemish on the skin that is formed before birth
  • Bisexual - sexually attracted to both sexes; having an ambiguous sexual identity;  a person who is sexually attracted to both sexes
  • Bivalent - used of homologous chromosomes associated in pairs in synapsis; having a valence of two or having two valences
  • Black American - an American whose ancestors were born in Africa
  • Black Art - the belief in magical spells that harness occult forces or evil spirits to produce unnatural effects in the world
  • black cohosh - North American bugbane found from Maine and Ontario to Wisconsin and south to Georgia
  • Black Death - the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
  • Black eye - a bad reputation; an unfortunate happening that hinders or impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating; a swollen bruise caused by a blow to the eye
  • Black lung disease - lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust
  • black lung - lung disease caused by inhaling coal dust
  • Black plague - the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
  • black snakeroot - North American bugbane found from Maine and Ontario to Wisconsin and south to Georgia; deciduous low growing perennial of Canada and eastern and central United States
  • Blackhead - a black tipped plug clogging a pore of the skin
  • Blackpool - a resort town in Lancashire in northwestern England on the Irish Sea; famous for its tower
  • Blackwater fever - severe and often fatal malaria characterized by kidney damage resulting in dark urine
  • Bladder stone - a calculus formed in the bladder
  • Bladder - a bag that fills with air; a distensible membranous sac (usually containing liquid or gas)
  • Blastocyst - the blastula of mammals
  • Blastoderm - a layer of cells on the inside of the blastula
  • Blastoma - a tumor composed of immature undifferentiated cells
  • Blastomere - any cell resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg
  • Blastomycosis - any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • Blastopore - the opening into the archenteron
  • Blepharitis - inflammation of the eyelids characterized by redness and swelling and dried crusts
  • Blepharospasm - spasm of the eyelid muscle resulting in closure of the eye
  • Blind spot - the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light; a subject about which you are ignorant or prejudiced and fail to exercise good judgment
  • Blindness - the state of being blind or lacking sight
  • Blister beetle - beetle that produces a secretion that blisters the skin
  • blister - (pathology) an elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid; verb get blistered; cause blisters to from on; subject to harsh criticism
  • Blistering agent - a toxic war gas with sulfide based compounds that raises blisters and attacks the eyes and lungs; there is no known antidote
  • Bloch - United States composer (born in Switzerland) who composed symphonies and chamber music and choral music and a piano sonata and an opera (1880 1959)
  • Blocker - a class of drugs that inhibit (block) some biological process; a football player whose responsibility is to block players attempting to stop an offensive play
  • blocking agent - a class of drugs that inhibit (block) some biological process
  • Blood bank - a place for storing whole blood or blood plasma
  • Blood blister - blister containing blood or bloody serum usually caused by an injury
  • Blood cell - either of two types of cells (erythrocytes and leukocytes) and sometimes including platelets
  • blood clot - a semisolid mass of coagulated red and white blood cells
  • Blood count - the act of estimating the number of red and white corpuscles in a blood sample; the number of red and white corpuscles in a blood sample
  • Blood dyscrasia - any abnormal condition of the blood
  • Blood glucose - glucose in the bloodstream
  • Blood group - human blood cells (usually just the red blood cells) that have the same antigens
  • Blood plasma - plasma that separates from blood in coagulation
  • Blood poisoning - invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms from a focus of infection
  • Blood pressure - the pressure of the circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels; results from the systole of the left ventricle of the heart; sometimes measured for a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • Blood sugar - glucose in the bloodstream
  • Blood test - a serologic analysis of a sample of blood
  • Blood transfusion - the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • Blood type - human blood cells (usually just the red blood cells) that have the same antigens
  • Blood typing - determining a person's blood type by serological methods
  • Bloodletting - formerly used as a treatment to reduce excess blood (one of the four humors of medieval medicine); indiscriminate slaughter
  • Bloodmobile - a motor vehicle equipped to collect blood donations
  • Blue baby - an infant born with a bluish color; usually has a defective heart
  • Blue cohosh - tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  • Blueberry root - tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  • Blunt trauma - injury incurred when the human body hits or is hit by a large outside object (as a car)
  • blurred - unclear in form or expression; indistinct or hazy in outline
  • Body fluid - the liquid parts of the body
  • Body louse - a parasitic louse that infests the body of human beings
  • Body odor - malodorousness resulting from a failure to bathe
  • Body type - a category of physique
  • Bodywork - the work of making or repairing vehicle bodies; the exterior body of a motor vehicle
  • Bolus - a large pill; used especially in veterinary medicine; a small round soft mass (as of chewed food)
  • bone marrow - the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones; very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones
  • Bones - a percussion instrument consisting of a pair of hollow pieces of wood or bone (usually held between the thumb and fingers) that are made to click together (as by Spanish dancers) in rhythm with the danc
  • Booster dose - an additional dose that makes sure the first dose was effective
  • Booster shot - an additional dose that makes sure the first dose was effective
  • Borage - leaves flavor sauces and punches; young leaves eaten in salads or cooked; hairy blue flowered European annual herb long used in herbal medicine and eaten raw as salad greens or cooked like spinach
  • borderline - of questionable or minimal quality;  a line that indicates a boundary
  • Bornholm disease - an acute infectious disease occurring in epidemic form and featuring paroxysms of pain (usually in the chest)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi - cause of Lyme disease; transmitted primarily by ticks of genus Ixodes
  • Borrelia - cause of e.g. European and African relapsing fever
  • Bos taurus - domesticated bovine animals as a group regardless of sex or age
  • Boswellia - genus of trees of North Africa and India that yield incense
  • Bottled gas - hydrocarbon gases, usually propane or butane, kept under pressure
  • Botulinum toxin - any of several neurotoxins that are produced by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum; causes muscle paralysis
  • botulinum - anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism
  • botulism - food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • Boutonneuse fever - a disease (common in India and around the Mediterranean area) caused by a rickettsia that is transmitted to humans by a reddish brown tick (ixodid) that lives on dogs and other mammals
  • Boutonniere - a flower that is worn in a buttonhole
  • Bovine - dull and slow moving and stolid; like an ox; of or relating to or belonging to the genus Bos (cattle);  any of various members of the genus Bos
  • bowel - the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • Bowman's capsule - thin double membrane surrounding the glomerulus of a nephron
  • Brachial artery - the main artery of the upper arm; a continuation of the axillary artery; bifurcates into the radial and ulnar arteries at the elbow
  • brachial plexus - a network of nerves formed by cervical and thoracic spinal nerves and supplying the arm and parts of the shoulder
  • Brachial vein - two veins in either arm that accompany the brachial artery and empty into the axillary vein
  • brachial - of or relating to an arm
  • Brachycephaly - the quality of being brachycephalic
  • Brachydactyly - abnormal shortness of fingers and toes
  • Bradycardia - abnormally slow heartbeat
  • Brain death - death when respiration and other reflexes are absent; consciousness is gone; organs can be removed for transplantation before the heartbeat stops
  • Brain fever - meningitis caused by bacteria and often fatal
  • brain stem - the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
  • Brain tumor - a tumor in the brain
  • Brainstem - the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
  • branched - having branches; resembling a fork; divided or separated into two branches
  • Breadbasket - a basket for serving bread; a geographic region serving as the principal source of grain; an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion
  • Breakbone fever - an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Breast cancer - cancer of the breast; one of the most common malignancies in women in the US
  • Breast feeding - nourishing at the breast
  • Breast implant - an implant for cosmetic purposes to replace a breast that has been surgically removed
  • Breech birth - delivery of an infant whose feet or buttocks appear first
  • Breech - opening in the rear of the barrel of a gun where bullets can be loaded
  • Bright's disease - an inflammation of the kidney
  • Brill - European food fish
  • Brioschi - an antacid
  • British - of or relating to or characteristic of Great Britain or its people or culture;  the people of Great Britain
  • Broca's area - the motor speech center in the left hemisphere of the brain in most people
  • Broken heart - devastating sorrow and despair
  • Bromine - a nonmetallic largely pentavalent heavy volatile corrosive dark brown liquid element belonging to the halogens; found in sea water
  • Bromo Seltzer - an antacid
  • bronchiole - any of the smallest bronchial ducts; ending in alveoli
  • Bronchiolitis - inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchioles
  • Bronchitis - inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • bronchodilator - a drug that relaxes and dilates the bronchial passageways and improves the passages of air into the lungs
  • bronchoscope - a slender tubular instrument used to examine the bronchial tubes
  • Bronchospasm - a spasm of the bronchi that makes exhalation difficult and noisy; associated with asthma and bronchitis
  • bronchus - either of the two main branches of the trachea
  • Brooke - English lyric poet (1887 1915)
  • Browne - United States writer of humorous tales of an itinerant showman (1834 1867); English illustrator of several of Dickens' novels (1815 1882)
  • bruit - tell or spread rumors
  • Bruxism - involuntarily or unconsciously clenching or grinding the teeth, typically during sleep
  • Bubonic plague - the most common form of the plague in humans; characterized by chills, prostration, delirium and the formation of buboes in the armpits and groin; does not spread from person to person
  • bubonic - of or evidencing buboes
  • budding - beginning to develop;  reproduction of some unicellular organisms (such as yeasts) by growth and specialization followed by the separation by constriction of a part of the parent
  • Buddy - a close friend who accompanies his buddies in their activities
  • Bulbar conjunctiva - the part of the conjunctiva covering the anterior face of the sclera and the surface epithelium of the cornea
  • Bulbar - involving the medulla oblongata
  • Bulbourethral gland - either of two glands that discharge a component of seminal fluid into the urethra; homologous to Bartholin's gland in the female
  • Bulimia - pathologically insatiable hunger (especially when caused by brain lesions); a disorder of eating seen among young women who go on eating binges and then feel guilt and depression and self condemnation
  • Bulla - the round leaden seal affixed to a papal bull; (pathology) an elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid
  • Bullying - noisily domineering; tending to browbeat others;  the act of intimidating a weaker person to make them do something
  • Bumper - extraordinarily abundant;  a mechanical device consisting of bars at either end of a vehicle to absorb shock and prevent serious damage; a glass filled to the brim (especially as a toast)
  • Bundle of His - a bundle of modified heart muscle that transmits the cardiac impulse from the atrioventricular node to the ventricles causing them to contract
  • Bundling - the act of shoving hastily; the act of binding something into a bundle; a onetime custom during courtship of unmarried couples occupying the same bed without undressing
  • Bunion - a painful swelling of the bursa of the first joint of the big toe
  • burdock - any of several erect biennial herbs of temperate Eurasia having stout taproots and producing burs
  • Burn center - a center where patients with severe burns can be treated
  • bursa - a small fluid filled sac located between movable parts of the body especially at joints; a city in northwestern Turkey
  • Bursal - relating to or affecting a bursa
  • bursitis - inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
  • businessman - a person engaged in commercial or industrial business (especially an owner or executive)
  • Buspirone - a drug (trade name BuSpar) designed specifically for anxiety
  • Butterbur - small Eurasian herb having broad leaves and lilac pink rayless flowers; found in moist areas
  • Butyric acid - an unpleasant smelling fatty acid found especially in butter

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  • Cachectic - relating to or having the symptoms of cachexia
  • cachexia - any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease
  • Cadaver - the dead body of a human being
  • Cadmium - a soft bluish white ductile malleable toxic bivalent metallic element; occurs in association with zinc ores
  • Caduceus - an insignia used by the medical profession; modeled after the staff of Hermes
  • Caecal - of or like a cecum
  • Caecum - the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
  • Caesarean section - the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Caffeine - a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • Caffeinism - poisoning resulting from excessive intake of caffeine containing products
  • Calamine - a white mineral; a common ore of zinc
  • Calcaneus - the largest tarsal bone; forms the human heel
  • calcific - involving or resulting from calcification
  • Calcification - a process that impregnates something with calcium (or calcium salts); an inflexible and unchanging state; tissue hardened by deposition of lime salts
  • calcitonin - thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
  • calcium - a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • Calefacient - producing the sensation of heat when applied to the body
  • Calf bone - the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
  • CALLA - water arum; South African plant widely cultivated for its showy pure white spathe and yellow spadix
  • Callosity - an area of skin that is thick or hard from continual pressure or friction (as the sole of the foot); devoid of passion or feeling; hardheartedness
  • Calve - birth; release ice
  • Camelpox - a viral disease of camels closely related to smallpox
  • Camillo Golgi - Italian histologist noted for work on the structure of the nervous system and for his discovery of Golgi bodies (1844 1926)
  • Camisole - a short negligee; a short sleeveless undergarment for women
  • Campion - any plant of the genus Silene
  • Cancellous - having an open or latticed or porous structure
  • Cancer Cell - a cell that is part of a malignant tumor
  • Candida albicans - a parasitic fungus that can infect the mouth or the skin or the intestines or the vagina
  • candida - any of the yeastlike imperfect fungi of the genus Candida
  • candidate - someone who is considered for something (for an office or prize or honor etc.); a politician who is running for public office
  • Candidiasis - an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • Canker sore - an ulceration (especially of the lips or lining of the mouth)
  • cannonball - a solid projectile that in former times was fired from a cannon
  • Cannula - a small flexible tube inserted into a body cavity for draining off fluid or introducing medication
  • Capitation - a tax levied on the basis of a fixed amount per person
  • capsaicin - colorless pungent crystalline compound derived from capsicum; source of the hotness of hot peppers of the genus Capsicum such as chili and cayenne and jalapeno
  • Capsid - the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus; a variety of leaf bug
  • captopril - a drug (trade name Capoten) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidneys resulting in vasodilation; used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • Carbolic acid - a toxic white soluble crystalline acidic derivative of benzene; used in manufacturing and as a disinfectant and antiseptic; poisonous if taken internally
  • Carbon dioxide - a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances; absorbed from the air by plants in photosynthesis
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning - a toxic condition that results from inhaling and absorbing carbon monoxide gas
  • carbon monoxide - an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon
  • Carbuncle - an infection larger than a boil and with several openings for discharge of pus; deep red cabochon garnet cut without facets
  • Carcinogen - any substance that produces cancer
  • Carcinogenic - causing or tending to cause cancer
  • Carcinoid - a small tumor (benign or malignant) arising from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract; usually associated with excessive secretion of serotonin
  • Carcinoma in situ - a cluster of malignant cells that has not yet invaded the deeper epithelial tissue or spread to other parts of the body
  • Carcinoma - any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Carcinosarcoma - a malignant neoplasm composed of carcinoma and sarcoma extensively intermixed
  • Cardiac glycoside - obtained from a number of plants and used to stimulate the heart in cases of heart failure
  • Cardiac insufficiency - inadequate blood flow to the heart muscles; can cause angina pectoris
  • Cardiac muscle - the muscle tissue of the heart; adapted to continued rhythmic contraction
  • Cardiac output - the amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in a given period of time
  • Cardiac pacemaker - a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat
  • Cardiac tamponade - mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
  • cardiac - of or relating to the heart
  • Cardiogenic shock - shock caused by cardiac arrest
  • cardiologist - a specialist in cardiology; a specialist in the structure and function and disorders of the heart
  • Cardiology - the branch of medicine dealing with the heart and its diseases
  • Cardiomegaly - an abnormal enlargement of the heart
  • Cardiomyopathy - a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
  • Cardiopathy - a disease of the heart
  • cardiopulmonary - of or pertaining to or affecting both the heart and the lungs and their functions
  • Cardiovascular disease - a disease of the heart or blood vessels
  • Cardiovascular system - the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  • cardiovascular - of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels
  • Carditis - inflammation of the heart
  • Caregiver - a person who is responsible for attending to the needs of a child or dependent adult; a person who helps in identifying or preventing or treating illness or disability
  • Caries - soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth
  • Carl Jung - Swiss psychologist (1875 1961)
  • carminative - relieving gas in the alimentary tract (colic or flatulence or griping);  medication that prevents the formation of gas in the alimentary tract or eases its passing
  • Carotene - yellow or orange red fat soluble pigments in plants; an orange isomer of an unsaturated hydrocarbon found in many plants; is converted into vitamin A in the liver
  • Carotenemia - excess carotene in the blood stream; can cause the skin to turn a pale yellow or red color
  • carotenoid - any of a class of highly unsaturated yellow to red pigments occurring in plants and animals
  • carotid artery - either of two major arteries of the neck and head; branches from the aorta
  • Carotid body - a chemoreceptor located near the bifurcations of the carotid arteries; monitors oxygen content of the blood and helps control respiration
  • carotid - of or relating to either of the two major arteries supplying blood to the head and neck
  • Carpal bone - any of the eight small bones of the wrist of primates
  • carpal tunnel syndrome - a painful disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel; characterized by discomfort and weakness in the hands and fingers and by sensations of tingling, burning or numbness
  • carpal tunnel - a passageway in the wrist through which nerves and the flexor muscles of the hands pass
  • carpal - of or relating to the wrist;  any of the eight small bones of the wrist of primates
  • carpenter - a woodworker who makes or repairs wooden objects; verb work as a carpenter
  • Cartilage - tough elastic tissue; mostly converted to bone in adults
  • Cartilaginous - difficult to chew; of or relating to cartilage
  • Carvedilol - beta blocker that can reduce the progression of heart failure in individuals whose disease is not advanced
  • Casals - an outstanding Spanish cellist noted for his interpretation of Bach's cello suites (1876 1973)
  • Casein - a milk protein used in making e.g. plastics and adhesives; a water base paint made with a protein precipitated from milk
  • Caseous - of damaged or necrotic tissue; cheeselike
  • Caspase - any of a group of proteases that mediate apoptosis
  • Caspase - any of a group of proteases that mediate apoptosis
  • Cassette - a container that holds a magnetic tape used for recording or playing sound or video
  • Casualty - a decrease of military personnel or equipment; someone injured or killed in an accident; someone injured or killed or captured or missing in a military engagement; an accident that causes someone to die
  • CAT scan - an image produced by scanning
  • Cat scratch disease - a disease thought to be transmitted to humans by a scratch from a cat
  • Catabolism - breakdown in living organisms of more complex substances into simpler ones together with release of energy
  • Catalepsy - a trancelike state with loss of voluntary motion and failure to react to stimuli
  • Catalysis - acceleration of a chemical reaction induced the presence of material that is chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction
  • Catalyst - something that causes an important event to happen; (chemistry) a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected
  • Catamenia - the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • Cataplasm - a medical dressing consisting of a soft heated mass of meal or clay that is spread on a cloth and applied to the skin to treat inflamed areas or improve circulation etc.
  • cataract - a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice; clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • Catatonic - characterized by catatonia especially either rigidity or extreme laxness of limbs
  • Catecholamine - any of a group of chemicals including epinephrine and norepinephrine that are produced in the medulla of the adrenal gland
  • Category - a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme; a collection of things sharing a common attribute
  • Cathartic - strongly laxative; emotionally purging (of e.g. art); emotionally purging;  a purging medicine; stimulates evacuation of the bowels
  • catheter - a thin flexible tube inserted into the body to permit introduction or withdrawal of fluids or to keep the passageway open
  • Catheterization - the operation of introducing a catheter into the body
  • Cathexis - (psychoanalysis) the libidinal energy invested in some idea or person or object
  • cation - a positively charged ion
  • Caudal anesthesia - regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the caudal end of the spinal canal; now largely replaced by epidural anesthesia
  • Caudal block - regional anesthesia resulting from injection of an anesthetic into the caudal end of the spinal canal; now largely replaced by epidural anesthesia
  • Caudal - situated in or directed toward the part of the body from which the tail arises; resembling a tail; constituting or relating to a tail;  toward the posterior end of the body
  • Caudate nucleus - a tail shaped basal ganglion located in a lateral ventricle of the brain
  • caudate - having a tail or taillike appendage; of a leaf shape; tapering gradually into a long taillike tip;  amphibians that resemble lizards; a tail shaped basal ganglion located in a lateral ventricle of the brain
  • Cauliflower ear - an auricle deformed by injury; common among boxers
  • cauliflower - compact head of white undeveloped flowers; a plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds
  • Caulophyllum thalictroides - tall herb of eastern North America and Asia having blue berrylike fruit and a thick knotty rootstock formerly used medicinally
  • Causalgia - a burning pain in a limb along the course of a peripheral nerve; usually associated with skin changes
  • Cauterization - the act of coagulating blood and destroying tissue with a hot iron or caustic agent or by freezing
  • cauterize - burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent; make insensitive or callous; deaden feelings or morals
  • Cavernous sinus - either of a pair of large venous sinuses in the cranial cavity
  • cavernous - being or suggesting a cavern; filled with vascular sinuses and capable of becoming distended and rigid as the result of being filled with blood
  • Cecal - of or like a cecum
  • cecum - the cavity in which the large intestine begins and into which the ileum opens
  • Cefoperazone - a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Cefobid) used for severe infections
  • Cefotaxime - a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Claforan) used for severe infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • Ceftazidime - a parenteral cephalosporin (trade names Fortaz and Tazicef) used to treat moderate infections
  • Ceftriaxone - a parenteral cephalosporin (trade name Rocephin) used for severe infection of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract
  • Cefuroxime - a cephalosporin that can be given parenterally (trade name Zinacef) or orally by tablets (trade name Ceftin); indicated for infections of the lungs or throat or ears or urinary tract or meninges
  • Celecoxib - a Cox 2 inhibitor (trade name Celebrex) that relieves pain without harming the digestive tract
  • celiac disease - a disorder in children and adults; inability to tolerate wheat protein (gluten); symptoms include foul smelling diarrhea and emaciation; often accompanied by lactose intolerance
  • celiac - belonging to or prescribed for celiac disease; of or in or belonging to the cavity of the abdomen
  • Cell death - (physiology) the normal degeneration and death of living cells (as in various epithelial cells)
  • cellophane - a transparent paperlike product that is impervious to moisture and used to wrap candy or cigarettes etc.
  • Cellulite - lumpy deposits of body fat especially on women's thighs etc.
  • Cellulitis - an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • cementum - a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth
  • Centenarian - being at least 100 years old;  someone who is at least 100 years old
  • Centimeter - a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter
  • centimeter - a metric unit of length equal to one hundredth of a meter
  • Central nervous system - the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • central nervous system - the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • Central vision - vision using the fovea and parafovea
  • Centric - having or situated at or near a center
  • Centromere - a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  • Cephalic - of or relating to the head
  • Cephalohematoma - a collection of blood under the scalp of a newborn; caused by pressure during birth
  • cerebellar - relating to or associated with the cerebellum
  • cerebellum - a major division of the vertebrate brain; situated above the medulla oblongata and beneath the cerebrum in humans
  • cerebral aneurysm - an aneurysm of the carotid artery
  • cerebral cortex - the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • cerebral hemisphere - either half of the cerebrum
  • cerebral hemorrhage - bleeding from a ruptured blood vessel in the brain
  • Cerebral palsy - a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
  • cerebral - involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct; of or relating to the cerebrum or brain
  • cerebrospinal fluid - clear liquid produced in the ventricles of the brain; fills and protects cavities in the brain and spinal cord
  • cerebrospinal - of or relating to the brain and spinal cord
  • cerebrovascular accident - a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
  • cerebrovascular - of or relating to the brain and the blood vessels that supply it
  • cerebrum - anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres; dominant part of the brain in humans
  • cerumen - a soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal
  • Cervical cap - a contraceptive device consisting of a small thimble shaped cup that is placed over the uterine cervix to prevent the entrance of spermatozoa
  • cervical vertebra - one of 7 vertebrae in the human spine located in the neck region
  • cervical - relating to or associated with the neck; of or relating to the cervix of the uterus
  • Cervicitis - inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • cervix - necklike opening to the uterus; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body
  • Cesarean section - the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Cesarean - relating to abdominal delivery;  the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Cesarian section - the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Cesarian - relating to abdominal delivery;  the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Ceteris paribus - all other things being equal
  • Chalazion - a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
  • Chamomile - Eurasian plant apple scented foliage and white rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally; in some classification systems placed in genus Anthemis
  • Chancre - a small hard painless nodule at the site of entry of a pathogen (as syphilis)
  • Chancroid - infectious venereal ulcer
  • Change of life - the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Chaperone - one who accompanies and supervises a young woman or gatherings of young people; verb accompany as a chaperone
  • Charcot - French neurologist who tried to use hypnotism to cure hysteria (1825 1893)
  • Charles Darwin - English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809 1882)
  • Charley horse - a muscular cramp (especially in the thigh or calf) following vigorous exercise
  • Chart - a map designed to assist navigation by air or sea; a visual display of information; verb plan in detail; make a chart of; represent by means of a graph
  • Checkpoint - a place (as at a frontier) where travellers are stopped for inspection and clearance
  • Cheek - either side of the face below the eyes; impudent aggressiveness; either of the two large fleshy masses of muscular tissue that form the human rump; an impudent statement; verb speak impudently to
  • Cheilitis - inflammation and cracking of the skin of the lips
  • Chekhov - Russian dramatist whose plays are concerned with the difficulty of communication between people (1860 1904)
  • Chemical reaction - (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
  • Chemical terrorism - terrorism using the chemical agents of chemical warfare; can undermine the personal security of citizens
  • Chemical warfare - warfare using chemical agents to kill or injure or incapacitate the enemy
  • chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions; the way two individuals relate to each other
  • Chemosis - edema of the mucous membrane of the eyeball and eyelid lining
  • Chemotherapy - the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • Chest pain - pain in the chest
  • chiasma - an intersection or crossing of two tracts in the form of the letter X
  • Chickenpox - an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • Chilblain - inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture
  • Chilblains - inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture
  • Child abuse - the physical or emotional or sexual mistreatment of children
  • Child neglect - failure of caretakers to provide adequate emotional and physical care for a child
  • Child - a young person of either sex; a human offspring (son or daughter) of any age; an immature childish person; a member of a clan or tribe
  • Childbed fever - serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during childbirth or abortion (usually attributable to unsanitary conditions); formerly widespread but now uncommon
  • Childbirth - the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • Childhood - the state of a child between infancy and adolescence; the time of person's life when they are a child
  • Chimera - a grotesque product of the imagination; (Greek mythology) fire breathing female monster with a lion's head and a goat's body and a serpent's tail; daughter of Typhon
  • Chinese restaurant syndrome - headache and tingling or burning feelings and sweating caused by eating food that contains monosodium glutamate
  • Chiropractic - a method of treatment that manipulates body structures (especially the spine) to relieve low back pain or even headache or high blood pressure
  • Chiropractor - a therapist who practices chiropractic
  • chitin - a tough semitransparent horny substance; the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods and the cell walls of certain fungi
  • Chlamydia trachomatis - bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Chlamydia - coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chloral hydrate - a colorless crystalline drug used as a sedative; irritates the stomach and can be addictive
  • Chlorambucil - an alkalating agent (trade name Leukeran) used to treat some kinds of cancer
  • Chloramphenicol - an oral antibiotic (trade name Chloromycetin) used to treat serious infections (especially typhoid fever)
  • Chlordiazepoxide - a tranquilizer (trade names Librium and Libritabs) used in the treatment of alcoholism
  • Chlorhexidine - a long lasting liquid antiseptic; used by surgeons to wash their hands before performing surgery
  • Chloride - any salt of hydrochloric acid (containing the chloride ion); any compound containing a chlorine atom
  • Chloroacetophenone - a tear gas that is weaker than CS gas but lasts longer
  • Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile - a tear gas that is stronger than CN gas but wears off faster; can be deployed by grenades or cluster bombs; can cause skin burns and fatal pulmonary edema
  • Chlorofluorocarbon - a fluorocarbon with chlorine; formerly used as a refrigerant and as a propellant in aerosol cans
  • Chloroform - a volatile liquid haloform (CHCl3); formerly used as an anesthetic; verb anesthetize with chloroform
  • Chloropicrin - a heavy colorless insoluble liquid compound that causes tears and vomiting; used as a pesticide and as tear gas
  • Chloroprene - derivative of butadiene used in making neoprene by polymerization
  • Chloroquine - an antimalarial drug used to treat malaria and amebic dysentery and systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Chlorosis - iron deficiency anemia in young women; characterized by weakness and menstrual disturbances and a green color to the skin
  • Chlorpromazine - a drug (trade name Thorazine) derived from phenothiazine that has antipsychotic effects and is used as a sedative and tranquilizer
  • Chlorpyrifos - a common organophosphate insecticide
  • chlorthalidone - a diuretic (trade names Hygroton and Thalidone) used to control hypertension and conditions that cause edema; effective in lowering blood pressure to prevent heart attacks
  • Chocolate - a medium brown to dark brown color; a food made from roasted ground cacao beans; a beverage made from cocoa powder and milk and sugar; usually drunk hot
  • Choking - the act of suffocating (someone) by constricting the windpipe; a condition caused by blocking the airways to the lungs (as with food or swelling of the larynx)
  • Cholangiography - roentgenographic examination of the bile ducts after a contrast medium has been injected
  • Cholangitis - inflammation of the bile ducts
  • Cholecystectomy - surgical removal of the gall bladder (usually for relief of gallstone pain)
  • Cholecystitis - inflammation of the gall bladder
  • Cholelithiasis - the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
  • Cholera - an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • Cholestasis - a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • Cholesterol - an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • Cholic acid - an insoluble crystalline acid present in bile
  • Chondrodystrophy - an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • Chondroma - a common benign tumor of cartilage cells
  • Chondrosarcoma - a malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells
  • Chorditis - inflammation of the vocal cords; inflammation of the spermatic cord
  • Chorea - any of several degenerative nervous disorders characterized by spasmodic movements of the body and limbs; chorea in dogs
  • chorioallantoic membrane - very vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois
  • Chorion - outermost membranous sac enclosing the embryo in higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
  • Chorionic villus sampling - a prenatal test to detect birth defects at an early stage of pregnancy; tissue from the chorionic villi is assayed
  • Chorioretinitis - inflammation of the choroid layer behind the retina
  • choroid - a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
  • Chromaesthesia - a form of synesthesia in which nonvisual stimulation results in the experience of color sensations
  • Chromatin - the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins; during mitotic division it condenses into chromosomes
  • Chromatography - a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
  • Chromesthesia - a form of synesthesia in which nonvisual stimulation results in the experience of color sensations
  • chromosomal - of or relating to a chromosome
  • Chromosome - a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • Chromosome - a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
  • Chronic bronchitis - a form of bronchitis characterized by excess production of sputum leading to a chronic cough and obstruction of air flow
  • Chronic gastritis - persistent gastritis can be a symptom of a gastric ulcer or pernicious anemia or stomach cancer or other disorders
  • Chronic kidney failure - renal failure that can result from a variety of systemic disorders
  • chronic leukemia - slowly progressing leukemia
  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia - chronic leukemia characterized by lymphoblast like cells; more common in older men
  • Chronic myelocytic leukemia - chronic leukemia characterized by granular leukocytes; more common in older people
  • Chronic renal failure - renal failure that can result from a variety of systemic disorders
  • Chronic wasting disease - a wildlife disease (akin to bovine spongiform encephalitis) that affects deer and elk
  • chronic - being long lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • Chyle - a milky fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats; formed in the small intestine during digestion of ingested fats
  • Chyloderma - swelling of the scrotum resulting from chronic lymphatic obstruction
  • chylomicron - a microscopic particle of triglycerides produced in the intestines during digestion; in the bloodstream they release their fatty acids into the blood
  • chyme - a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
  • Cigar - a roll of tobacco for smoking
  • Cigarette - finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for smoking
  • ciliary body - the part of the tunic of the eye between the choroid coat and the iris
  • ciliary - of or relating to the human eyelash; of or relating to cilia projecting from the surface of a cell; relating to the ciliary body and associated structures of the eye
  • Cilium - a hairlike projection from the surface of a cell; provides locomotion in free swimming unicellular organisms; any of the short curved hairs that grow from the edges of the eyelids
  • Cimetidine - a drug (trade name Tagamet) used to treat peptic ulcers by decreasing the secretion of stomach acid
  • Cipro - an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints
  • Ciprofloxacin - an oral antibiotic (trade name Cipro) used against serious bacterial infections of the skin or respiratory tract or urinary tract or bones or joints
  • Circadian rhythm - a daily cycle of activity observed in many living organisms
  • Circadian - of or relating to biological processes occurring at 24 hour intervals
  • circinate - shaped like a ring
  • Circle of Willis - a ring of arteries at the base of the brain
  • circulatory system - the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  • circulatory - relating to circulatory system or to circulation of the blood; of or relating to circulation
  • Circumflex - a diacritical mark (^) placed above a vowel in some languages to indicate a special phonetic quality
  • Cirrhosis - a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • citric acid - a weak water soluble acid found in many fruits (especially citrus fruits); used as a flavoring agent
  • Citrulline - an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is an intermediate in the conversion of ornithine to arginine
  • civil servant - a public official who is a member of the civil service
  • clade - a group of biological taxa or species that share features inherited from a common ancestor
  • classic - characteristic of the classical artistic and literary traditions; adhering to established standards and principles;  a creation of the highest excellence; an artist who has created classic works
  • Claudication - disability of walking due to crippling of the legs or feet
  • Claustrophobia - a morbid fear of being closed in a confined space
  • Clavicle - bone linking the scapula and sternum
  • Clavus - a hard thickening of the skin (especially on the top or sides of the toes) caused by the pressure of ill fitting shoes
  • cleaning - the act of making something clean
  • Clearance - permission to proceed; the distance by which one thing clears another; the space between them; vertical space available to allow easy passage under something
  • Cleft lip - a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip
  • Cleft palate - a congenital fissure of the hard palate
  • cleft - having one or more incisions reaching nearly to the midrib; used of hooves;  a split or indentation in something (as the palate or chin); a long narrow opening
  • Clerkship - the job of clerk
  • Climacteric - a period in a man's life corresponding to menopause; the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Clinical depression - a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention
  • Clinical psychology - the branch of psychology concerned with the treatment of abnormal mentation and behavior
  • clinical - scientifically detached; unemotional; relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
  • Clinician - a practitioner (of medicine or psychology) who does clinical work instead of laboratory experiments
  • Clinodactyly - a congenital defect in which one or more toes or fingers are abnormally positioned
  • Clipping - an excerpt cut from a newspaper or magazine; the act of clipping or snipping; cutting down to the desired size or shape
  • Clitoral - of or relating to the clitoris
  • Clitoridectomy - excision of the clitoris
  • Clitoris - a female sexual organ homologous to the penis
  • Cloaca - a waste pipe that carries away sewage or surface water
  • Clomipramine - a tricyclic antidepressant drug
  • clonic - of or relating to abnormal neuromuscular activity characterized by rapidly alternating muscle contraction and relaxation
  • Clonidine - an antihypertensive (trade name Catapres) that can be administered orally or via transdermal patches
  • Cloning - a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
  • Clostridium botulinum - anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism
  • Clostridium perfringens - anaerobic Gram positive rod bacterium that produces epsilon toxin; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Clostridium - spindle shaped bacterial cell especially one swollen at the center by an endospore
  • clot buster - a kind of pharmaceutical that can break up clots blocking the flow of blood to the heart muscle
  • Clotting time - the time it takes for a sample of blood to clot; used to diagnose some clotting disorders
  • Clozapine - an antipsychotic drug (trade name Clozaril) used as a sedative and for treatment resistant schizophrenia; know to have few side effects
  • Club drug - a controlled substance that is usually taken by young people at dance clubs and raves
  • Clubfoot - congenital deformity of the foot usually marked by a curled shape or twisted position of the ankle and heel and toes
  • Cluster headache - a painful recurring headache associated with the release of histamine from cells
  • Cluster - a grouping of a number of similar things; verb come together as in a cluster or flock; gather or cause to gather into a cluster
  • Co option - the act of appointing summarily (with or without the appointee's consent); the selection of a new member (usually by a vote of the existing membership)
  • Coagulase - an enzyme that induces coagulation
  • coagulate - transformed from a liquid into a soft semisolid or solid mass; verb change from a liquid to a thickened or solid state; cause to change from a liquid to a solid or thickened state
  • Coagulation - the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • coarctation - (biology) a narrowing or constriction of a vessel or canal; especially a congenital narrowing of the aorta; tight or narrow compression
  • coated - having or dressed in a coat; having a coating; covered with an outer layer or film; often used in combination
  • Cobalamin - a B vitamin that is used to treat pernicious anemia
  • cobalt - a hard ferromagnetic silver white bivalent or trivalent metallic element; a trace element in plant and animal nutrition
  • Cocaine - a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • Cocci - any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  • Coccidioidomycosis - an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • Coccidioidomycosis - an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • Coccus - any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  • Coccygeal - of or relating to or near the coccyx
  • Coccyx - the end of the vertebral column in humans and tailless apes
  • cochlea - the snail shaped tube (in the inner ear coiled around the modiolus) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the organ of Corti
  • cochlear - of or relating to the cochlea of the ear
  • Cocooning - retreating to the seclusion of your home (as for privacy or escape)
  • Cod liver oil - an oil obtained from the livers of cod and similar fishes; taken orally as a source of vitamins A and D
  • Coding DNA - sequence of a gene's DNA that transcribes into protein structures
  • coding - act of writing in code or cipher
  • Codon - a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
  • Coenzyme Q - any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • coenzyme - a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes
  • Coeval - of the same period;  a person of nearly the same age as another
  • Coffin - box in which a corpse is buried or cremated; verb place into a coffin
  • Cognition - the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning
  • Cognitive science - the field of science concerned with cognition; includes parts of cognitive psychology and linguistics and computer science and cognitive neuroscience and philosophy of mind
  • Cognitive - of or being or relating to or involving cognition
  • cohort - a band of warriors (originally a unit of a Roman Legion); a company of companions or supporters; a group people having approximately the same age
  • Coinsurance - insurance issued jointly by two or more underwriters
  • Coitus interruptus - a method of birth control in which coitus is initiated but the penis is deliberately withdrawn before ejaculation
  • Coitus - the act of sexual procreation between a man and a woman; the man's penis is inserted into the woman's vagina and excited until orgasm and ejaculation occur
  • Cold medicine - medicine intended to relieve the symptoms of the common cold
  • Cold sore - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1)
  • Cold turkey - complete and abrupt withdrawal of all addictive drugs or anything else on which you have become dependent; a blunt expression of views
  • colic - acute abdominal pain (especially in infants)
  • colitis - inflammation of the colon
  • collagen - a fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue; yields gelatin on boiling
  • collagenase - any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of collagen and gelatin
  • Collarbone - bone linking the scapula and sternum
  • Collateral - descended from a common ancestor but through different lines; situated or running side by side; accompany, concomitant; serving to support or corroborate;  a security pledged for the repayment of a loan
  • Collyrium - lotion consisting of a solution used as a cleanser for the eyes
  • colon cancer - a malignant tumor of the colon; early symptom is bloody stools
  • Colonic - of or relating to the colon;  a water enema given to flush out the colon
  • Colonic - of or relating to the colon;  a water enema given to flush out the colon
  • colonoscope - an elongated fiberoptic endoscope for examining the entire colon from cecum to rectum
  • Colonoscopy - visual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectum; requires sedation
  • Color blindness - genetic inability to distinguish differences in hue
  • colorectal - relating to or affecting the colon and the rectum
  • Colostomy - a surgical operation that creates an opening from the colon to the surface of the body to function as an anus
  • colostrum - milky fluid secreted for the first day or two after parturition
  • Combined - made or joined or united into one; involving the joint activity of two or more
  • combining form - a bound form used only in compounds
  • Comedo - a black tipped plug clogging a pore of the skin
  • Commensal - living in a state of commensalism;  either of two different animal or plant species living in close association but not interdependent
  • Comminuted fracture - fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed
  • Common bile duct - a duct formed by the hepatic and cystic ducts; opens into the duodenum
  • Common cold - a mild viral infection involving the nose and respiratory passages (but not the lungs)
  • communicable disease - a disease that can be communicated from one person to another
  • communicating - the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information
  • Compartment - a partitioned section or separate room within a larger enclosed area; a small space or subdivision for storage
  • Competent - adequate for the purpose; properly or sufficiently qualified or capable or efficient
  • Complementary DNA - single stranded DNA that is complementary to messenger RNA or DNA that has been synthesized from messenger RNA by reverse transcriptase
  • Complementary medicine - the practice of medicine that combines traditional medicine with alternative medicine
  • Complementation - the grammatical relation of a word or phrase to a predicate; (linguistics) a distribution of related speech sounds or forms in such a way that they only appear in different contexts
  • complete blood count - counting the number of white and red blood cells and the number of platelets in 1 cubic millimeter of blood
  • Compliance - happy friendly agreement; the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another; acting according to certain accepted standards; a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others
  • complicated - difficult to analyze or understand
  • Compound fracture - bone fracture associated with lacerated soft tissue or an open wound
  • Compound microscope - light microscope that has two converging lens systems: the objective and the eyepiece
  • compounding - the act of combining things to form a new whole
  • Compress - a cloth pad or dressing (with or without medication) applied firmly to some part of the body (to relieve discomfort or reduce fever); verb squeeze or press together; make more compact by or as if by pressing
  • compression bandage - bandage that stops the flow of blood from an artery by applying pressure
  • compression fracture - fracture in which the bone collapses (especially in short bones such as vertebrae)
  • compression - applying pressure; encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together; an increase in the density of something
  • computed tomography - a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross sectional scans along a single axis
  • Computer - a machine for performing calculations automatically; an expert at calculation (or at operating calculating machines)
  • computerized axial tomography - a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross sectional scans along a single axis
  • computerized tomography - a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross sectional scans along a single axis
  • computerized - stored, processed, analyzed, or generated by computer
  • Conan Doyle - English author who created Sherlock Holmes (1859 1930)
  • Concatenate - add by linking or joining so as to form a chain or series; arranged into chained list
  • Conceptus - an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life
  • Concordant - being of the same opinion; in keeping
  • Concussion - any violent blow; injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness
  • Conditioning - a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
  • Condom - contraceptive device consisting of a sheath of thin rubber or latex that is worn over the penis during intercourse
  • Conduction aphasia - aphasia in which the lesion is assumed to be in the association tracts connecting the various language centers in the brain; patient's have difficulty repeating a sentence just heard
  • conduction - the transmission of heat or electricity or sound
  • conductive hearing loss - hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear
  • condyle - a round bump on a bone where it forms a joint with another bone
  • condyloma acuminatum - a small benign wart on or around the genitals and anus
  • Confabulation - (psychiatry) a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered; an informal conversation
  • Confidentiality - discretion in keeping secret information; the state of being secret
  • Conformation - a symmetrical arrangement of the parts of a thing; acting according to certain accepted standards; any spatial attributes (especially as defined by outline)
  • Congenital anomaly - a defect that is present at birth
  • Congenital defect - a defect that is present at birth
  • Congenital - present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • congestion - excessive crowding; excessive accumulation of blood or other fluid in a body part
  • congestive heart failure - inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
  • Conjoined twin - one of a pair of identical twins born with their bodies joined at some point
  • conjunctiva - a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
  • Conjunctival - of or relating to the conjunctiva
  • Conjunctivitis - inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
  • connective tissue - tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells; supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments
  • connective - connecting or tending to connect;  an instrumentality that connects; an uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences
  • Consanguineous - related by blood
  • Consanguinity - (anthropology) related by blood
  • Consciousness - an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation; having knowledge of
  • conserved - protected from harm or loss
  • consolidation - the act of combining into an integral whole; combining into a solid mass; something that has consolidated into a compact mass
  • Constipation - irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels; can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis; the act of making something futile and useless (as by routine)
  • constitutive - constitutional in the structure of something (especially your physical makeup)
  • constrictor - any of various large nonvenomous snakes that kill their prey by crushing it in its coils
  • Consultant - an expert who gives advice
  • Contact dermatitis - a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)
  • Contact lens - a thin curved glass or plastic lens designed to fit over the cornea in order to correct vision or to deliver medication
  • contagious - easily diffused or spread as from one person to another; (of disease) capable of being transmitted by infection
  • Contents - a list of divisions (chapters or articles) and the pages on which they start
  • Contraception - birth control by the use of devices (diaphragm or intrauterine device or condom) or drugs or surgery
  • Contraceptive - capable of preventing conception or impregnation;  an agent or device intended to prevent conception
  • Contracture - an abnormal and usually permanent contraction of a muscle
  • Contraindicate - make a treatment inadvisable
  • Contraindication - (medicine) a reason that makes it inadvisable to prescribe a particular drug or employ a particular procedure or treatment
  • contralateral - on or relating to the opposite side (of the body)
  • contrast medium - a substance that is opaque to x rays; when administered it allows a radiologist to examine the organ or tissue it fills
  • controlled - restrained or managed or kept within certain bounds; curbed or regulated
  • contusion - the action of bruising; an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration
  • Convalescence - gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury
  • conversion factor - factor by which a quantity that is expressed in one set of units must be multiplied in order to convert it into another set of units
  • Convulsion - a physical disturbance such as an earthquake or upheaval; a violent disturbance; violent uncontrollable contractions of muscles; a sudden uncontrollable attack
  • Coprolalia - an uncontrollable use of obscene language; often accompanied by mental disorders
  • Coprolith - a hard mass of fecal matter
  • Coprophagia - eating feces; in human a symptom of some kinds of insanity
  • Cor pulmonale - enlargement of the right ventricle of the heart due to disease of the lungs or of the pulmonary blood vessels
  • Cordial - sincerely or intensely felt; showing warm and heartfelt friendliness; diffusing warmth and friendliness;  strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal
  • cornea - transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye; it covers the lens and iris and is continuous with the sclera
  • Corneal transplant - a surgical procedure in which part or all of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by healthy corneal tissue from a donor
  • Corneal - of or related to the cornea
  • Coronal - flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes
  • coronary artery disease - a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • coronary artery - the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
  • Coronary care unit - a hospital unit specially staffed and equipped to treat patients with serious cardiac problems
  • Coronary insufficiency - inadequate blood flow to the heart muscles; can cause angina pectoris
  • Coronary occlusion - occlusion of a coronary artery caused either by progressive atherosclerosis or by a blood clot
  • coronary - surrounding like a crown (especially of the blood vessels surrounding the heart);  obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • Corporeal - having material or physical form or substance; affecting or characteristic of the body as opposed to the mind or spirit
  • Corpse - the dead body of a human being
  • corpus callosum - a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
  • corpus luteum - yellow endocrine tissue that forms in a ruptured Graafian follicle following the release of an ovum
  • corpus - the main part of an organ or other bodily structure; a collection of writings; capital as contrasted with the income derived from it
  • correlated - mutually related
  • cortex - the tissue forming the outer layer of an organ or structure in plant or animal; the layer of unmyelinated neurons (the grey matter) forming the cortex of the cerebrum
  • Cortical - of or relating to a cortex
  • Corticosteroid - a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex or synthesized; administered as drugs they reduce swelling and decrease the body's immune response
  • Corticotropin - a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex
  • cortisol - an adrenal cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • Cortisone - a corticosteroid hormone (trade name Cortone Acetate) normally produced by the adrenal cortex; is converted to hydrocortisone
  • Coryza - an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose (usually associated with nasal discharge)
  • cosmetology - the practice of beautifying the face and hair and skin
  • Costochondritis - inflammation at the junction of a rib and its cartilage
  • Cotton rat - destructive long haired burrowing rat of southern North America and Central America
  • coughing - the act of exhaling air suddenly with a noise; sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages; a common symptom of upper respiratory infection or bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis
  • Coumadin - an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus
  • Counseling - something that provides direction or advice as to a decision or course of action
  • Counselor - someone who gives advice about problems; someone who has supervisory duties at a summer camp; a lawyer who pleads cases in court
  • Courier - a person who carries a message
  • cousin - the child of your aunt or uncle
  • Covariance - (statistics) the mean value of the product of the deviations of two variates from their respective means
  • Cowper's gland - either of two glands that discharge a component of seminal fluid into the urethra; homologous to Bartholin's gland in the female
  • Cowpox - a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • Coxsackie virus - enterovirus causing a disease resembling poliomyelitis but without paralysis
  • Coxsackievirus - enterovirus causing a disease resembling poliomyelitis but without paralysis
  • Crab louse - infests the pubic region of the human body
  • Crabs - infestation of the pubic hair by crab lice
  • cracked - informal or slang terms for mentally irregular; of paint or varnish; having the appearance of alligator hide; used of skin roughened as a result of cold or exposure
  • Cradle cap - a dermatitis of the scalp that is common in infants
  • Cranial nerve - any of the 12 paired nerves that originate in the brain stem
  • cranial - of or relating to the cranium which encloses the brain
  • Craniology - the scientific study of the skulls of various human races
  • Craniotomy - a surgical opening through the skull
  • Cranium - the part of the skull that encloses the brain
  • Crapulence - the act of drinking alcoholic beverages to excess
  • Crapulent - suffering from excessive eating or drinking
  • Craving - an intense desire for some particular thing
  • creatine - an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction
  • Cretinism - severe hypothyroidism resulting in physical and mental stunting
  • Crib death - sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep
  • Cripple - someone who is unable to walk normally because of an injury or disability to the legs or back; verb deprive of the use of a limb, especially a leg; deprive of strength or efficiency; make useless or worthless
  • Crippled - disabled in the feet or legs
  • Crisis - a crucial stage or turning point in the course of something; an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty
  • Critical appraisal - an appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation
  • Crohn's disease - a serious chronic and progressive inflammation of the ileum producing frequent bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain and nausea and fever and weight loss
  • Crohn - United States physician who specialized in diseases of the intestines; he was the first to describe regional ileitis which is now known as Crohn's disease (1884 1983)
  • crossed - placed crosswise; (of a check) marked for deposit only as indicated by having two lines drawn across it; produced by crossbreeding
  • Crossing over - the interchange of sections between pairing homologous chromosomes during the prophase of meiosis
  • Crotch - the angle formed by the inner sides of the legs where they join the human trunk; external sex organ; the region of the angle formed by the junction of two branches
  • Croup - a disease of infants and young children; harsh coughing and hoarseness and fever and difficult breathing; the part of a quadruped that corresponds to the human buttocks
  • cruciate - shaped like a cross
  • crusted - having a hardened crust as a covering
  • Crutch - anything that serves as an expedient; a wooden or metal staff that fits under the armpit and reaches to the ground; used by disabled person while walking
  • Cryonics - the freezing of a seriously ill or recently deceased person to stop tissues from decomposing; the body is preserved until new medical cures are developed that might bring the person back to life
  • Cryophobia - a morbid fear of freezing
  • Cryostat - a thermostat that operates at very low temperatures
  • Cryosurgery - the use of extreme cold (usually liquid nitrogen) to destroy unwanted tissue (warts or cataracts or skin cancers)
  • Crypt - a cellar or vault or underground burial chamber (especially beneath a church)
  • Cryptic coloration - coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape
  • Cryptic - having a puzzling terseness; of an obscure nature; having a secret or hidden meaning
  • Cryptococcosis - a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • Cryptography - act of writing in code or cipher; the science of analyzing and deciphering codes and ciphers and cryptograms
  • Cryptorchidism - failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops
  • crystalline lens - biconvex transparent body situated behind the iris in the eye; it focuses light waves on the retina
  • Cubic centimetre - a metric unit of volume equal to one thousandth of a liter
  • Cubital - of or relating to the elbow
  • Cubitus - the arm from the elbow to the fingertips; hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm and the corresponding joint in the forelimb of a quadruped
  • Cuboid bone - the cube shaped bone on the outer side of the tarsus
  • cuboid - shaped like a cube;  a rectangular parallelepiped
  • Culdoscope - a specialized endoscope for visually examining a woman's pelvic organs
  • Culdoscopy - endoscopic examination of a woman's pelvic organs by the insertion of a culdoscope through the vagina
  • cuneate - of a leaf shape; narrowly triangular, wider at the apex and tapering toward the base
  • cuneiform - of or relating to the tarsal bones (or other wedge shaped bones); shaped like a wedge;  an ancient wedge shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
  • Cunningham - United States dancer and choreographer (born in 1922)
  • cupping - a treatment in which evacuated cups are applied to the skin to draw blood through the surface
  • Curable - curing or healing is possible; capable of being hardened by some additive or other agent
  • Curare - a toxic alkaloid found in certain tropical South American trees that is a powerful relaxant for striated muscles
  • Curettage - surgery to remove tissue or growths from a bodily cavity (as the uterus) by scraping with a curette
  • Curette - a surgical instrument shaped like a scoop to remove tissue from a bodily cavity
  • Curettement - surgery to remove tissue or growths from a bodily cavity (as the uterus) by scraping with a curette
  • curvature - the property possessed by the curving of a line or surface; the rate of change (at a point) of the angle between a curve and a tangent to the curve; (medicine) a curving or bending; often abnormal
  • Cushing's disease - a glandular disorder caused by excessive ACTH resulting in greater than normal functioning of the adrenal gland; characterized by obesity
  • Cushing's syndrome - a glandular disorder caused by excessive cortisol
  • Cushing - United States neurologist noted for his study of the brain and pituitary gland and who identified Cushing's syndrome (1869 1939)
  • cutaneous - relating to or existing on or affecting the skin
  • Cutis - a natural protective body covering and site of the sense of touch
  • Cyanide poisoning - poisoning due to ingesting or inhaling cyanide; common in smoke from fires and in industrial chemicals
  • Cyanide - an extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid; any of a class of organic compounds containing the cyano radical CN
  • Cyanocobalamin - a B vitamin that is used to treat pernicious anemia
  • Cyanosis - a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; a sign that oxygen in the blood is dangerously diminished (as in carbon monoxide poisoning)
  • Cyclic neutropenia - neutropenia that occurs periodically
  • Cyclobenzaprine - muscle relaxant (trade name Flexeril) used for muscle spasms or acute injury
  • cyclooxygenase - either of two related enzymes that control the production of prostaglandins and are blocked by aspirin
  • Cyclopia - a developmental abnormality in which there is only one eye
  • Cyclothymia - a mild bipolar disorder that persists over a long time
  • Cynophobia - a morbid fear of dogs
  • Cyproheptadine - an antihistamine (trade name Periactin) used to treat some allergic reactions
  • Cysteine - an amino acid containing sulfur that is found in most proteins; oxidizes on exposure to air to form cystine
  • Cystic fibrosis - the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • cystic - of or relating to or resembling a cyst; of or relating to a normal cyst (as the gallbladder or urinary bladder)
  • Cystine - a crystalline amino acid found in proteins (especially keratin); discovered in bladder stones
  • Cystitis - inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • Cystocele - hernia in which the urinary bladder protrudes through the wall of the vagina; sometimes occurs after childbirth
  • Cytidine - a nucleoside component of DNA; composed of cytosine and deoxyribose
  • Cytoarchitectonics - the cellular composition of a bodily structure
  • Cytochrome - (biochemistry) a class of hemoprotein whose principle biological function is electron transfer (especially in cellular respiration)
  • cytogenetic - of or relating to cytogenetics
  • Cytogenetics - the branch of biology that studies the cellular aspects of heredity (especially the chromosomes)
  • Cytokine - any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
  • Cytokinesis - organic process consisting of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell following karyokinesis bringing about the separation into two daughter cells
  • Cytology - the branch of biology that studies the structure and function of cells
  • Cytomegalovirus - any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • Cytomegalovirus - any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • Cytopenia - a deficiency of some cellular element of the blood
  • cytoplasm - the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus; is full of proteins that control cell metabolism
  • Cytosine - a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine
  • Cytosine - a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine
  • Cytoskeleton - a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
  • Cytosol - the aqueous part of the cytoplasm within which various particles and organelles are suspended
  • cytotoxic T cell - T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it
  • cytotoxic - of or relating to substances that are toxic to cells
  • Cytotoxicity - the degree to which something is toxic to living cells

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D[edit | edit source]

  • Da Vinci - Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance (1452 1519)
  • Dacryocyst - either of the two dilated ends of the lacrimal ducts at the nasal ends of the eyes that fill with tears secreted by the lacrimal glands
  • Dacryocystitis - inflammation of the lacrimal sac causing obstruction of the tube draining tears into the nose
  • Dactyl - a metrical unit with stressed unstressed unstressed syllables; a finger or toe in human beings or corresponding body part in other vertebrates
  • Daily - occurring or done each day; measured by the day or happening every day;  without missing a day; gradually and progressively;  a newspaper that is published every day
  • Daltonism - dichromacy characterized by a lowered sensitivity to green light resulting in an inability to distinguish green and purplish red
  • Dander - a feeling of anger and animosity; small scales from animal skins or hair or bird feathers that can cause allergic reactions in some people
  • Dandruff - loose scales shed from the scalp; a condition in which white scales of dead skin are shed by the scalp
  • Dandy fever - an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • dandy - very good;  a man who is much concerned with his dress and appearance; a sailing vessel with two masts; a small mizzen is aft of the rudderpost
  • Darier's disease - a rare hereditary condition marked by dark crusted patches (sometimes containing pus)
  • Darwin - provincial capital of the Northern Territory of Australia; English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809 1882)
  • database - an organized body of related information
  • Date rape - rape in which the rapist is known to the victim (as when they are on a date together)
  • Daughter - a female human offspring
  • David Bruce - Australian physician and bacteriologist who described the bacterium that causes undulant fever or brucellosis (1855 1931)
  • de novo - from the beginning
  • Deafness - partial or complete loss of hearing
  • death cap - extremely poisonous usually white fungus with a prominent cup shaped base; differs from edible Agaricus only in its white gills
  • Death rate - the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • Debilitate - make weak
  • Debility - the state of being weak in health or body (especially from old age)
  • Debridement - surgical removal of foreign material and dead tissue from a wound in order to prevent infection and promote healing
  • Decease - the event of dying or departure from life; verb pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life
  • decibel - a logarithmic unit of sound intensity; 10 times the logarithm of the ratio of the sound intensity to some reference intensity
  • decoction - (pharmacology) the extraction by boiling of water soluble drug substances
  • Decompress - restore to its uncompressed form; become less tense, rest, or take one's ease; decrease the pressure of
  • Decompression - relieving pressure; restoring compressed information to its normal form for use or display
  • Decongestant - a drug that decreases pulmonary congestion
  • Decortication - removal of the outer covering of an organ or part
  • Decubitus ulcer - a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
  • Decubitus - a reclining position (as in a bed)
  • Deer mouse - brownish New World mouse; most widely distributed member of the genus
  • defecation - the elimination of fecal waste through the anus
  • Defibrillation - treatment by stopping fibrillation of heart muscles (usually by electric shock delivered by a defibrillator)
  • defibrillator - an electronic device that administers an electric shock of preset voltage to the heart through the chest wall in an attempt to restore the normal rhythm of the heart during ventricular fibrillation
  • Deficiency disease - any disease caused by a lack of an essential nutrient (as a vitamin or mineral)
  • Deficiency - lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • Deformation - alteration in the shape or dimensions of an object as a result of the application of stress to it; the act of twisting or deforming the shape of something (e.g., yourself); a change for the worse
  • Deformity - an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed; an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen
  • Degenerative arthritis - chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • degenerative joint disease - chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • degenerative - (of illness) marked by gradual deterioration of organs and cells along with loss of function
  • Deglutition - the act of swallowing
  • Dehisce - burst or split open
  • Dehydration - the process of extracting moisture; depletion of bodily fluids; dryness resulting from the removal of water
  • Deja vu - the experience of thinking that a new situation had occurred before
  • Delirium tremens - acute delirium caused by alcohol poisoning
  • Delirium - a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations; state of violent mental agitation
  • Delta wave - the normal brainwave in the encephalogram of a person in deep dreamless sleep; occurs with high voltage and low frequency (1 to 4 hertz)
  • Delta - the 4th letter of the Greek alphabet; a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
  • delta - the 4th letter of the Greek alphabet; a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
  • Deltoid - of a leaf shape; suggesting a capital delta, with a point at the apex;  a large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint and serving to abduct and flex and extend and rotate the arm
  • Delusion - the act of deluding; deception by creating illusory ideas; a mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea; (psychology) an erroneous belief that is held in the face of evidence to the contrary
  • delusional - suffering from or characterized by delusions
  • Demarcation - a conceptual separation or distinction; the boundary of a specific area
  • Dementia praecox - any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
  • Dementia - mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • demineralization - the removal of minerals and mineral salts from a liquid (especially from water); abnormal loss of mineral salts (especially from bone)
  • Demulcent - having a softening or soothing effect especially to the skin;  a medication (in the form of an oil or salve etc.) that soothes inflamed or injured skin
  • demyelination - loss of the myelin covering of some nerve fibers resulting in their impaired function
  • Denatured alcohol - ethyl alcohol that is unfit for drinking but is still useful for other purposes
  • dendrite - short fiber that conducts toward the cell body of the neuron
  • Dendritic - (neuroscience) of or relating to or resembling a dendrite
  • Dengue fever - an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Dengue - an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • density - the amount per unit size; the spatial property of being crowded together
  • Dental assistant - an assistant to a dentist
  • Dental hygienist - someone trained to provide preventive dental service (cleaning teeth or taking x rays)
  • Dental implant - an implant that replaces a natural tooth
  • dental - of or relating to the teeth; of or relating to dentistry;  a consonant articulated with the tip of the tongue near the gum ridge
  • dentin - bone (calcified tissue) surrounding the pulp cavity of a tooth; a calcareous material harder and denser than bone that comprises the bulk of a tooth
  • Dentistry - the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth
  • Denture - a dental appliance that artificially replaces missing teeth
  • Deodorant - a toiletry applied to the skin in order to mask unpleasant odors
  • deoxycytidine - a nucleoside component of DNA; composed of cytosine and deoxyribose
  • deoxyribonucleic acid - (biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix; associated with the transmission of genetic information
  • Deoxyribose - a sugar that is a constituent of nucleic acids
  • Department of Energy - the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977
  • Depigmentation - absence or loss of pigmentation (or less than normal pigmentation) in the skin or hair
  • depressive - causing or suggestive of sorrow or gloom;  someone suffering psychological depression
  • derived - formed or developed from something else; not original
  • Dermabrasion - removal of scars or tattoos by anesthetizing the skin surface and then sanding or scraping off some of the outer skin layer
  • Dermal - of or relating to or located in the dermis; relating to or existing on or affecting the skin; of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • Dermatitis - inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • Dermatoglyphic - the lines that form patterns on the skin (especially on the fingertips and the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet)
  • Dermatoglyphics - the study of the whorls and loops and arches in the fingertips and on the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet
  • Dermatologic - of or relating to or practicing dermatology
  • dermatologist - a doctor who specializes in the physiology and pathology of the skin
  • Dermatology - the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases
  • Dermatome - a surgical instrument used to cut very thin slices of skin
  • Dermatomycosis - fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • Dermatophytosis - fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • Dermatosis - disorder involving lesions or eruptions of the skin (in which there is usually no inflammation)
  • dermis - the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
  • Dermoid cyst - a cystic tumor (usually benign) with a wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing other material
  • Descending aorta - the descending part of the aorta that branches into the thoracic and abdominal aortae
  • descending - coming down or downward
  • Desensitization - the process of reducing sensitivity
  • Desiccate - lacking vitality or spirit; lifeless; verb lose water or moisture; remove water from; preserve by removing all water and liquids from
  • Designer drug - a psychoactive drug deliberately synthesized to avoid anti drug laws; mimics the effects of a banned drug; law was revised in 1986 to ban designer drugs
  • Desquamate - peel off in scales
  • Desquamation - loss of bits of outer skin by peeling or shedding or coming off in scales
  • detached - used of buildings; standing apart from others; no longer connected or joined; not fixed in position; being or feeling set or kept apart from others; showing lack of emotional involvement
  • determining - having the power or quality of deciding
  • Deterministic - an inevitable consequence of antecedent sufficient causes
  • Detox - the hospital ward or clinic in which patients are detoxified; verb treat for alcohol or drug dependence
  • Detoxify - remove poison from; treat for alcohol or drug dependence
  • detumescence - diminution of swelling; the subsidence of anything swollen
  • Deuteranopia - dichromacy characterized by a lowered sensitivity to green light resulting in an inability to distinguish green and purplish red
  • Deuterium - an isotope of hydrogen which has one neutron (as opposed to zero neutrons in hydrogen)
  • developmental - of or relating to or constituting development
  • Deviated septum - abnormal displacement of any wall that separates two chambers (usually in the nasal cavity)
  • Dexamethasone - a corticosteroid drug (trade names Decadron or Dexamethasone Intensol or Dexone or Hexadrol or Oradexon) used to treat allergies or inflammation
  • Dextrocardia - abnormal condition where the heart is located toward the right side of the chest
  • Dextrose - an isomer of glucose that is found in honey and sweet fruits
  • Diabetes mellitus - diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • Diabetes - any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • Diabetic coma - coma that can develop in inadequately treated cases of diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic diet - a diet designed to help control the symptoms of diabetes
  • diabetic - suffering from diabetes; of or relating to or causing diabetes;  someone who has diabetes
  • Diachronic - used of the study of a phenomenon (especially language) as it changes through time
  • diagnosis - identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • Diagnostic test - an assay conducted for diagnostic purposes
  • Diakinesis - the final stage of the prophase of meiosis
  • Dialysis machine - a medical instrument for separating substances in solution by unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes
  • Dialysis - separation of substances in solution by means of their unequal diffusion through semipermeable membranes
  • Diaper rash - dermatitis of the thighs and buttocks of infants; supposedly caused by ammonia in the urine in the child's diapers
  • Diaphragmatic hernia - hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
  • Diaphysis - the main (mid) section of a long bone
  • Diarrhea - frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • Diastasis - separation of an epiphysis from the long bone to which it is normally attached without fracture of the bone
  • Diastole - the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
  • Diastolic - of or relating to a diastole or happening during a diastole
  • Diathermy - a method of physical therapy that involves generating local heat in body tissues by high frequency electromagnetic currents
  • Diathesis - constitutional predisposition to a particular disease or abnormality
  • Diazoxide - vasodilator (trade name Hyperstat) used to treat severe hypertension
  • Dichloromethane - a nonflammable liquid used as a solvent and paint remover and refrigerant
  • Dicoumarol - an anticoagulant drug that has now been largely replaced by warfarin
  • Dietetics - the scientific study of food preparation and intake
  • Diethyl ether - a colorless volatile highly inflammable liquid formerly used as an inhalation anesthetic
  • Diethylstilbestrol - a potent estrogen used in medicine and in feed for livestock and poultry
  • Dieting - the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods)
  • Dietitian - a specialist in the study of nutrition
  • Differential diagnosis - a systematic method of diagnosing a disorder (e.g., headache) that lacks unique symptoms or signs
  • Diffuse - spread out; not concentrated in one place; lacking conciseness; (of light) transmitted from a broad light source or reflected; verb move outward; cause to become widely known; spread or diffuse through
  • Diflunisal - nonsteroidal anti inflammatory (trade name Dolobid) used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions
  • Digestive system - the system that makes food absorbable into the body
  • Digestive tract - tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • digit - a finger or toe in human beings or corresponding body part in other vertebrates; one of the elements that collectively form a system of numeration; the length of breadth of a finger used as a linear measure
  • digital photography - a photographic method that stores the image digitally for later reproduction
  • digital - of a circuit or device that represents magnitudes in digits; relating to or performed with the fingers; displaying numbers rather than scale positions
  • digitalis - a powerful cardiac stimulant obtained from foxglove; any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • Dihybrid cross - hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
  • Dihybrid - a hybrid produced by parents that differ only at two gene loci that have two alleles each
  • Dilatation - the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions; the act of expanding an aperture
  • dilate - become wider; add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing
  • dilated - made wider or larger in all dimensions
  • Dilation - the act of expanding an aperture; a lengthy discussion (spoken or written) on a particular topic
  • dilator - a surgical instrument that is used to dilate or distend an opening or an organ; a drug that causes dilation; a muscle or nerve that dilates or widens a body part
  • Diltiazem - a calcium blocker (trade name Cardizem) used in treating hypertension or angina or heart failure
  • dimer - a compound whose molecules are composed of two identical monomers
  • Dioxin - any of several toxic or carcinogenic hydrocarbons that occur as impurities in herbicides
  • Diphenhydramine - antihistamine (trade name Benadryl) used to treat allergic reactions involving the nasal passages (hay fever) and also to treat motion sickness
  • Diphtheria - acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • Diplegia - paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
  • Diploid - of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number;  (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
  • Diplopia - visual impairment in which an object is seen as two objects
  • Dipsomania - an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • direct transmission - a transmission mechanism in which the infectious agent is transferred directly into the body via touching or biting or kissing or sexual intercourse or by droplets entering the eye or nose or mouth
  • Directionality - the property of being directional or maintaining a direction; the property of a microphone or antenna of being more sensitive in one direction than in another
  • Directive - showing the way by conducting or leading; imposing direction on;  a procement encouraging or banning some activity
  • Disability - the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness
  • Disaccharidase - an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of disaccharides into monosaccharides
  • disaster - an act that has disastrous consequences; an event resulting in great loss and misfortune; a state of extreme (usually irremediable) ruin and misfortune
  • discoid lupus erythematosus - a chronic skin disease occurring primarily in women between the ages of 20 and 40; characterized by an eruption of red lesions over the cheeks and bridge of the nose
  • Discoid - having a flat circular shape
  • Discordance - a harsh mixture of sounds; strife resulting from a lack of agreement
  • Discordant - not in agreement or harmony; lacking in harmony
  • disease - an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • Disequilibrium - loss of equilibrium attributable to an unstable situation in which some forces outweigh others
  • Disfigurement - an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen; the act of damaging the appearance or surface of something
  • Disinfectant - preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms;  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • Dislocated - separated at the joint
  • Dissect - cut open or cut apart; make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features
  • Dissection - cutting so as to separate into pieces; detailed critical analysis or examination one part at a time (as of a literary work); a minute and critical analysis
  • Disseminated sclerosis - a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
  • dissemination - the property of being diffused or dispersed; the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate; the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  • dissolving - causing to dissolve;  the process of going into solution
  • Distal - situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone; directed away from the midline or mesial plane of the body
  • Distention - the act of expanding by pressure from within; the state of being stretched beyond normal dimensions
  • Distributive shock - shock caused by poor distribution of the blood flow
  • Disulfiram - a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • Diuresis - increased secretion of urine; if not due to increased liquid intake or to the action of a diuretic drug it can be a symptom of diabetes mellitus
  • Diuretic - any substance that tends to increase the flow of urine
  • Diurnal - having a daily cycle or occurring every day; belonging to or active during the day
  • Diverticulitis - inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon); characterized by painful abdominal cramping and fever and constipation
  • Diverticulosis - presence of multiple diverticula in the walls of the colon
  • Diverticulum - a herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ (especially the colon)
  • Dizygotic twin - either of two twins who developed from two separate fertilized eggs
  • Dizziness - a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • DNA fingerprint - biometric identification obtained by examining a person's unique sequence of DNA base pairs; often used for evidence in criminal law cases
  • Docosahexaenoic acid - an omega 3 fatty acid with 22 carbon atoms; found in fish (especially tuna and bluefish)
  • Doctor of Medicine - a doctor's degree in medicine
  • Dog bite - a bite inflicted by a dog
  • Dolichocephaly - the quality of being dolichocephalic
  • Dolor - (poetry) painful grief
  • Domestic violence - violence or physical abuse directed toward your spouse or domestic partner; usually violence by men against women
  • Dominant allele - an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different
  • Domoic acid - a neurotoxin that is deadly for humans; found in various marine algae
  • Donor - person who makes a gift of property; (medicine) someone who gives blood or tissue or an organ to be used in another person (the host)
  • Dopamine - a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system; as a drug (trade names Dopastat and Intropin) it is used to treat shock and hypotension
  • Doppler - Austrian physicist famous for his discovery of the Doppler effect (1803 1853)
  • dormant - inactive but capable of becoming active; of e.g. volcanos; not erupting and not extinct; in a condition of biological rest or suspended animation
  • Dorothy Hodgkin - English chemist (born in Egypt) who used crystallography to study the structure of organic compounds (1910 1994)
  • dorsal - belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part; facing away from the axis of an organ or organism
  • dose rate - the quantity of radiation absorbed per unit time
  • Dosimetry - measuring the dose of radiation emitted by a radioactive source
  • Double helix - a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis
  • Double pneumonia - lobar pneumonia involving both lungs
  • Douglas - United States politician who proposed that individual territories be allowed to decide whether they would have slavery; he engaged in a famous series of debates with Abraham Lincoln (1813 1861)
  • Dover's powder - a medicinal powder made essentially of ipecac and opium; formerly used to relieve pain and induce perspiration
  • dowager's hump - abnormal spinal curvature that results when osteoporosis causes the spine to collapse; seen most often in elderly women
  • dowager - a widow holding property received from her deceased husband
  • Down syndrome - a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
  • Downstream - in the direction of a stream's current;  away from the source or with the current
  • Doxorubicin - an antibiotic used as an anticancer drug
  • Doxycycline - an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that is effective against many infections
  • DPT vaccine - abbreviation for combination vaccine against diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus toxoids; usually given in a series of injections in early childhood
  • Drawer - a boxlike container in a piece of furniture; made so as to slide in and out; the person who writes a check or draft instructing the drawee to pay someone else; an artist skilled at drawing
  • Dressed to Kill - dressed in fancy or formal clothing
  • dronabinol - psychoactive substance present in marijuana; used therapeutically to control nausea associated with cancer therapy
  • Dropsy - swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • Drosophila - small fruit fly used by Thomas Hunt Morgan in studying basic mechanisms of inheritance
  • Drug abuse - excessive use of drugs
  • Drug withdrawal - the termination of drug taking
  • Dry mouth - abnormal dryness of the mouth resulting from decreased secretion of saliva
  • Dryness - the condition of not containing or being covered by a liquid (especially water); objectivity and detachment; moderation in or abstinence from alcohol or other drugs
  • Ductus arteriosus - a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta; normally closes at birth
  • Due date - the date on which a financial obligation must be repaid
  • Dumdum fever - leishmaniasis of the viscera
  • dumdum - a soft nosed small arms bullet that expands when it hits a target and causes a gaping wound
  • dumping - selling goods abroad at a price below that charged in the domestic market
  • Duodenal ulcer - a peptic ulcer of the duodenum
  • duodenal - in or relating to the duodenum
  • duodenum - the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
  • Duplication - the act of copying or making a duplicate (or duplicates) of something; a copy that corresponds to an original exactly
  • dura mater - the outermost (and toughest) of the 3 meninges
  • durable - existing for a long time; very long lasting; serviceable for a long time
  • Dural - of or relating to the dura mater
  • Dutch - of or relating to the Netherlands or its people or culture;  the West Germanic language of the Netherlands; the people of the Netherlands
  • Dwarf - a person who is markedly small; a legendary creature resembling a tiny old man; lives in the depths of the earth and guards buried treasure; verb check the growth of; make appear small by comparison
  • Dwarfism - a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
  • Dysarthria - impaired articulatory ability resulting from defects in the peripheral motor nerves or in the speech musculature
  • Dyscalculia - impaired ability to learn grade appropriate mathematics
  • Dyscrasia - an abnormal or physiologically unbalanced state of the body
  • Dysentery - an infection of the intestines marked by severe diarrhea
  • Dysfunction - (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part
  • Dysgraphia - impaired ability to learn to write
  • Dyskinesia - abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
  • Dyslexia - impaired ability to learn to read
  • Dysmenorrhea - painful menstruation
  • Dysosmia - a disorder in the sense of smell
  • dyspepsia - a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • Dyspeptic - suffering from dyspepsia; irritable as if suffering from indigestion;  a person suffering from indigestion
  • Dysphagia - condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
  • Dysphasia - an impairment of language (especially speech production) that is usually due to brain damage
  • Dysphonia - speech disorder attributable to a disorder of phonation
  • Dysphoria - abnormal depression and discontent
  • Dysplasia - abnormal development (of organs or cells) or an abnormal structure resulting from such growth
  • dyspnea - difficult or labored respiration
  • Dyspnoea - difficult or labored respiration
  • Dysthymia - mild chronic depression
  • dystrophy - any degenerative disorder resulting from inadequate or faulty nutrition; any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • Dysuria - painful or difficult urination

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E[edit | edit source]

  • ear canal - either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
  • Earache - an ache localized in the middle or inner ear
  • eardrum - the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
  • earwax - a soft yellow wax secreted by glands in the ear canal
  • Eating disorder - a disorder of the normal eating routine
  • Ebola virus - a filovirus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever; carried by animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Eburnation - a change that occurs in degenerative joint disease in which bone is converted into a dense smooth substance resembling ivory
  • Ecchymosis - the escape of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the surrounding tissue to form a purple or black and blue spot on the skin; the purple or black and blue area resulting from a bruise
  • Echinacea - small genus of North American coarse perennial herbs
  • Echinococcosis - infestation with larval echinococci (tapeworms)
  • Echinococcus - tapeworms whose larvae are parasitic in humans and domestic animals
  • Echocardiography - a noninvasive diagnostic procedure that uses ultrasound to study to structure and motions of the heart
  • Echolalia - (psychiatry) mechanical and meaningless repetition of the words of another person (as in schizophrenia); an infant's repetition of sounds uttered by others
  • Echovirus - any of a group of viruses associated with various diseases including viral meningitis and mild respiratory disorders and diarrhea in newborn infants
  • Eclampsia - a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
  • Economics - the branch of social science that deals with the production and distribution and consumption of goods and services and their management
  • Ecstasy - a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion; a state of elated bliss; street names for methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • Ecstatic - feeling great rapture or delight
  • Ectoderm - the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
  • Ectodermal - of or relating to the ectoderm
  • Ectoparasite - any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  • Ectopia - abnormal position of a part or organ (especially at the time of birth)
  • Ectopic pregnancy - pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
  • Ectopic - exhibiting ectopia
  • Ectrodactyly - congenital abnormality involving the absence of some fingers or toes
  • Eczema herpeticum - eczema characterized by a feverish condition and widespread eruption of vesicles; most common in children
  • Eczema vaccinatum - a now rare complication of vaccinia superimposed on atopic dermatitis with high fever and generalized vesicles and papulovesicles
  • eczema - generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
  • edema - swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • Edentulous - having lost teeth
  • Edmund Wilson - United States literary critic (1895 1972)
  • Edward Jenner - English physician who pioneered vaccination; Jenner inoculated people with small amounts of cowpox to prevent them from getting smallpox (1749 1823)
  • Edwards - American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703 1758)
  • Effacement - withdrawing into the background; making yourself inconspicuous; shortening of the uterine cervix and thinning of its walls as it is dilated during labor
  • Effects - property of a personal character that is portable but not used in business
  • Efferent nerve - a nerve that conveys impulses toward or to muscles or glands
  • Efferent - of nerves and nerve impulses; conveying information away from the CNS;  a nerve that conveys impulses toward or to muscles or glands
  • efficacy - capacity or power to produce a desired effect
  • Efficiency - skillfulness in avoiding wasted time and effort; the ratio of the output to the input of any system
  • Effleurage - a rhythmic stroking
  • effusion - flow under pressure; an unrestrained expression of emotion
  • Ehrlich - German bacteriologist who found a `magic bullet' to cure syphilis and was a pioneer in the study of immunology (1854 1915)
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid - an omega 3 fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms; found in fish (especially tuna and bluefish)
  • Eidetic - of visual imagery of almost photographic accuracy
  • Eight - being one more than seven;  the cardinal number that is the sum of seven and one; a group of United States painters founded in 1907 and noted for their realistic depictions of sordid aspects of city life
  • eighth cranial nerve - a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • eighth - coming next after the seventh and just before the ninth in position;  position eight in a countable series of things; one part in eight equal parts
  • Ejaculate - the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract; verb eject semen; utter impulsively
  • ejaculation - an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion; the discharge of semen in males
  • Ejaculatory duct - a part of the seminal duct formed by the duct from the seminal vesicle and the vas deferens; passes through the prostate gland
  • ejection - the act of forcing out someone or something; the act of expelling or projecting or ejecting
  • Elastase - a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin
  • Elastase - a pancreatic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of elastin
  • Elastic bandage - a bandage containing stretchable material that can apply local pressure
  • elastin - a fibrous scleroprotein found in elastic tissues such as the walls of arteries
  • Elavil - a tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Elavil) with serious side effects; interacts with many other medications
  • Elbow joint - hinge joint between the forearm and upper arm and the corresponding joint in the forelimb of a quadruped
  • Elective - subject to popular election; not compulsory;  a course that the student can select from among alternatives
  • electrocardiogram - a graphical recording of the cardiac cycle produced by an electrocardiograph
  • Electroconvulsive therapy - the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • Electrocution - killing by electric shock; execution by electricity
  • electroencephalogram - a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain; produced by an electroencephalograph
  • Electrolyte - a solution that conducts electricity
  • Electromyogram - a graphical record of electric currents associated with muscle contractions
  • Electromyography - diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders with the use of an electromyograph
  • electron beam - a group of nearly parallel lines of electromagnetic radiation
  • Electron microscope - a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
  • Electron microscopy - microscopy with the use of electron microscopes
  • electron - an elementary particle with negative charge
  • Electrophoresis - the motion of charged particles in a colloid under the influence of an electric field; particles with a positive charge go to the cathode and negative to the anode
  • Electrophoretic - of or relating to electrophoresis
  • Electroretinogram - a graphical recording of the electrical activity of the retina that results when light is flashed into the eye
  • Electroshock therapy - the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • electroshock - the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • Electrosurgery - surgery performed with electrical devices (as in electrocautery)
  • Electrotherapy - the therapeutic application of electricity to the body (as in the treatment of various forms of paralysis)
  • Elephantiasis - hypertrophy of certain body parts (usually legs and scrotum); the end state of the disease filariasis
  • elevated - raised above the ground; raised above ground level; on elevated rails;  a railway that is powered by electricity and that runs on a track that is raised above the street level
  • Eleventh cranial nerve - arises from two sets of roots (cranial and spinal) that unite to form the nerve
  • eleventh - coming next after the tenth and just before the twelfth in position;  position 11 in a countable series of things
  • ELISA - an assay that relies on an enzymatic conversion reaction and is used to detect the presence of specific substances (such as enzymes or viruses or antibodies or bacteria)
  • Ellison - United States novelist who wrote about a young Black man and his struggles in American society (1914 1994)
  • Emaciation - extreme leanness (usually caused by starvation or disease)
  • Embolectomy - surgical removal of an embolus (usually from an artery)
  • Embolism - occlusion of a blood vessel by an embolus (a loose clot or air bubble or other particle); an insertion into a calendar
  • embolus - an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood
  • Embryology - the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms
  • Embryonal carcinoma - malignant neoplasm of the testis
  • embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma - form of rhabdomyosarcoma occurring mainly in infants and children
  • embryonic - in an early stage of development; of an organism prior to birth or hatching
  • Emergency medicine - the branch of medicine concerned with the prompt diagnosis and treatment of injuries or trauma or sudden illness
  • Emergency - a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action; a state in which martial law applies; a brake operated by hand; usually operates by mechanical linkage
  • Emesis - the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • emetic - a medicine that induces nausea and vomiting
  • emmenagogue - any agent that promotes menstrual discharge
  • Emmetropia - (ophthalmology) the normal refractive condition of the eye in which there is clear focus of light on the retina
  • emotional - of more than usual emotion; determined or actuated by emotion rather than reason; of or pertaining to emotion; (of persons) excessively affected by emotion; extravagantly demonstrative
  • Emphysema - an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • empirical - derived from experiment and observation rather than theory; relying on medical quackery
  • Empyema - a collection of pus in a body cavity (especially in the lung cavity)
  • Enalapril - an ACE inhibitor (trade name Vasotec) that blocks the formation of angiotensin in the kidney and so results in vasodilation; administered after heart attacks
  • Enanthem - eruption on a mucous membrane (as the inside of the mouth) occurring as a symptom of a disease
  • Enate - related on the mother's side;  one related on the mother's side
  • Encephalitis - inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • Encephalocele - protrusion of brain tissue through a congenital fissure in the skull
  • Encephalomyelitis - inflammation of the brain and spinal cord
  • Encephalopathy - any disorder or disease of the brain
  • Enchondroma - benign slow growing tumor of cartilaginous cells at the ends of tubular bones (especially in the hands and feet)
  • encoding - the activity of converting from plain text into code
  • Encopresis - involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
  • Endarterectomy - surgical removal of the inner lining of an artery that is clogged with atherosclerosis
  • Endemic typhus - acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
  • Endocarditis - inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • endocardium - the membrane that lines the cavities of the heart and forms part of the heart valves
  • Endocrine gland - any of the glands of the endocrine system that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
  • endocrinologist - physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the endocrine system
  • Endocrinology - the branch of medicine dealing with the endocrine glands and their secretions
  • Endoderm - the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
  • endogenous - derived or originating internally; of or resembling an endogen
  • Endometrial cancer - cancer of the uterine lining
  • endometrial - of or relating to the endometrium
  • Endometriosis - the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • Endometritis - inflammation of the lining of the uterus (of the endometrium)
  • Endonuclease - a nuclease that cleaves nucleic acids at interior bonds and so produces fragments of various sizes
  • Endorphin - a neurochemical occurring naturally in the brain and having analgesic properties
  • Endoscope - a long slender medical instrument for examining the interior of a bodily organ or performing minor surgery
  • endoscopic - of or relating to endoscopy
  • Endoscopy - visual examination of the interior of a hollow body organ by use of an endoscope
  • Endosperm - nutritive tissue surrounding the embryo within seeds of flowering plants
  • Endosteum - vascular membrane that lines the inner surface of long bones
  • Endothelial - of or relating to or located in the endothelium
  • Endothelium - an epithelium of mesoblastic origin; a thin layer of flattened cells that lines the inside of some body cavities
  • endotoxin - a toxin that is confined inside the microorganisms and is released only when the microorganisms are broken down or die
  • endpoint - a place where something ends or is complete
  • Enema - injection of a liquid through the anus to stimulate evacuation; sometimes used for diagnostic purposes
  • Enervate - weaken mentally or morally; disturb the composure of
  • Enervation - lack of vitality; serious weakening and loss of energy
  • Enfeeble - make weak
  • engineer - a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems; the operator of a railway locomotive; verb design as an engineer; plan and direct (a complex undertaking)
  • Engram - a postulated biochemical change (presumably in neural tissue) that represents a memory
  • Enhanced - increased or intensified in value or beauty or quality
  • enhancement - an improvement that makes something more agreeable
  • Enhancer - anything that serves by contrast to call attention to another thing's good qualities
  • enkephalin - an endorphin having opiate qualities that occurs in the brain and spinal cord and elsewhere
  • Enlarged heart - an abnormal enlargement of the heart
  • Enteral - of or relating to or inside the intestines; of or relating to the enteron
  • enteric - of or relating to the enteron; of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • Enteritis - inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Enterobiasis - an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis; occurs especially in children
  • Enterolith - a calculus occurring in the intestines
  • Enteropathy - a disease of the intestinal tract
  • Enterostomy - surgical operation that creates a permanent opening through the abdominal wall into the intestine
  • Enterotomy - surgical operation that creates a permanent opening through the abdominal wall into the intestine
  • Enterotoxemia - a disease of cattle and sheep that is attributed to toxins absorbed from the intestines
  • Enterovirus - any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • Entomology - the branch of zoology that studies insects
  • Entomophobia - a morbid fear of insects
  • entrepreneur - someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
  • Enucleation - surgical removal of something without cutting into it
  • Enuresis - inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
  • Environment - the area in which something exists or lives; the totality of surrounding conditions
  • Environmental Protection Agency - an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
  • environmental - concerned with the ecological effects of altering the environment; of or relating to the external conditions or surroundings
  • Enzootic - of a disease that is constantly present in an animal community but only occurs in a small number of cases
  • Enzyme - any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions
  • Eosinopenia - a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood
  • eosinophil - a leukocyte readily stained with eosin
  • Eosinophilia - a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • eosinophilic - of or relating to eosinophil
  • Ephedra - jointed and nearly leafless desert shrub having reduced scalelike leaves and reddish fleshy seeds
  • Ephedrine - white odorless powdered or crystalline alkaloid from plants of the genus Ephedra (especially Ephedra sinica) or made synthetically; used as a bronchodilator to treat bronchitis and asthma
  • epicardium - the innermost of the two layers of the pericardium
  • epicondylitis - painful inflammation of the muscles and soft tissues around an epicondyle
  • Epidemic myalgia - an acute infectious disease occurring in epidemic form and featuring paroxysms of pain (usually in the chest)
  • epidemiologist - a medical scientist who studies the transmission and control of epidemic diseases
  • Epidemiology - the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • Epidermal - of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • epidermis - the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
  • Epididymis - a convoluted tubule in each testis; carries sperm to vas deferens
  • Epididymitis - painful inflammation of the epididymis
  • epigastric - lying on or over the stomach; of or relating to the anterior walls of the abdomen
  • Epigastrium - the region lying on or over the stomach (just below the sternum)
  • epiglottis - a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
  • Epiglottitis - inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • Epikeratophakia - using a piece of donated corneal tissue to repair the eye of someone who has had a cataract removed
  • Epilation - loss of hair; the result of removing hair; the act of removing hair (as from an animal skin)
  • Epilepsy - a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • Epileptic seizure - convulsions accompanied by impaired consciousness
  • Epinephrine - a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • Epiphenomenon - a secondary phenomenon that is a by product of another phenomenon
  • Epiphora - repetition of the ends of two or more successive sentences, verses, etc.
  • epiphyseal - relating to the epiphysis of a bone
  • Episcleritis - inflammation of the sclera of the eye
  • Episiotomy - surgical incision of the perineum to enlarge the vagina and so facilitate delivery during childbirth
  • Episodic memory - memory for episodes in your own life
  • Epispadias - a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  • Epistasis - the suppression of a gene by the effect of an unrelated gene
  • Epistaxis - bleeding from the nose
  • Epistemic - of or relating to epistemology
  • Epithelial - of or belonging to the epithelium
  • Epithelioma - a malignant tumor of the epithelial tissue
  • epithelium - membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body
  • epitope - the site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which an antibody attaches itself
  • Epizootic - (of animals) epidemic among animals of a single kind within a particular region
  • Eponym - the name derived from a person (real or imaginary); the person for whom something is named
  • Epstein - British sculptor (born in the United States) noted for busts and large controversial works (1880 1959)
  • Erb's palsy - paralysis of the arm resulting from injury to the brachial plexus (usually during childbirth)
  • erectile dysfunction - impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
  • erectile - filled with vascular sinuses and capable of becoming distended and rigid as the result of being filled with blood; capable of being raised to an upright position
  • Erection - a structure that has been erected; an erect penis; the act of building or putting up
  • Erethism - an abnormally high degree of irritability or sensitivity to stimulation of an organ or body part
  • Ergocalciferol - a fat soluble vitamin that prevents rickets
  • ergonomics - the branch of engineering science in which biological science is used to study the relation between workers and their environments
  • Ergosterol - a plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation
  • Erlenmeyer - German chemist (1825 1909)
  • eructation - a reflex that expels wind noisily from the stomach through the mouth; (of volcanos) pouring out fumes of lava (or a deposit so formed)
  • eruptive - actively spewing out lava; "a geyser is an intermittently eruptive hot spring"; producing or characterized by eruptions; produced by the action of fire or intense heat
  • Erysipelas - an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • erythema multiforme - a red rash caused by hypersensitivity to a drug or disease or other allergen
  • Erythema nodosum - skin condition characterized by tender red nodules on the shins and legs
  • Erythema - abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate - the rate at which red blood cells settle out in a tube of blood under standardized conditions; a high rate usually indicates the presence of inflammation
  • erythrocyte - a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleus
  • Erythroderma - any skin disorder involving abnormal redness
  • Erythropoiesis - the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrow
  • Erythropoietin - a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • Erythropoietin - a glycoprotein secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of red blood cells
  • Eschar - a dry scab formed on the skin following a burn or cauterization of the skin
  • Escherichia coli - a species of bacterium normally present in intestinal tract of humans and other animals; sometimes pathogenic; can be a threat to food safety
  • Esophageal reflux - reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus
  • esophageal - relating to the esophagus
  • Esophagitis - inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • esophagus - the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • Esotropia - strabismus in which one or both eyes turn inward toward the nose
  • essential hypertension - persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found
  • Essential oil - an oil having the odor or flavor of the plant from which it comes; used in perfume and flavorings
  • Essential tremor - tremor of unknown cause (usually of the hands and head) that develops in older people; often mistaken for Parkinsonism but is not life threatening and can usually be kept under control
  • Essex - a county in southeastern England on the North Sea and the Thames estuary
  • esthetician - a philosopher who specializes in the nature of beauty; a worker skilled in giving beauty treatments (manicures and facials etc.)
  • Estradiol - the most powerful female hormone that occurs naturally; synthesized and used to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
  • Estriol - a naturally occurring estrogenic hormone; a synthetic form is used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • Estrogen - a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • estrogenic - relating to or caused by estrogen
  • Estrone - a naturally occurring weak estrogenic hormone secreted by the mammalian ovary; synthesized (trade name Estronol) and used to treat estrogen deficiency
  • Etanercept - a genetically engineered anti TNF compound (trade name Enbrel) consisting of receptors that bind TNF; it is injected twice a week in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ethics committee - a committee appointed to consider ethical issues
  • Ethics - the philosophical study of moral values and rules; motivation based on ideas of right and wrong
  • Ethmoid bone - one of the eight bones of the cranium; a small bone filled with air spaces that forms part of the eye sockets and the nasal cavity
  • Ethmoid sinus - a sinus of the meatuses of the nasal cavity (behind the bridge of the nose)
  • ethmoid - one of the eight bones of the cranium; a small bone filled with air spaces that forms part of the eye sockets and the nasal cavity
  • Ethnography - the branch of anthropology that provides scientific description of individual human societies
  • Ethosuximide - an anticonvulsant drug (trade names Emeside and Zarontin) used to treat petit mal epilepsy
  • ethylene glycol - a sweet but poisonous syrupy liquid used as an antifreeze and solvent
  • Etiology - the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • Etodolac - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Lodine)
  • Etymology - the study of the sources and development of words; a history of a word
  • Eugenics - the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
  • Eukaryote - an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria; i.e. an organism with `good' or membrane bound nuclei in its cells
  • Eukaryotic - having cells with `good' or membrane bound nuclei
  • Euphorbiaceae - a family of plants of order Geraniales
  • Euphoria - a feeling of great (usually exaggerated) elation
  • European - of or relating to or characteristic of Europe or the people of Europe;  a native or inhabitant of Europe
  • eustachian tube - either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum
  • Euthanasia - the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness)
  • Evaluation - act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of; an appraisal of the value of something
  • Evanescent - tending to vanish like vapor
  • Evert - United States tennis player who won women's singles titles in the United States and at Wimbledon (born in 1954); verb turn inside out; turn the inner surface of outward
  • Evocative - serving to bring to mind
  • Evoked potential - the electrical response of the central nervous system produced by an external stimulus
  • Ewing's sarcoma - malignant tumor in bone marrow (usually in the pelvis or in long bones)
  • Exacerbate - exasperate or irritate; make worse
  • Exacerbation - violent and bitter exasperation; action that makes a problem or a disease (or its symptoms) worse
  • Exanthem - eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease
  • Excavation - the act of digging; a hole in the ground made by excavating; the act of extracting ores or coal etc from the earth; the site of an archeological exploration
  • Excise - a tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate); verb remove by cutting; levy an excise tax on; remove by erasing or crossing out or as if by drawing a line
  • exclamation point - a punctuation mark (!) used after an exclamation
  • Excoriate - express strong disapproval of; tear or wear off the skin or make sore by abrading
  • Excrescence - (pathology) an abnormal outgrowth or enlargement of some part of the body; something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings
  • Excretion - the bodily process of discharging waste matter; waste matter (as urine or sweat but especially feces) discharged from the body
  • Exfoliate - grow by producing or unfolding leaves; come off in a very thin piece; remove the surface, in scales or laminae; cast off in scales, laminae, or splinters; spread by opening the leaves of
  • Exfoliation - the peeling off in flakes or scales of bark or dead skin; a thin flake of dead epidermis shed from the surface of the skin
  • Exhalation - the act of expelling air from the lungs; exhaled breath
  • Exhaustion - the act of exhausting something entirely; extreme fatigue; serious weakening and loss of energy
  • Exhibitionism - the perverse act of exposing and attracting attention to your own genitals; extravagant and conspicuous behavior intended to attract attention to yourself
  • Exocrine gland - a gland that secretes externally through a duct
  • Exocrine - of or relating to exocrine glands or their secretions;  a gland that secretes externally through a duct
  • exogenous - derived or originating externally
  • Exonuclease - a nuclease that releases one nucleotide at a time (serially) beginning at one of a nucleic acid
  • Exophthalmos - protrusion of the eyeball from the socket
  • Exostosis - a benign outgrowth from a bone (usually covered with cartilage)
  • exotoxin - a toxin that is secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding medium
  • Exotropia - strabismus in which one or both eyes are directed outward
  • Expectorant - a medicine promoting expectoration
  • Expectoration - the process of coughing up and spitting out; the act of spitting (forcefully expelling saliva)
  • expiration - the act of expelling air from the lungs; euphemistic expressions for death; a coming to an end of a contract period
  • explicit - precisely and clearly expressed or readily observable; leaving nothing to implication; in accordance with fact or the primary meaning of a term
  • Exposure therapy - a form of behavior therapy in which a survivor confronts feelings or phobias or anxieties about a traumatic event and relives it in the therapy situation
  • Expulsion - the act of expelling or projecting or ejecting; the act of forcing out someone or something; squeezing out by applying pressure
  • Extended family - a family consisting of the nuclear family and their blood relatives
  • extensor - a skeletal muscle whose contraction extends or stretches a body part
  • External carotid artery - the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the face and tongue and external parts of the head
  • External ear - the part of the ear visible externally
  • External iliac artery - the outer branch of the common iliac artery on either side of the body; becomes the femoral artery
  • External iliac vein - a continuation of the femoral vein; unites with the internal iliac vein to form the common iliac vein
  • External jugular vein - formed by the junction of the posterior auricular and the retromandibular veins; empties into the subclavian vein
  • External - happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface; purely outward or superficial; from or between other countries; coming from the outside;  outward features
  • Extracellular - located or occurring outside a cell or cells
  • extradural - on or outside the dura mater
  • Extrasystole - a premature systole resulting in a momentary cardiac arrhythmia
  • Extrauterine pregnancy - pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
  • Extravasate - geology: cause molten material, such as lava, to pour forth; force out or cause to escape from a proper vessel or channel; become active and spew forth lava and rocks
  • Extrinsic - not forming an essential part of a thing or arising or originating from the outside
  • Exudate - a substance that oozes out from plant pores; verb release (a liquid) in drops or small quantities
  • Eye bank - a place for storing and preserving corneas that are obtained from human corpses immediately after death; used for corneal transplantation to patients with corneal defects
  • Eye chart - a chart that is read from a fixed distance; used as a test of vision
  • Eye drop - a drop from an eye dropper
  • Eye movement - the movement of the eyes
  • eyedrop - a drop from an eye dropper
  • Eyelash - any of the short curved hairs that grow from the edges of the eyelids
  • Eyelid - either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye
  • Eyepatch - a protective cloth covering for an injured eye
  • Eyetooth - one of the four pointed conical teeth (two in each jaw) located between the incisors and the premolars

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F[edit | edit source]

  • Facial muscle - any of the skeletal muscles of the face
  • Facial nerve - cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • Factor IX - coagulation factor whose absence is associated with hemophilia B
  • Factor V - a coagulation factor
  • Factor VIII - a coagulation factor (trade name Hemofil) whose absence is associated with hemophilia A
  • Factor X - coagulation factor that is converted to an enzyme that converts prothrombin to thrombin in a reaction that depends on calcium ions and other coagulation factors
  • Factor XI - coagulation factor whose deficiency results in a hemorrhagic tendency
  • Factorial - of or relating to factorials;  the product of all the integers up to and including a given integer
  • Facultative - not compulsory; granting a privilege or permission or power to do or not do something; able to exist under more than one set of conditions; of or relating to the mental faculties
  • Fad diet - a reducing diet that enjoys temporary popularity
  • Fahrenheit - German physicist who invented the mercury thermometer and developed the scale of temperature that bears his name (1686 1736)
  • Fairbanks - United States film actor noted for his swashbuckling roles (1883 1939); United States film actor; son of Douglas Elton Fairbanks, (1909 2000)
  • Faith healing - care provided through prayer and faith in God
  • Falling out - a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions)
  • Falling - becoming lower or less in degree or value; decreasing in amount or degree; coming down freely under the influence of gravity
  • Fallopian tube - either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
  • False labor - painless contractions of the muscles of the uterus that continue throughout pregnancy with increasing frequency
  • False pregnancy - physiological state in which a woman exhibits symptoms of pregnancy but is not pregnant
  • False vocal cord - either of the upper two vocal cords that are not involved in vocalization
  • False vocal fold - either of the upper two vocal cords that are not involved in vocalization
  • familial hypercholesterolemia - congenital disorder characterized by high levels of cholesterol and early development of atherosclerosis
  • Familial - tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; relating to or having the characteristics of a family
  • Family history - part of a patient's medical history in which questions are asked in an attempt to find out whether the patient has hereditary tendencies toward particular diseases
  • Family medicine - medical practice that provides health care regardless of age or sex while placing emphasis on the family unit
  • Family planning - limiting the number of children born
  • Family Practice - medical practice that provides health care regardless of age or sex while placing emphasis on the family unit
  • Family therapy - any of several therapeutic approaches in which a family is treated as a whole
  • Famine - a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death; an acute insufficiency
  • Famotidine - a histamine blocker (trade name Pepcid) used to treat peptic ulcers and gastritis and esophageal reflux
  • Farmer's lung - alveolitis caused by an allergic reaction to fungal spores in the dust that is inhaled from moldy hay
  • Farsightedness - seeing ahead; knowing in advance; foreseeing; abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
  • Fascia - a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc
  • Fasciculation - muscular twitching of contiguous groups of muscle fibers
  • Fasciola hepatica - flatworm parasitic in liver and bile ducts of domestic animals and humans
  • Fascioliasis - infestation with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica; liver damage sometimes occurs; related to liver rot
  • Fasciolopsiasis - infestation with the large intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski; common in eastern Asia
  • Fasciolopsis buski - fluke that is parasitic on humans and swine; common in eastern Asia
  • Fasciolopsis - a genus of Fasciolidae
  • Fast food - inexpensive food (hamburgers or chicken or milkshakes) prepared and served quickly
  • Fasting - abstaining from food
  • Fat cell - cells composed of fat
  • Fat embolism - serious condition in which fat blocks an artery; fat can enter the blood stream after a long bone is fractured or if adipose tissue is injured or as a result of a fatty liver
  • fatty - containing or composed of fat;  a rotund individual
  • Fauces - the passage between the back of the mouth and the pharynx
  • Fava bean - shell beans cooked as lima beans; seed of the broad bean plant
  • Favism - anemia resulting from eating fava beans; victims have an inherited blood abnormality and enzyme deficiency
  • febrile - of or relating to or characterized by fever
  • Fecal impaction - accumulation of hardened feces in the rectum or lower colon which the person cannot move
  • Fecal - foul with waste matter; of or relating to feces
  • Fecalith - a hard mass of fecal matter
  • Feces - solid excretory product evacuated from the bowels
  • Fecund - capable of producing offspring or vegetation; intellectually productive
  • Fecundity - the intellectual productivity of a creative imagination; the quality of something that causes or assists healthy growth; the state of being fertile; capable of producing offspring
  • Feedback - response to an inquiry or experiment; the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output
  • Feeding - the act of supplying food and nourishment; the act of consuming food
  • Fellowship - money granted (by a university or foundation or other agency) for advanced study or research; an association of people who share common beliefs or activities; the state of being with someone
  • Fellowship - money granted (by a university or foundation or other agency) for advanced study or research; an association of people who share common beliefs or activities; the state of being with someone
  • Female genitalia - external female sex organs
  • Female reproductive system - the reproductive system of females
  • Feminization - the process of becoming feminized; the development of female characteristics (loss of facial hair or breast enlargement) in a male because of hormonal disorders or castration
  • Femoral artery - the chief artery of the thigh; a continuation of the external iliac artery
  • Femoral nerve - one of a pair of nerves that originate from lumbar nerves and supply the muscles and skin of the anterior part of the thigh
  • Femoral vein - a vein that accompanies the femoral artery in the same sheath; a continuation of the popliteal vein; becomes the external iliac vein
  • Femoral - of or relating to or near the femur or thigh
  • femoris - the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton; extends from the pelvis to the knee
  • femur - the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton; extends from the pelvis to the knee
  • Fenestration - surgical procedure that creates a new fenestra to the cochlea in order to restore hearing lost because of osteosclerosis; the arrangement of windows in a building
  • Fenoprofen - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Nalfon) used in the treatment of arthritis and other painful inflammatory disorders
  • Ferritin - a protein containing 20% iron that is found in the intestines and liver and spleen; it is one of the chief forms in which iron is stored in the body
  • Fertile - capable of reproducing; marked by great fruitfulness; bearing in abundance especially offspring; intellectually productive
  • Fertilization - making fertile as by applying fertilizer or manure; creation by the physical union of male and female gametes; of sperm and ova in an animal or pollen and ovule in a plant
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome - a medical condition in which body deformation or facial development or mental ability of a fetus is impaired because the mother drank alcohol while pregnant
  • Fetal circulation - the system of blood vessels and structures through which blood moves in a fetus
  • Fetal distress - an abnormal condition of a fetus; usually discovered during pregnancy and characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm
  • Fetal movement - motion of a fetus within the uterus (usually detected by the 16th week of pregnancy)
  • fetal - of or relating to a fetus
  • Fetishism - sexual arousal or gratification resulting from handling a fetish (or a specific part of the body other than the sexual organs); a belief in the magical power of fetishes (or the worship of a fetish)
  • fetoprotein - any of several antigens that occur naturally in the fetus and sometimes in adults with cancer
  • fetoprotein - any of several antigens that occur naturally in the fetus and sometimes in adults with cancer
  • Fetoscope - a stethoscope placed on the pregnant woman's abdomen to listen for the fetal heartbeat
  • Fetoscopy - prenatal diagnosis that allows direct observation of a fetus in the uterus and the withdrawal of fetal blood
  • Fetus - an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • Fever blister - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1)
  • Fever - intense nervous anticipation; a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • Feverfew - bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses; sometimes placed in genus Chrysanthemum
  • Fiberscope - a flexible medical instrument involving fiber optics that is used to examine internal organs
  • Fibril - a very slender natural or synthetic fiber
  • Fibrillation - act or process of forming fibrils; muscular twitching involving individual muscle fibers acting without coordination
  • fibrin - a white insoluble fibrous protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen when blood clots; it forms a network that traps red cells and platelets
  • Fibrinogen - a protein present in blood plasma; converts to fibrin when blood clots
  • Fibrinolysis - a normal ongoing process that dissolves fibrin and results in the removal of small blood clots
  • Fibroadenoma - benign and movable and firm and not tender tumor of the breast; common in young women and caused by high levels of estrogen
  • fibroblast - a cell from which connective tissue develops
  • Fibrocartilage - cartilage that is largely composed of fibers like those in ordinary connective tissue
  • fibroid - benign tumor containing fibrous tissue (especially in the uterus)
  • fibroma - nonmalignant tumor of connective tissue
  • Fibrosis - development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • Fibrositis - inflammation of white fibrous tissues (especially muscle sheaths)
  • Fibrous joint - an immovable joint (especially between the bones of the skull)
  • Fibrous - (of meat) full of sinews; especially impossible to chew; having or resembling fibers especially fibers used in making cordage such as those of jute
  • fibula - the outer and thinner of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and ankle
  • Field hospital - a temporary military hospital near the battle lines
  • Field of view - the area that is visible (as through an optical instrument)
  • fifth cranial nerve - the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
  • figurative - (used of the meanings of words or text) not literal; using figures of speech; consisting of or forming human or animal figures
  • Filariasis - a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • Filial - relating to or characteristic of or befitting an offspring; designating the generation or the sequence of generations following the parental generation
  • Filoviridae - a family of threadlike RNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees)
  • Filovirus - animal viruses belonging to the family Filoviridae
  • Final Exam - an examination administered at the end of an academic term
  • Fingernail - the nail at the end of a finger
  • Fingerprinting - the procedure of taking inked impressions of a person's fingerprints for the purpose of identification
  • First aid - emergency care given before regular medical aid can be obtained
  • First cranial nerve - a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
  • first degree - a degree of one
  • fish bowl - a transparent bowl in which small fish are kept; a state of affairs in which you have no privacy
  • Fish oil - a fatty oil obtained from the livers of various fish
  • Fissure - (anatomy) a long narrow slit or groove that divides an organ into lobes; a long narrow opening; a long narrow depression in a surface; verb break into fissures or fine cracks
  • Fistula - an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface; a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • Fitness - the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • Fixative - a varnish dissolved in alcohol and sprayed over pictures to prevent smudging; a compound (such as ethanol or formaldehyde) that fixes tissues and cells for microscopic study
  • Flaccid paralysis - weakness or loss of muscle tone resulting from injury or disease of the nerves innervating the muscles
  • flaccid - drooping without elasticity; wanting in stiffness; lacking in strength or firmness or resilience; out of condition; not strong or robust; incapable of exertion or endurance
  • Flagging - weak from exhaustion;  a walk of flagstones; flagstones collectively
  • Flashing - emitting light in sudden short or intermittent bursts;  sheet metal shaped and attached to a roof for strength and weatherproofing; a short vivid experience
  • flask - bottle that has a narrow neck; the quantity a flask will hold
  • Flat bone - part of the sirloin next to the wedge bone
  • Flatfoot - a foot afflicted with a fallen arch; abnormally flattened and spread out; a policeman who patrols a given region
  • Flatulence - a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal; pompously embellished language
  • Flatulent - generating excessive gas in the alimentary canal; suffering from excessive gas in the alimentary canal
  • flatus - a reflex that expels intestinal gas through the anus
  • Flaviviridae - a family of arboviruses carried by arthropods
  • Flavivirus - animal viruses belonging to the family Flaviviridae
  • Flecainide - oral antiarrhythmic medication (trade name Tambocor) used as a last resort in treating arrhythmias; increases the risk of sudden death in heart attack patients
  • Fletcher - prolific English dramatist who collaborated with Francis Beaumont and many other dramatists (1579 1625)
  • flexibility - the quality of being adaptable or variable; the property of being flexible; easily bent or shaped; the trait of being easily persuaded
  • flexible - bending and snapping back readily without breaking; able to flex; able to bend easily; capable of being changed; making or willing to make concessions; able to adjust readily to different conditions
  • Flexion - act of bending a joint; especially a joint between the bones of a limb so that the angle between them is decreased; deviation from a straight or normal course; the state of being flexed (as of a joint)
  • Flight surgeon - a medical officer specializing in aviation medicine
  • Flora - a living organism lacking the power of locomotion; all the plant life in a particular region or period
  • floxuridine - antineoplastic drug used to treat some cancers; can cause loss of hair
  • fluctuating - having unpredictable ups and downs
  • fluorescent - emitting light during exposure to radiation from an external source; brilliantly colored and apparently giving off light;  a lighting fixture that uses a fluorescent lamp
  • Fluoridation - the addition of a fluoride to the water supply (to prevent dental decay)
  • Fluoride - a salt of hydrofluoric acid
  • fluoroscope - an X ray machine that combines an X ray source and a fluorescent screen to enable direct observation
  • Fluoroscopy - examination of body structures using a fluoroscope
  • fluorosis - a pathological condition resulting for an excessive intake of fluorine (usually from drinking water)
  • Fluorouracil - an antimetabolite used to treat certain cancers
  • Fluoxetine - a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant (trade name Prozac)
  • Fluphenazine - tranquilizer used to treat psychotic disorders
  • Flurazepam - tranquilizer (trade name Dalmane) used to treat insomnia
  • Flurbiprofen - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Ansaid) that is administered only orally
  • Focal seizure - transitory disturbance in motor or sensory function resulting from abnormal cortical activity
  • Focal - having or localized centrally at a focus; of or relating to a focus
  • folate - a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • folic acid - a B vitamin that is essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • follicle - any small spherical group of cells containing a cavity
  • follicular - of or relating to or constituting a follicle
  • Folliculitis - inflammation of a hair follicle
  • Fomentation - deliberate and intentional triggering (of trouble or discord); application of warm wet coverings to a part of the body to relieve pain and inflammation
  • Fontanel - any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus
  • Fontanelle - any membranous gap between the bones of the cranium in an infant or fetus
  • Food additive - an additive to food intended to improve its flavor or appearance or shelf life
  • Food allergy - allergic reaction to a substance ingested in food
  • Food and Drug Administration - a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health related products
  • Food poisoning - illness caused by poisonous or contaminated food
  • Food pyramid - (ecology) a hierarchy of food chains with the principal predator at the top; each level preys on the level below
  • Foot rot - contagious degenerative infection of the feet of hoofed animals (especially cattle and sheep); plant disease in which the stem or trunk rots at the base
  • footed - having feet
  • footling - (informal) small and of little importance
  • Foramen magnum - the large opening at the base of the cranium through which the spinal cord passe
  • foramen - a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure
  • Forceps - an extractor consisting of a pair of pincers used in medical treatment (especially for the delivery of babies)
  • Forearm - the part of the superior limb between the elbow and the wrist; verb arm in advance of a confrontation
  • Forebrain - the anterior portion of the brain; the part of the brain that develops from the anterior part of the neural tube
  • Foreclosure - the legal proceedings initiated by a creditor to repossess the collateral for loan that is in default
  • Forehead - the large cranial bone forming the front part of the cranium: includes the upper part of the orbits; the part of the face above the eyes
  • Forensic medicine - the branch of medical science that uses medical knowledge for legal purposes
  • Forensic pathology - the branch of medical science that uses medical knowledge for legal purposes
  • Forensic - of, relating to, or used in courts of law or public debate or argument
  • Foreskin - a fold of skin covering the tip of the penis; a fold of skin covering the tip of the clitoris
  • formaldehyde - a colorless poisonous gas; made by the oxidation of methanol
  • Formalin - a 10% solution of formaldehyde in water; used as a disinfectant or to preserve biological specimens
  • Formication - hallucinated sensation that insects or snakes are crawling over the skin; a common side effect of extensive use of cocaine or amphetamines
  • Formulary - of or relating to or of the nature of a formula;  (pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • Fornication - voluntary sexual intercourse between persons not married to each other; extramarital sex that willfully and maliciously interferes with marriage relations
  • Fourth cranial nerve - either of the two cranial nerves on either side that control the superior oblique muscles of the eyes
  • Fourth ventricle - an irregular ventricle between the third ventricle and the central canal of the spinal cord
  • Fovea centralis - area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
  • fovea - area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
  • Fraction - a small part or item forming a piece of a whole; the quotient of two rational numbers; a component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process; verb perform a division
  • fractionation - separation into portions; a process that uses heat to separate a substance into its components
  • Frambesia - an infectious tropical disease resembling syphilis in its early stages; marked by red skin eruptions and ulcerating lesions
  • Francis Crick - English biochemist who (with Watson in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (1916 2004)
  • Fraternal twin - either of two twins who developed from two separate fertilized eggs
  • Freckle - a small brownish spot (of the pigment melanin) on the skin; verb mark with freckles; become freckled
  • frequency response - (electronics) a response depicting the output to input ratio of a transducer as a function of frequency
  • Freudian - of or relating to Sigmund Freud or his psychoanalytic ideas;  a person who follows the basic theories or practices of Sigmund Freud
  • Friedman - United States economist noted as a proponent of monetarism and for his opposition to government intervention in the economy (born 1912)
  • Friedreich's ataxia - sclerosis of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord; characterized by muscular weakness and abnormal gait; occurs in children
  • Frigidity - sexual unresponsiveness (especially of women) and inability to achieve orgasm during intercourse; a lack of affection or enthusiasm; the absence of heat
  • Frontal bone - the large cranial bone forming the front part of the cranium: includes the upper part of the orbits
  • frontal lobe - that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying directly behind the forehead
  • Frostbite - destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene
  • fructose - a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  • Fruit fly - any of numerous small insects whose larvae feed on fruits
  • Fruiting body - an organ specialized for producing spores
  • Fulminant - sudden and severe
  • Functional genomics - the branch of genomics that determines the biological function of the genes and their products
  • fundus - (anatomy) the base of a hollow organ or that part of the organ farthest from its opening
  • Fungal - of or relating to fungi
  • Fungi - (pun) the one who buys the drinks; the taxonomic kingdom of lower plants
  • Fungicidal - capable of destroying fungi
  • Fungicide - any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
  • fungus - a parasitic plant lacking chlorophyll and leaves and true stems and roots and reproducing by spores
  • Funny bone - a point on the elbow where the ulnar nerve passes near the surface; a sharp tingling sensation results when the nerve is knocked against the bone
  • Furosemide - commonly used diuretic (trade name Lasix) used to treat hypertension and edema
  • Furuncle - a painful sore with a hard core filled with pus
  • Fusiform - tapering at each end

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G[edit | edit source]

  • Galactagogue - agent that induces milk secretion
  • Galactocele - a cystic tumor containing milk or a milky substance (especially in the mammary glands)
  • Galactose - a simple sugar found in lactose
  • Galactosemia - a genetic disease (autosomal recessive) in which an enzyme needed to metabolize galactose is deficient or absent; typically develops shortly after birth
  • Galen - Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130 200)
  • Gallbladder - a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
  • Gallium - a rare silvery (usually trivalent) metallic element; brittle at low temperatures but liquid above room temperature; occurs in trace amounts in bauxite and zinc ores
  • Gallop rhythm - cardiac rhythm characterized by the presence of an extra sound; can indicate a heart abnormality
  • Gallstone - a calculus formed in the gall bladder or its ducts
  • Gallus gallus - a jungle fowl of southeastern Asia that is considered ancestral to the domestic fowl; a domestic fowl bred for flesh or eggs; believed to have been developed from the red jungle fowl
  • Gamete - a mature sexual reproductive cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
  • Gametogenesis - the development and maturation of sex cells through meiosis
  • Gametophyte - the gamete bearing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  • gamma aminobutyric acid - an amino acid that is found in the central nervous system; acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter
  • Gamma globulin - a plasma protein containing the immunoglobulins that are responsible for immune responses
  • Gamma hydroxybutyrate - a club drug available in liquid or powder form is taken orally (frequently combined with alcohol); used to incapacitate individuals for the commission of sexual assault and rape
  • gamma interferon - a form of interferon that is produced by T cells and macrophages; involved in the activation of phagocytes
  • gamma ray - electromagnetic radiation emitted during radioactive decay and having an extremely short wavelength
  • ganglion - an encapsulated neural structure consisting of a collection of cell bodies or neurons
  • Gangrene - necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply); verb undergo necrosis
  • Garden - a plot of ground where plants are cultivated; a yard or lawn adjoining a house; the flowers or vegetables or fruits or herbs that are cultivated in a garden; verb work in the garden
  • Gargoylism - hereditary disease (autosomal recessive) consisting of an error is mucopolysaccharide metabolism; characterized by severe abnormalities in development of skeletal cartilage and bone and mental retardation
  • Garlic - aromatic bulb used as seasoning; bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong flavored cloves
  • Gas gangrene - (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Gastrectomy - surgical removal of all or part of the stomach
  • Gastric lavage - washing out the stomach with sterile water or a saltwater solution; removes blood or poisons
  • Gastric ulcer - a peptic ulcer of the stomach
  • gastric - relating to or involving the stomach
  • Gastritis - inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • Gastrocnemius muscle - the muscle in the back part of the leg that forms the greater part of the calf; responsible for the plantar flexion of the foot
  • Gastroenteritis - inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • gastroenterologist - a physician who specializes in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract
  • Gastroenterology - the branch of medicine that studies the gastrointestinal tract and its diseases
  • Gastroenterostomy - surgical creation of an opening between the stomach wall and the small intestines; performed when the normal opening has been eliminated
  • Gastroesophageal reflux - reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus
  • Gastroesophageal - of or relating to or involving the stomach and esophagus
  • gastrointestinal tract - tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • gastrointestinal - of or relating to the stomach and intestines
  • gastroscope - a type of endoscope for visually examining the stomach
  • gastroscopy - visual examination of the stomach by means of a gastroscope inserted through the esophagus
  • Gastrostomy - surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach (as for gastrogavage)
  • Gastrulation - the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
  • Gaucher's disease - a rare chronic disorder of lipid metabolism of genetic origin
  • Geiger counter - counter tube that detects ionizing radiations
  • Geiger - German physicist who developed the Geiger counter (1882 1945)
  • gelatinous - thick like gelatin
  • Gemfibrozil - medication (trade name Lopid) used to lower the levels of triglyceride in the blood
  • Gene expression - conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
  • Gene mutation - a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene
  • genealogist - an expert in genealogy
  • General anesthesia - a state of total unconsciousness resulting from anesthetic drugs (as for a major surgical operation)
  • generalized - spread throughout a body or system; not biologically differentiated or adapted to a specific function or environment
  • Generic drug - when the patent protection for a brand name drug expires generic versions of the drug can be offered for sale if the FDA agrees
  • Genetic code - the ordering of nucleotides in DNA molecules that carries the genetic information in living cells
  • genetic counseling - guidance for prospective parents on the likelihood of genetic disorders in their future children
  • Genetic disease - a disease or disorder that is inherited genetically
  • Genetic disorder - a disease or disorder that is inherited genetically
  • Genetic engineering - the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
  • Genetic map - graphical representation of the arrangement of genes on a chromosome
  • Genetic marker - a specific gene that produces a recognizable trait and can be used in family or population studies
  • Genetic screening - analyzing a group of people to determine genetic susceptibility to a particular disease
  • genetic - of or relating to the science of genetics; pertaining to or referring to origin; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • Geneticist - a biologist who specializes in genetics
  • Genetics - the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
  • geniculate - bent at a sharp angle
  • Genital wart - a small benign wart on or around the genitals and anus
  • Genital - of or relating to the external sex organs
  • Genitalia - external sex organ
  • genitourinary system - the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
  • Genitourinary - of or related to the genital and urinary organs or their functions
  • genome - the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism
  • Genomics - the branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences)
  • Genotype - the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism; a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • Gentamicin - an antibiotic (trade name Garamycin) that is derived from an actinomycete; used in treating infections of the urinary tract
  • Genu valgum - an inward slant of the thigh
  • Genu varum - a leg bowed outward at the knee (or below the knee)
  • Geography - study of the earth's surface; includes people's responses to topography and climate and soil and vegetation
  • Geophagia - eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency
  • Geriatric - of or relating to or practicing geriatrics; of or relating to the aged
  • geriatrician - a specialist in gerontology
  • Geriatrics - the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people
  • germ cell - a spermatozoon or an ovum
  • German measles - a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
  • Germanium - a brittle grey crystalline element that is a semiconducting metalloid (resembling silicon) used in transistors; occurs in germanite and argyrodite
  • Gerontology - the branch of medical science that deals with diseases and problems specific to old people
  • Gestation period - the period during which an embryo develops (about 266 days in humans)
  • Gestational age - the age of an embryo counting from the time of fertilization
  • gestational - of or relating to gestation
  • GI tract - tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • Giardia - a suspected cause of diarrhea in humans
  • Giardiasis - infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • Gibbon - smallest and most perfectly anthropoid arboreal ape having long arms and no tail; of southern Asia and East Indies; English historian best known for his history of the Roman Empire (1737 1794)
  • Gigantism - excessive largeness of stature; excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • gingiva - the tissue (covered by mucous membrane) of the jaws that surrounds the bases of the teeth
  • Gingivitis - inflammation of the gums
  • Ginkgo biloba - deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
  • Ginseng - Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers; aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • Glabella - a smooth prominence of the frontal bone between and above the eyebrows; the most forward projecting point of the forehead in the midline at the level of the supraorbital ridges
  • gland - any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream
  • Glanders - a destructive and contagious bacterial disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
  • glans penis - the conical mass of erectile tissue that forms the head of the penis
  • Glans - a small rounded structure; especially that at the end of the penis or clitoris
  • Glass eye - prosthesis consisting of an artificial eye made of glass
  • Glaucoma - increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • Glenn - made the first orbital rocket powered flight by a United States astronaut in 1962; later in United States Senate (1921 )
  • glial cell - a cell of the neuroglia
  • Glioblastoma - a fast growing malignant brain tumor composed of spongioblasts; nearly always fatal
  • glioma - a tumor of the brain consisting of neuroglia
  • Global aphasia - loss of all ability to communicate
  • Global warming - an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
  • Globe - a sphere on which a map (especially of the earth) is represented; the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on; an object with a spherical shape
  • Globus pallidus - the inner pale yellow part of the lenticular nucleus
  • Glomerular - of or relating to glomeruli
  • Glomerulus - a small intertwined group of capillaries in the malpighian body; it filters the blood during urine formation
  • Glossitis - inflammation of the tongue
  • Glossolalia - repetitive nonmeaningful speech (especially that associated with a trance state or religious fervor)
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve - sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
  • glossopharyngeal - pertaining to the tongue and throat
  • Glossoptosis - abnormal downward or back placement of the tongue
  • Glottis - the vocal apparatus of the larynx; the true vocal folds and the space between them where the voice tone is generated
  • Glucagon - a hormone secreted by the pancreas; stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin)
  • glucocorticoid - a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex of animals; affects functioning of gonads and has anti inflammatory activity
  • Glucose tolerance test - test of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates; used in the diagnosis of hypoglycemia and diabetes mellitus
  • Glucose - a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • glutamate - a salt or ester of glutamic acid
  • Glutamic acid - an amino acid occurring in proteins; important in the nitrogen metabolism of plants; used in monosodium glutamate to enhance the flavor of meats
  • Glutamine - a crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins; important in protein metabolism
  • gluteal - of or relating to or near the gluteus muscles
  • Gluten - a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough
  • Gluteus maximus - the outermost of the three gluteal muscles
  • Glycine - genus of Asiatic erect or sprawling herbs: soya bean; the simplest amino acid found in proteins and the principal amino acid in sugar cane
  • Glycogen - one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
  • glycolysis - a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP
  • Glycoprotein - a conjugated protein having a carbohydrate component
  • Glycoside - a group of compounds derived from monosaccharides
  • Glycosuria - the presence of abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
  • goiter - abnormally enlarged thyroid gland; can result from underproduction or overproduction of hormone or from a deficiency of iodine in the diet
  • Goitrogen - any substance (such as thiouracil) that induces the formation of a goiter
  • Gold standard - a paragon of excellence; a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
  • Goldberg - United States cartoonist who drew intricate diagrams of very complicated and impractical contraptions that accomplished little or nothing (1883 1970)
  • Golden Gate - a strait in western California that connects the San Francisco Bay with the Pacific Ocean; discovered in 1579 by Sir Francis Drake
  • Gonad - a gland in which gametes (sex cells) are produced
  • Gonadotropin - hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and placenta; stimulates the gonads and controls reproductive activity
  • Gonorrhea - a common venereal disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; symptoms are painful urination and pain around the urethra
  • Good Samaritan - a person who voluntarily offers help or sympathy in times of trouble
  • Goodman - United States clarinetist who in 1934 formed a big band (including Black as well as White musicians) and introduced a kind of jazz known as swing (1909 1986)
  • Goose bump - reflex erection of hairs of the skin in response to cold or emotional stress or skin irritation
  • Gooseflesh - reflex erection of hairs of the skin in response to cold or emotional stress or skin irritation
  • Gouty arthritis - a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • governor - a control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel); the head of a state government
  • Gradient - the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal; a graded change in the magnitude of some physical quantity or dimension
  • Grading - changing the ground level to a smooth horizontal or gently sloping surface; evaluation of performance by assigning a grade or score; the act of arranging in a graduated series
  • grafting - the act of grafting something onto something else
  • Gram calorie - unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
  • Gram calorie - unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure
  • Gram - Danish physician and bacteriologist who developed a method of staining bacteria to distinguish among them (1853 1938); a metric unit of weight equal to one thousandth of a kilogram
  • Grand mal epilepsy - epilepsy in which the attack involves loss of consciousness and tonic spasms of the musculature followed by generalized jerking
  • Grand mal - a seizure (or a type of epilepsy characterized by such seizures) during which the patient becomes unconscious and has convulsions over the entire body
  • Granny - an old woman; a reef knot crossed the wrong way and therefore insecure; the mother of your father or mother
  • granular - having a granular structure like that of chondrites; composed of or covered with particles resembling meal in texture or consistency
  • Granulation - the act of forming something into granules or grains; new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
  • granulocyte - a leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasm
  • granulocytopenia - an acute blood disorder (often caused by radiation or drug therapy) characterized by severe reduction in granulocytes
  • Granuloma - a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
  • Granulomatous - relating to or characterized by granulomas
  • Grapefruit - large yellow fruit with somewhat acid juicy pulp; usual serving consists of a half; citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp
  • Grapheme - a written symbol that is used to represent speech
  • Graves' disease - exophthalmos occurring in association with goiter; hyperthyroidism with protrusion of the eyeballs
  • Graves - English writer known for his interest in mythology and in the classics (1895 1985)
  • Gravid - in an advanced stage of pregnancy
  • Gray matter - greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers; forms the cerebral cortex consisting of unmyelinated neurons
  • Great saphenous vein - the longest vein in the body; runs from foot to the groin where it joins the femoral vein
  • greenstick fracture - a partial fracture of a bone (usually in children); the bone is bent but broken on only one side
  • Gregarious - instinctively or temperamentally seeking and enjoying the company of others; (of animals) tending to form a group with others of the same species; (of plants) growing in groups that are close together
  • grief - something that causes great unhappiness; intense sorrow caused by loss of a loved one (especially by death)
  • Grim Reaper - Death personified as an old man or a skeleton with a scythe
  • Griseofulvin - a kind of penicillin (a fungicidal antibiotic with the trade name Fulvicin) produced by molds of the genus Penicillium
  • Gross anatomy - the study of the structure of the body and its parts without the use of a microscope
  • Ground state - (physics) the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle
  • group A - the blood group whose red cells carry the A antigen
  • group B - the blood group whose red cells carry the B antigen
  • Group therapy - psychotherapy in which a small group of individuals meet with a therapist; interactions among the members are considered to be therapeutic
  • growth factor - a protein that is involved in cell differentiation and growth
  • Growth hormone - a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • Guanine - a purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with cytosine
  • Guanosine - a nucleoside component of DNA; composed of guanine and deoxyribose
  • guardianship - the responsibility of a guardian or keeper; attention and management implying responsibility for safety
  • gullet - the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • gustatory - of or relating to gustation
  • gynaecologist - a specialist in gynecology
  • Gynaecology - the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene of women
  • Gynandromorph - one having both male and female sexual characteristics and organs; at birth an unambiguous assignment of male or female cannot be made
  • Gynecologic - of or relating to or practicing gynecology
  • Gynecologist - a specialist in gynecology
  • Gynecology - the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene of women
  • Gynecomastia - excessive development of the breasts in males; usually the result of hormonal imbalance or treatment with certain drugs (including some antihypertensives)
  • gyrus - a convex fold or elevation in the surface of the brain

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H[edit | edit source]

  • HAART - a combination of protease inhibitors taken with reverse transcriptase inhibitors; used in treating AIDS and HIV
  • Habitual abortion - repeated spontaneous abortion (often for no known reason)
  • habitual - made a norm or custom or habit; having a habit of long standing; commonly used or practiced; usual
  • Habitus - person's predisposition to be affected by something (as a disease); constitution of the human body
  • Haematology - the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood and blood forming organs
  • Haemoglobin - a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
  • Haemophilia A - hemophilia caused by a congenital deficiency of factor VIII; occurs almost exclusively in men
  • Haemophilia B - a clotting disorder similar to hemophilia A but caused by a congenital deficiency of factor IX
  • Haemophilia - congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • Hair follicle - a small tubular cavity containing the root of a hair; small muscles and sebaceous glands are associated with them
  • Hair of the dog - an alcoholic drink supposed to cure a hangover
  • Hairball - a compact mass of hair that forms in the alimentary canal (especially in the stomach of animals as a result of licking fur)
  • Hairy - hazardous and frightening; having or covered with hair
  • half life - the time required for something to fall to half its initial value (in particular, the time for half the atoms in a radioactive substance to disintegrate)
  • Halitosis - offensive breath
  • Hallucination - an object perceived during a hallucinatory episode; illusory perception; a common symptom of severe mental disorder; a mistaken or unfounded opinion or idea
  • Hallucinogen - a psychoactive drug that induces hallucinations or altered sensory experiences
  • Hallucinogenic - capable of producing hallucinations
  • Hallucinosis - a mental state in which the person has continual hallucinations
  • Hallux - the first largest innermost toe
  • Haloalkane - organic compound in which halogen atoms have been substituted for hydrogen atoms in an alkane
  • Halocarbon - one of various compounds of carbon and any of the halogens
  • Haloperidol - tranquilizer (trade name Haldol) used to treat some psychotic disorders and Tourette's syndrome
  • Halothane - a nonflammable inhalation anesthetic that produces general anesthesia; used along with analgesics and muscle relaxants for many types of surgical procedures
  • Hamartia - the character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall
  • Hamartoma - a focal growth that resembles a neoplasm but results from faulty development in an organ
  • hammertoe - a deformed toe which is bent in a clawlike arch
  • hamstring - one of the tendons at the back of the knee; verb cripple by cutting the hamstring; make ineffective or powerless
  • handed - having or involving the use of hands
  • Handedness - the property of using one hand more than the other
  • handwriting - the activity of writing by hand; something written by hand
  • Hangnail - a loose narrow strip of skin near the base of a fingernail; tearing it produces a painful sore that is easily infected
  • Hangover - something that has survived from the past; disagreeable aftereffects from the use of drugs (especially alcohol); an official who remains in office after his term
  • Haploid - of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes;  (genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
  • happiness - emotions experienced when in a state of well being; state of well being characterized by emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy
  • Hard palate - the bony part of the roof of the mouth
  • Harvey Cushing - United States neurologist noted for his study of the brain and pituitary gland and who identified Cushing's syndrome (1869 1939)
  • Harvey - English physician and scientist who described the circulation of the blood; he later proposed that all animals originate from an ovum produced by the female of the species (1578 1657)
  • Haverhill fever - the form of ratbite fever occurring in the United States
  • Hawkins - United States jazz saxophonist (1904 1969); English privateer involved in the slave trade; later helped build the fleet that in 1588 defeated the Spanish Armada (1532 1595)
  • hay fever - a seasonal rhinitis resulting from an allergic reaction to pollen
  • HDL cholesterol - the cholesterol in high density lipoproteins; the `good' cholesterol; a high level in the blood is thought to lower the risk of coronary artery disease
  • Head lice - infestation of the scalp with lice
  • Headache - pain in the head caused by dilation of cerebral arteries or muscle contractions or a reaction to drugs; something or someone that causes anxiety; a source of unhappiness
  • Healer - a person skilled in a particular type of therapy
  • healing - tending to cure or restore to health;  the natural process by which the body repairs itself
  • Health and Human Services - the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
  • Health care delivery - the provision of health care
  • Health care - social insurance for the ill and injured; the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • Health Check - a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • Health club - a place of business with equipment and facilities for exercising and improving physical fitness
  • Health facility - building where medicine is practiced
  • Health insurance - insurance against loss due to ill health
  • Health profession - the body of individuals whose work helps to maintain the health of their clients
  • Health - the general condition of body and mind; a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • HealthCare - the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • Hearing aid - a conical acoustic device formerly used to direct sound to the ear of a hearing impaired person; an electronic device that amplifies sound and is worn to compensate for poor hearing
  • Hearing loss - partial or complete loss of hearing
  • heart attack - a sudden severe instance of abnormal heart function
  • Heart block - recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat
  • Heart disease - a disease of the heart
  • Heart failure - inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • Heart murmur - an abnormal sound of the heart; sometimes a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves
  • Heart muscle - the muscle tissue of the heart; adapted to continued rhythmic contraction
  • Heart rate - the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • Heart ventricle - a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries
  • Heartburn - a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • Heat exhaustion - a condition marked by dizziness and nausea and weakness caused by depletion of body fluids and electrolytes
  • Heat prostration - a condition marked by dizziness and nausea and weakness caused by depletion of body fluids and electrolytes
  • Heat rash - obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • heated - made warm or hot (`het' is a dialectal variant of `heated'); marked by emotional heat; vehement
  • Heating pad - heater consisting of electrical heating elements contained in a flexible pad
  • Hecht - United States writer of stories and plays (1894 1946)
  • hedonic - devoted to pleasure
  • Heights - a high place
  • Heimlich maneuver - an emergency procedure to help someone who is choking because food is lodged in the trachea
  • helical - in the shape of a coil
  • Heliport - an airport for helicopters
  • Helix - type genus of the family Helicidae; a curve that lies on the surface of a cylinder or cone and cuts the element at a constant angle; a structure consisting of something wound in a continuous series of loops
  • Helmet - a protective headgear made of hard material to resist blows; armor plate that protects the head
  • Helminth - worm that is parasitic on the intestines of vertebrates especially roundworms and tapeworms and flukes
  • Helminthiasis - infestation of the body with parasitic worms
  • helper - a person who helps people or institutions (especially with financial help); a person who contributes to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose
  • Hemagglutination - agglutination of red blood cells
  • Hemangioma - benign angioma consisting of a mass of blood vessels; some appear as birthmarks
  • Hematemesis - vomiting blood
  • Hematemesis - vomiting blood
  • Hematinic - a medicine that increases the hemoglobin content of the blood; used to treat iron deficiency anemia
  • Hematocele - swelling caused by blood collecting in a body cavity (especially a swelling of the membrane covering the testis)
  • Hematochezia - passage of stools containing blood (as from diverticulosis or colon cancer or peptic ulcer)
  • Hematocolpos - accumulation of menstrual blood in the vagina (usually due to an imperforate hymen)
  • hematologist - a doctor who specializes in diseases of the blood and blood forming organs
  • Hematology - the branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the blood and blood forming organs
  • Hematoma - a localized swelling filled with blood
  • Hematoma - a localized swelling filled with blood
  • hematopoiesis - the formation of blood cells in the living body (especially in the bone marrow)
  • hematopoietic - pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • Hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
  • Hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine; often a symptom of urinary tract disease
  • Hemeralopia - inability to see clearly in bright light
  • hemianopia - blindness in one half of the visual field of one or both eyes
  • Hemiplegia - paralysis of one side of the body
  • Hemiplegic - a person who has hemiplegia (is paralyzed on one side of the body)
  • hemochromatosis - pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • Hemodialysis - dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
  • Hemodialysis - dialysis of the blood to remove toxic substances or metabolic wastes from the bloodstream; used in the case of kidney failure
  • Hemodynamics - the branch of physiology that studies the circulation of the blood and the forces involved
  • hemoglobin - a hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues
  • Hemoglobinemia - presence of excessive hemoglobin in the blood plasma
  • Hemoglobinopathy - a blood disease characterized by the presence of abnormal hemoglobins in the blood
  • Hemoglobinuria - presence of hemoglobin in the urine
  • Hemolysis - lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin
  • Hemolysis - lysis of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin
  • Hemolytic anemia - anemia resulting from destruction of erythrocytes
  • Hemolytic - relating to or involving or causing hemolysis
  • Hemophilia A - hemophilia caused by a congenital deficiency of factor VIII; occurs almost exclusively in men
  • Hemophilia B - a clotting disorder similar to hemophilia A but caused by a congenital deficiency of factor IX
  • Hemophilia - congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • Hemophilia - congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • Hemopoietic - pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • Hemoptysis - coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • Hemoptysis - coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • hemorrhage - flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels; verb lose blood from one's body
  • Hemorrhagic cyst - a cyst containing blood
  • Hemorrhagic fever - a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • hemorrhagic stroke - stroke caused by the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
  • Hemorrhagic - of or relating to a hemorrhage
  • Hemorrhoid - pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter
  • Hemorrhoid - pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter
  • Hemorrhoidectomy - surgical procedure for tying hemorrhoids and excising them
  • Hemosiderin - a granular brown substance composed of ferric oxide; left from the breakdown of hemoglobin; can be a sign of disturbed iron metabolism
  • Hemostasis - surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)
  • Hemostat - a surgical instrument that stops bleeding by clamping the blood vessel
  • Hemothorax - accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
  • Henna - a reddish brown dye used especially on hair; verb apply henna to one's hair
  • hepatic artery - arteries that supply the liver
  • Hepatic duct - the duct that drains bile from the liver
  • hepatic portal vein - a short vein that carries blood into the liver
  • Hepatic vein - a vein that drains the liver; empties into the vena cava
  • hepatic - pertaining to or affecting the liver;  any of numerous small green nonvascular plants of the class Hepaticopsida growing in wet places and resembling green seaweeds or leafy mosses
  • Hepatitis A - an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that does not persist in the blood serum and is usually transmitted by ingesting food or drink that is contaminated with fecal matter
  • Hepatitis - inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • Hepatocarcinoma - carcinoma of the liver
  • hepatocellular carcinoma - carcinoma of the liver
  • hepatoma - carcinoma of the liver
  • Hepatomegaly - abnormal enlargement of the liver
  • Hepatotoxic - toxic to the liver
  • Hepatotoxin - any toxin that affects the liver
  • Herbal medicine - the use of medicinal herbs to prevent or treat disease or promote health; a medicine made from plants and used to prevent or treat disease or promote health
  • Herbal - of or relating to herbs;  tea like drink made of leaves of various herbs
  • Herbalist - a therapist who heals by the use of herbs
  • Herbert - United States musician and composer and conductor noted for his comic operas (1859 1924)
  • Herbicide - a chemical agent that destroys plants or inhibits their growth
  • hereditary - inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • hereditary - inherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • Heredity - the total of inherited attributes; the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
  • Hereford - hardy English breed of dairy cattle raised extensively in United States
  • Heritable - that can be inherited
  • Hermaphrodite - of animal or plant; having both male female reproductive organs;  one having both male and female sexual characteristics and organs; at birth an unambiguous assignment of male or female cannot be made
  • Hernia - rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes
  • Herniated disc - a painful rupture of the fibrocartilage of the disc between spinal vertebrae; occurs most often in the lumbar region
  • Herniation - rupture in smooth muscle tissue through which a bodily structure protrudes
  • Herodotus - the ancient Greek known as the father of history; his accounts of the wars between the Greeks and Persians are the first known examples of historical writing (485 425 BC)
  • Heroin addiction - an addiction to heroin
  • Heroin - a narcotic that is considered a hard drug; a highly addictive morphine derivative; intravenous injection provides the fastest and most intense rush
  • Herpes labialis - caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1)
  • herpes simplex virus - a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system
  • herpes varicella zoster virus - a herpes virus that causes chickenpox and shingles
  • herpes zoster - a herpes virus that causes shingles; eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • Herpes - any of the animal viruses that cause painful blisters on the skin; viral diseases causing eruptions of the skin or mucous membrane
  • Hershey - an industrial town east of Harrisburg; United States confectioner and philanthropist who created the model industrial town of Hershey, Pennsylvania; founded an industrial school for orphan boys (1857 1945)
  • Heteroecious - of parasites; passing through different stages of the life cycle on different host species
  • Heterologous - derived from organisms of a different but related species; not corresponding in structure or evolutionary origin
  • Heteroploid - (genetics) an organism or cell having a chromosome number that is not an even multiple of the haploid chromosome number for that species
  • Heterosexual - sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex;  a heterosexual person; someone having a sexual orientation to persons of the opposite sex
  • Heterosexuality - a sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the opposite sex
  • Heterotaxy - any abnormal position of the organs of the body
  • Heterotroph - an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition
  • Heterozygosity - the state of being heterozygous; having two different alleles of the same gene
  • Heterozygous - having dissimilar alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
  • Hexamita - flagellates free living or parasitic in intestines of birds
  • Hexane - a colorless flammable liquid alkane derived from petroleum and used as a solvent
  • hexose - a monosaccharide that contains six carbon atoms per molecule
  • Hiatal hernia - hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
  • Hiatus hernia - hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
  • Hiatus - a missing piece (as a gap in a manuscript); a natural opening or perforation through a bone or a membranous structure; an interruption in the intensity or amount of something
  • Hideyo Noguchi - United States bacteriologist (born in Japan) who discovered the cause of yellow fever and syphilis (1876 1928)
  • Hidrosis - the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
  • Hidrotic - of or relating to sweat
  • High altitude - occurring at or from a relative high altitude
  • high blood pressure - a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hilar - of or relating to or located near a hilum
  • Hindbrain - the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem
  • Hippocrates - medical practitioner who is regarded as the father of medicine; author of the Hippocratic oath (circa 460 377 BC)
  • Hippocratic Oath - an oath taken by physicians to observe medical ethics deriving from Hippocrates
  • Hirschsprung - Danish pediatrician (1830 1916)
  • Hirsutism - excessive hairiness
  • histamine - amine formed from histidine that stimulates gastric secretions and dilates blood vessels; released by the human immune system during allergic reactions
  • Histidine - an essential amino acid found in proteins that is important for the growth and repair of tissue
  • Histiocyte - a macrophage that is found in connective tissue
  • Histiocytosis - a blood disease characterized by an abnormal multiplication of macrophages
  • histocompatibility - condition in which the cells of one tissue can survive in the presence of cells of another tissue
  • Histology - the branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or plant tissues
  • histone - a simple protein containing mainly basic amino acids; present in cell nuclei in association with nucleic acids
  • Historian - a person who is an authority on history and who studies it and writes about it
  • hives - an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs
  • Hoarding - large outdoor signboard
  • Hoarseness - a throaty harshness
  • Hobbit - an imaginary being similar to a person but smaller and with hairy feet; invented by J.R.R. Tolkien
  • Hodgkin's disease - a malignant disorder in which there is progressive (but painless) enlargement of lymph tissue followed by enlargement of the spleen and liver
  • Hoffa - United States labor leader who was president of the Teamsters Union; he was jailed for trying to bribe a judge and later disappeared and is assumed to have been murdered (1913 1975)
  • Hogweed - tall coarse plant having thick stems and cluster of white to purple flowers
  • holistic medicine - medical care of the whole person considered as subject to personal and social as well as organic factors
  • Holland - a constitutional monarchy in western Europe on the North Sea; half the country lies below sea level
  • Holstein - a breed of dairy cattle from northern Holland
  • Homeobox gene - one of various similar homeotic genes that are involved in bodily segmentation during embryonic development
  • Homeobox - one of various similar homeotic genes that are involved in bodily segmentation during embryonic development
  • Homeopath - a practitioner of homeopathy
  • Homeopathic - of or relating to the practice of homeopathy
  • Homeopathy - a method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
  • Homeostasis - (physiology) metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
  • Homeotherm - an animal that has a body temperature that is relatively constant and independent of the environmental temperature
  • Homicide - the killing of a human being by another human being
  • Homo erectus - extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain
  • Homo sapiens - the only surviving hominid; species to which modern man belongs; bipedal primate having language and ability to make and use complex tools; brain volume at least 1400 cc
  • Homograft - tissue or organ transplanted from a donor of the same species but different genetic makeup; recipient's immune system must be suppressed to prevent rejection of the graft
  • Homologous - corresponding or similar in position or structure or function or characteristics; especially derived from an organism of the same species; having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions
  • Homology - the quality of being similar or corresponding in position or value or structure or function
  • Homosexual - sexually attracted to members of your own sex;  someone who practices homosexuality; having a sexual attraction to persons of the same sex
  • Homosexuality - a sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the same sex
  • Homosexuality - a sexual attraction to (or sexual relations with) persons of the same sex
  • Homozygosity - the state of being homozygous; having two identical alleles of the same gene
  • Homozygous - having identical alleles at corresponding chromosomal loci
  • Hong Kong - formerly a Crown Colony on the coast of southern China in Guangdong province; leased by China to Britain in 1842 and returned in 1997; one of the world's leading commercial centers
  • Horizontal - parallel to or in the plane of the horizon or a base line;  something that is oriented horizontally
  • hormone replacement therapy - hormones (estrogen and progestin) are given to postmenopausal women; believed to protect them from heart disease and osteoporosis
  • Hormone - the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • Horner's syndrome - a pattern of symptoms occurring as a result of damage to nerves in the cervical region of the spine (drooping eyelids and constricted pupils and absence of facial sweating)
  • Horripilation - reflex erection of hairs of the skin in response to cold or emotional stress or skin irritation
  • Hospice - a program of medical and emotional care for the terminally ill; a lodging for travelers (especially one kept by a monastic order)
  • Hospital bed - a single bed with a frame in three sections so the head or middle or foot can be raised as required
  • Hospital - a health facility where patients receive treatment; a medical institution where sick or injured people are given medical or surgical care
  • Hot flash - sudden brief sensation of heat (associated with menopause and some mental disorders)
  • Hot spot - a lively entertainment spot; a point of relatively intense heat or radiation; a place of political unrest and potential violence
  • Hotel - a building where travelers can pay for lodging and meals and other services
  • housekeeping - the work of cleaning and running a house
  • Housemaid's knee - swelling of the bursa in the knee (due to trauma or excessive kneeling)
  • Human body - alternative names for the body of a human being
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin - hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is the basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  • Human Genome Project - an international study of the entire human genetic material
  • human growth hormone - a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • Human head - the head of a human being
  • human immunodeficiency virus - the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS); it replicates in and kills the helper T cells
  • human papilloma virus - any of a group of papovaviruses associated with genital or oral carcinomas or a group associated with benign genital tumors
  • Human reproductive cloning - the reproductive cloning of a sentient human being; generally considered ethically unacceptable
  • humectant - any substance that is added to another substance to keep it moist
  • Humerus - bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow
  • Humoral - of or relating to bodily fluids
  • Huntington's disease - hereditary disease; develops in adulthood and ends in dementia
  • Hurler - (baseball) the person who does the pitching
  • Hurricane - a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73 136 knots (12 on the Beaufort scale)
  • Hyaline - resembling glass in transparency or translucency;  a glassy translucent material that occurs in hyaline cartilage or in certain skin conditions
  • Hyaluronic acid - a viscous mucopolysaccharide found in the connective tissue space and the synovial fluid of movable joints and the humors of the eye; a cementing and protective substance
  • hyaluronidase - an enzyme (trade name Hyazyme) that splits hyaluronic acid and so lowers its viscosity and increases the permeability of connective tissue and the absorption of fluids
  • Hybridization - (genetics) the act of mixing different species or varieties of animals or plants and thus to produce hybrids
  • Hybridoma - a hybrid cell resulting from the fusion of a lymphocyte and a tumor cell; used to culture a specific monoclonal antibody
  • Hydatid disease - infestation with larval echinococci (tapeworms)
  • Hydatidiform mole - an abnormality during pregnancy; chorionic villi around the fetus degenerate and form clusters of fluid filled sacs; usually associated with the death of the fetus
  • Hydralazine - an antihypertensive drug (trade name Apresoline) that dilates blood vessels; used (often with a diuretic) to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • Hydrazine - a colorless fuming corrosive liquid; a powerful reducing agent; used chiefly in rocket fuels
  • Hydrazoic acid - a colorless explosive liquid that is volatile and poisonous and foul smelling
  • Hydrocarbon - an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen
  • Hydrocele - disorder in which serous fluid accumulates in a body sac (especially in the scrotum)
  • hydrochloride - a complex consisting of an organic base in association with hydrogen chloride
  • Hydrocortisone - an adrenal cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • Hydrofluoric acid - a weak poisonous liquid acid; formed by solution of hydrogen fluoride in water
  • Hydrogen bond - a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
  • Hydrogen fluoride - a colorless poisonous corrosive liquid made by the action of sulphuric acid on calcium fluoride; solutions in water are hydrofluoric acid
  • Hydrogen - a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the universe
  • hydrogenation - a chemical process that adds hydrogen atoms to an unsaturated oil
  • Hydromorphone - a narcotic analgesic (trade name Dilaudid) used to treat moderate to severe pain
  • Hydronephrosis - accumulation of urine in the kidney because of an obstruction in the ureter
  • hydrostatic - relating to fluids at rest or to the pressures they exert or transmit
  • Hydrothorax - accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest) often resulting from disease of the heart or kidneys
  • Hydroxy - being or containing a hydroxyl group
  • hydroxychloroquine - anti inflammatory drug (trade name Plaquenil) used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and malaria and lupus erythematosus
  • Hydroxyl radical - the monovalent group OH in such compounds as bases and some acids and alcohols
  • Hydroxyzine - a drug (trade names Atarax and Vistaril) used as a tranquilizer to treat anxiety and motion sickness
  • Hygiene - the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health; a condition promoting sanitary practices
  • hygienist - a medical specialist in hygiene
  • Hymen - a fold of tissue that partly covers the entrance to the vagina of a virgin; (Greek mythology) the god of marriage
  • Hyoscine - an alkaloid with anticholinergic effects that is used as a sedative and to treat nausea and to dilate the pupils in ophthalmic procedures
  • Hyperactivity - a condition characterized by excessive restlessness and movement
  • Hyperacusis - abnormal acuteness of hearing due to increased irritability of the sensory neural mechanism; characterized by intolerance for ordinary sound levels
  • Hyperadrenocorticism - a glandular disorder caused by excessive cortisol
  • Hyperaemia - increased blood in an organ or other body part
  • hyperaldosteronism - a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • Hyperbaric chamber - a large chamber in which the oxygen pressure is above normal for the atmosphere; used in treating breathing disorders or carbon monoxide poisoning
  • Hyperbilirubinemia - abnormally high amounts of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
  • Hypercalcaemia - the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • hypercalcemia - the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • Hypercalciuria - the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the urine; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis
  • Hypercapnia - the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
  • Hypercarbia - the presence of an abnormally high level of carbon dioxide in the circulating blood
  • hypercholesterolemia - the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood; associated with the risk of atherosclerosis
  • Hyperemesis gravidarum - hyperemesis during pregnancy; if severe it can result in damage to the brain and liver and kidney
  • Hyperglycemia - abnormally high blood sugar usually associated with diabetes
  • Hyperhidrosis - excessive and profuse perspiration
  • hypericum perforatum - yellow flowered perennial common in fields and waste places but a weed in rangelands
  • Hyperkalemia - higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
  • Hyperkalemia - higher than normal levels of potassium in the circulating blood; associated with kidney failure or sometimes with the use of diuretic drugs
  • Hyperlipidemia - presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • Hypernatremia - excessive amounts of sodium in the blood; possibly indicating diabetes insipidus
  • hyperopia - abnormal condition in which vision for distant objects is better than for near objects
  • hyperparathyroidism - excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • Hyperpigmentation - unusual darkening of the skin
  • Hyperpituitarism - excessive activity of the pituitary gland (especially overactivity of the anterior lobe which leads to excess secretion of growth hormone)
  • Hyperplasia - abnormal increase in number of cells
  • Hyperpnea - energetic (deep and rapid) respiration that occurs normally after exercise or abnormally with fever or various disorders
  • Hypersensitivity - extreme sensitivity; pathological sensitivity
  • Hypertension - a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • Hypertensive - having abnormally high blood pressure;  a person who has abnormally high blood pressure
  • Hyperthermia - abnormally high body temperature; sometimes induced (as in treating some forms of cancer)
  • Hyperthyroidism - an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • Hypertonia - (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypertonic
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a disorder in which the heart muscle is so strong that it does not relax enough to fill with the heart with blood and so has reduced pumping ability
  • Hypertrophy - abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; verb undergo hypertrophy
  • Hyperventilation - an increased depth and rate of breathing greater than demanded by the body needs; can cause dizziness and tingling of the fingers and toes and chest pain if continued
  • Hypervitaminosis - an abnormal condition resulting from taking vitamins excessively; can be serious for vitamins A or D or K
  • Hypervolemia - a blood disorder consisting of an increase in the volume of circulating blood
  • Hypnagogic - sleep inducing
  • Hypnos - (Greek mythology) the Greek god of sleep; the son of Nyx
  • Hypnosis - a state that resembles sleep but that is induced by suggestion
  • Hypnotic - attracting and holding interest as if by a spell; of or relating to hypnosis;  a drug that induces sleep
  • Hypocalcaemia - abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
  • Hypocalcemia - abnormally low level of calcium in the blood; associated with hypoparathyroidism or kidney malfunction or vitamin D deficiency
  • Hypocapnia - a state in which the level of carbon dioxide in the blood is lower than normal; can result from deep or rapid breathing
  • Hypochondria - chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • Hypochondriac - suffering from hypochondria;  a patient with imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • hypochondriacal - suffering from hypochondria
  • Hypochondriasis - chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • Hypochondrium - the upper region of the abdomen just below the lowest ribs on either side of the epigastrium
  • Hypodermic needle - a hollow needle
  • Hypoesthesia - impairment of tactile sensitivity; decrease of sensitivity
  • Hypoglossal nerve - supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
  • hypoglossal - supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
  • Hypoglycemia - abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • Hypoglycemic - of or relating to hypoglycemia
  • Hypokalemia - abnormally low level of potassium in the circulating blood leading to weakness and heart abnormalities; associated with adrenal tumors or starvation or taking diuretics
  • Hyponatremia - abnormally low level of sodium in the blood; associated with dehydration
  • Hypoparathyroidism - inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • Hypophysectomy - surgical removal of the pituitary gland
  • Hypopigmentation - unusual lack of skin color
  • Hypoplasia - underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  • Hypopnea - slow or shallow breathing
  • Hypoproteinemia - abnormally low level of protein in the blood; can indicate inadequate diet or intestinal or renal disorders
  • Hyposmia - lessened sensitivity to odors
  • Hypospadias - an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
  • Hypotension - abnormally low blood pressure
  • Hypotensive - having abnormally low blood pressure;  a person who has abnormally low blood pressure
  • Hypothalamic - of or relating to the hypothalamus
  • hypothalamus - a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system
  • Hypothermia - subnormal body temperature
  • Hypothyroidism - an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • Hypotonia - (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  • Hypovitaminosis - any of several diseases caused by deficiency of one or more vitamins
  • Hypovolemia - a blood disorder consisting of a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
  • Hypovolemic shock - shock caused by severe blood or fluid loss
  • Hypovolemic - of or relating to a decrease in the volume of circulating blood
  • Hypoxia - a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
  • Hypoxic hypoxia - hypoxia resulting from defective oxygenation of the blood in the lungs
  • Hysterectomy - surgical removal of the uterus
  • Hysterosalpingogram - X ray of the uterus and Fallopian tubes; usually done in diagnosing infertility (to see if there any blockages)
  • Hysteroscopy - visual examination of the uterus and uterine lining using an endoscope inserted through the vagina
  • Hysterotomy - surgical incision into the uterus (as in cesarean section)

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I[edit | edit source]

  • iatrogenic - induced by a physician's words or therapy (used especially of a complication resulting from treatment)
  • Ibuprofen - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory medicine (trade names Advil and Motrin and Nuprin) used to relieve the pain of arthritis and as an analgesic and antipyretic
  • Ice pack - a waterproof bag filled with ice: applied to the body (especially the head) to cool or reduce swelling; a large expanse of floating ice
  • Ichthyosis - any of several congenital diseases in which the skin is fishlike (dry and scaly)
  • Icterus - type genus of the Icteridae; yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes caused by an accumulation of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood; can be a symptom of gallstones or liver infection or anemia
  • Identical twin - either of two twins developed from the same fertilized ovum (having the same genetic material)
  • Idiocy - extreme mental retardation
  • idiopathic - (of diseases) arising from an unknown cause
  • Idiopathy - any disease arising from internal dysfunctions of unknown cause
  • Idiosyncrasy - a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual
  • Idiot savant - person who is mentally retarded in general but who displays remarkable aptitude in some limited field (usually involving memory)
  • Ileitis - inflammation of the ileum
  • Ileostomy - surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus; performed in cases of cancer of the colon or ulcerative colitis
  • ileum - the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
  • Ileus - blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • Iliac artery - one of the large arteries supplying blood to the pelvis and legs
  • Iliac vein - one of three veins draining the pelvic area
  • iliac - of or relating to the ilium
  • Ilium - the upper and widest of the three bones making up the hipbone; an ancient city in Asia Minor that was the site of the Trojan War
  • Illness - impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
  • Illusion - something many people believe that is false; an erroneous mental representation; an illusory feat; considered magical by naive observers; the act of deluding; deception by creating illusory ideas
  • Imagery - the ability to form mental images of things or events
  • Imago - an adult insect produced after metamorphosis; (psychoanalysis) an idealized image of someone (usually a parent) formed in childhood
  • Imbibe - receive into the mind and retain; take in liquids; take in, also metaphorically; take (gas, light or heat) into a solution
  • Imbibition - (chemistry) the absorption of a liquid by a solid or gel; the act of consuming liquids
  • Imbricate - used especially of leaves or bracts; overlapping or layered as scales or shingles; verb overlap; place so as to overlap
  • Imipramine - a tricyclic antidepressant (trade names Imavate and Tofranil) used to treat clinical depression
  • Immortality - the quality or state of being immortal; perpetual life after death
  • immune globulin - a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • immune response - a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
  • immune system - a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • Immunity - the quality of being unaffected by something; (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease; an act exempting someone; the state of not being susceptible
  • Immunization - the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)
  • Immunoassay - identification of a substance (especially a protein) by its action as an antigen
  • Immunocompetence - the ability to develop an immune response following exposure to an antigen
  • immunocompetent - capable of developing an immune response following exposure to an antigen
  • immunocompromised - unable to develop a normal immune response usually because of malnutrition or immunodeficiency or immunosuppressive therapy
  • Immunodeficiency - immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • Immunodeficient - incapable of developing an immune response following exposure to an antigen
  • immunogen - any substance or organism that provokes an immune response (produces immunity) when introduced into the body
  • Immunogenicity - the property of eliciting an immune response
  • Immunoglobulin A - one of the most common of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the chief antibody in the membranes of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts
  • immunoglobulin D - one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present in blood serum in small amounts
  • immunoglobulin E - one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; present primarily in the skin and mucous membranes
  • Immunoglobulin G - one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • Immunoglobulin M - one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; involved in fighting blood infections and in triggering production of immunoglobulin G
  • immunoglobulin - a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • Immunohistochemistry - an assay that shows specific antigens in tissues by the use of markers that are either fluorescent dyes or enzymes (such as horseradish peroxidase)
  • immunologist - a medical scientist who specializes in immunology
  • immunology - the branch of medical science that studies the body's immune system
  • Immunopathology - the branch of immunology that deals with pathologies of the immune system
  • Immunosuppressant - a drug that lowers the body's normal immune response
  • immunosuppressive - of or relating to a substance that lowers the body's normal immune response and induces immunosuppression;  a drug that lowers the body's normal immune response
  • Immunotherapy - therapy designed to produce immunity to a disease or to enhance resistance by the immune system
  • impacted - wedged or packed in together
  • impaired - diminished in strength, quality, or utility; mentally or physically unfit
  • Impedance - a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms
  • Imperforate anus - a congenital defect of the anus; there is partial or complete obstruction of the anal opening
  • imperforate - not perforated; having no opening
  • Impetigo - a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • impingement - a sharp collision produced by striking or dashing against something; influencing strongly
  • Implant - a prosthesis placed permanently in tissue; verb become attached to and embedded in the uterus; fix or set securely or deeply; put firmly in the mind
  • implicit - being without doubt or reserve; implied though not directly expressed; inherent in the nature of something
  • impotence - an inability (usually of the male animal) to copulate; the quality of lacking strength or power; being weak and feeble
  • Imprinting - a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established
  • In situ - being in the original position; not having been moved
  • In vitro - in an artificial environment outside the living organism;  in an artificial environment outside the living organism
  • In vivo - within a living organism;  in the living organism
  • Inactivation - the process of rendering inactive; breaking up a military unit (by transfers or discharges)
  • inappropriate - not suitable for a particular occasion etc; not in keeping with what is correct or proper
  • Inborn error of metabolism - any of a number of diseases in which an inherited defect (usually a missing or inadequate enzyme) results in an abnormality of metabolism
  • inborn - normally existing at birth; present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • Inbreeding - the act of mating closely related individuals
  • Incase - enclose in, or as if in, a case
  • Incest - sexual intercourse between persons too closely related to marry (as between a parent and a child)
  • Incestuous - relating to or involving incest; resembling incest as by excessive intimacy
  • Incidence - the striking of a light beam on a surface; the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • incision - the cutting of or into body tissues or organs (especially by a surgeon as part of an operation); a depression scratched or carved into a surface
  • Incompetent cervix - (obstetrics) uterine cervix that becomes dilated before term and without labor often resulting in miscarriage or premature birth
  • incompetent - not qualified or suited for a purpose; not doing a good job; not meeting requirements; showing lack of skill or aptitude;  someone who is not competent to take effective action
  • incontinence - involuntary urination or defecation; indiscipline with regard to sensuous pleasures
  • Incontinent - not having control over urination and defecation
  • Incubation period - the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • Incubator - apparatus consisting of a box designed to maintain a constant temperature by the use of a thermostat; used for chicks or premature infants
  • Incurable - unalterable in disposition or habits; incapable of being cured;  a person whose disease is incurable
  • Incus - the ossicle between the malleus and the stapes
  • Indapamide - diuretic (trade name Lozal) used in the treatment of hypertension
  • Index case - the earliest documented case of a disease that is included in an epidemiological study
  • Index finger - the finger next to the thumb
  • Indigestion - a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • Indinavir - a protease inhibitor (trade name Crixivan) used for treating HIV
  • indolent - (of tumors e.g) slow to heal or develop and usually painless; disinclined to work or exertion
  • Induced abortion - a deliberate termination of pregnancy
  • induced - brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • Inducer - an agent capable of activating specific genes; someone who tries to persuade or induce or lead on
  • Induration - any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue
  • industrial - suitable to stand up to hard wear; having highly developed industries; employed in industry; of or relating to or resulting from industry; employed in industry
  • indwelling - existing or residing as an inner activating spirit or force or principle
  • Infant mortality rate - the death rate during the first year of life
  • Infant mortality - the death rate during the first year of life
  • Infant - a very young child (birth to 1 year) who has not yet begun to walk or talk
  • Infanticide - murdering an infant; a person who murders an infant
  • Infantile paralysis - an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • Infantile - being or befitting or characteristic of an infant; of or relating to infants or infancy; indicating a lack of maturity
  • infantile - being or befitting or characteristic of an infant; of or relating to infants or infancy; indicating a lack of maturity
  • Infantilism - infantile behavior in mature persons; an abnormal condition in which an older child or adult retains infantile characteristics
  • infarct - localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • Infarction - localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • Infectious - easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • infective - able to cause disease; caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • inferior vena cava - receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart; formed from the union of the two iliac veins
  • Infertile - incapable of reproducing
  • Infertility - the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate
  • Infestation - a swarm of insects that attack plants; the state of being invaded or overrun by parasites
  • Infiltration - a process in which individuals (or small groups) penetrate an area (especially the military penetration of enemy positions without detection); the slow passage of a liquid through a filtering medium
  • inflammatory bowel disease - inflammation of the colon
  • inflammatory - characterized or caused by inflammation; arousing to action or rebellion
  • Influenza - an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • Informatics - the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information
  • Informed consent - consent by a patient to undergo a medical or surgical treatment or to participate in an experiment after the patient understands the risks involved
  • Ingestion - the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating)
  • Ingrown hair - a hair that does not emerge from the follicle but remains embedded in the skin (usually causing inflammation)
  • ingrown toenail - toenail having its free tip or edges embedded in the surrounding flesh
  • ingrown - growing abnormally into the flesh
  • Inguinal hernia - hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males
  • inguinal - of or relating to or near the groin
  • Inhalant - inhaling or serving for inhalation;  a medication to be taken by inhaling it; something that is inhaled
  • Inhalation - the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing; a medication to be taken by inhaling it
  • Inhaler - a dispenser that produces a chemical vapor to be inhaled in order to relieve nasal congestion
  • Inherit - obtain from someone after their death; receive by genetic transmission; receive from a predecessor
  • Inherited - tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity
  • inhibitor - a substance that retards or stops an activity
  • inhibitory - restrictive of action
  • initiative - serving to set in motion;  the first of a series of actions; readiness to embark on bold new ventures
  • Injection - the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure; the act of putting a liquid into the body by means of a syringe; any solution that is injected (as into the skin)
  • Injure - cause injuries or bodily harm to; cause damage or affect negatively; hurt the feelings of
  • Inkblot test - a projective tests using bilaterally symmetrical inkblots; subjects state what they see in the inkblot
  • inkblot - a blot made with ink
  • innate immunity - immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • innate - present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development; being talented through inherited qualities; not established by conditioning or learning
  • inner ear - a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • Innervate - stimulate to action; supply nerves to (some organ or body part)
  • Innervation - the distribution of nerve fibers to an organ or body region; the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland
  • Inoculation - taking a vaccine as a precaution against contracting a disease
  • inoperable - not suitable for surgery; not able to perform its normal function
  • Inosine - a nucleoside that is formed by the deamination of adenosine; used in kidney transplantation to provide a temporary source of sugar
  • inositol - an optically inactive alcohol that is a component of the vitamin B complex
  • Inpatient - a patient who is residing in the hospital where he is being treated
  • Insanity - relatively permanent disorder of the mind
  • Insect repellent - a chemical substance that repels insects
  • insect - small air breathing arthropod; a person who has a nasty or unethical character undeserving of respect
  • Insecticidal - of or relating to insecticide
  • Insecticide - a chemical used to kill insects
  • insecure - lacking self confidence or assurance; lacking in security or safety; not firm or firmly fixed; likely to fail or give way; not safe from attack
  • Insemination - the introduction of semen into the genital tract of a female; the act of sowing (of seeds in the ground or, figuratively, of germs in the body or ideas in the mind, etc.)
  • Insertion - the act of putting one thing into another; a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted
  • Insinuate - introduce or insert (oneself) in a subtle manner; give to understand
  • Insomnia - an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
  • Inspection - a formal or official examination
  • Inspection - a formal or official examination
  • Inspissate - become thick or thicker; make thick or thicker; make viscous or dense
  • Inspissation - the process of thickening by dehydration; the act of thickening
  • instillation - the introduction of a liquid (by pouring or injection) drop by drop; a liquid that is instilled drop by drop
  • Institute - an association organized to promote art or science or education; verb advance or set forth in court; set up or lay the groundwork for
  • Insufficiency - lack of an adequate quantity or number; (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally; a lack of competence
  • Insulin - hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells
  • Integumentary system - the skin and its appendages
  • Intelligence quotient - a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test; the ratio of a person's mental age to their chronological age (multiplied by 100)
  • Intelligence test - a psychometric test of intelligence
  • intensive care unit - a hospital unit staffed and equipped to provide intensive care
  • Intensive care - close monitoring and constant medical care of patients with life threatening conditions
  • interaction - a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting; (physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated by gauge bosons
  • Intercellular - located between cells
  • Intercostal muscle - muscles between the ribs; they contract during inspiration
  • Interferon - an antiviral protein produced by cells that have been invaded by a virus; inhibits replication of the virus
  • Interleukin - any of several lymphokines that promote macrophages and killer T cells and B cells and other components of the immune system
  • intermittent claudication - lameness due to pain in leg muscles because the blood supply is inadequate; pain subsides with rest
  • intermittent - stopping and starting at irregular intervals; stopping and starting at regular intervals
  • Intern - an advanced student or graduate in medicine gaining supervised practical experience (`houseman' is a British term); verb work as an intern; deprive of freedom
  • Internal carotid artery - the branch of the carotid artery that supplies blood to the brain and eyes and internal parts of the head
  • Internal ear - a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • Internal iliac vein - a vein that unites with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein
  • Internal jugular vein - a continuation of the sigmoid sinus of the dura mater; joins the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein
  • Internal medicine - the branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and (nonsurgical) treatment of diseases of the internal organs (especially in adults)
  • Internal - happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface; occurring within an institution or community; located inward; inside the country; innermost or essential
  • international - concerning or belonging to all or at least two or more nations; from or between other countries;  any of several international socialist organizations
  • Internist - a specialist in internal medicine
  • Internship - the position of a medical intern
  • Internship - the position of a medical intern
  • interpersonal - occurring among or involving several people
  • Intersex - one having both male and female sexual characteristics and organs; at birth an unambiguous assignment of male or female cannot be made
  • intersexual - having sexual characteristics intermediate between those of male and female; existing or occurring between the sexes
  • Interstice - small opening between things; a small structural space between tissues or parts of an organ
  • Interstitial - of or relating to interstices
  • interstitial - of or relating to interstices
  • Intertrigo - chafing between two skin surfaces that are in contact (as in the armpit or under the breasts or between the thighs)
  • intervening - standing between or separating two objects or areas; occurring or falling between events or points in time
  • Interventricular foramen - the small opening (on both the right and left sides) that connects the third ventricle in the diencephalon with the lateral ventricle in the cerebral hemisphere
  • intervertebral disk - a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column (except between the first two)
  • Intervertebral - pertaining to the space between two vertebrae
  • Intestinal bypass - surgical operation that shortens the small intestine; used in treating obesity
  • Intestinal obstruction - blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • intestinal - of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • Intestine - the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • intolerance - impatience with annoyances; unwillingness to recognize and respect differences in opinions or beliefs
  • intracellular - located or occurring within a cell or cells
  • intracerebral - within the brain
  • Intracranial - within the skull
  • Intractable - not tractable; difficult to manage or mold
  • intradermal - relating to areas between the layers of the skin
  • Intramuscular injection - an injection into a muscle
  • Intramuscular - within a muscle
  • intramuscular - within a muscle
  • Intraocular lens - an artificial lens that is implanted into the eye of someone to replace a damaged natural lens or someone who has had a cataract removed
  • Intraocular pressure - pressure inside the eyeball; regulated by resistance to the outward flow of aqueous humor
  • Intrauterine - within the womb
  • Intravasation - entry of foreign matter into a blood vessel
  • Intravenous feeding - administration of nutrients through a vein
  • intravenous pyelogram - X ray picture of the kidneys and ureters after injection of a radiopaque dye
  • intravenous pyelography - performing pyelography with intravenous injection of a contrast medium
  • Intravenous - within or by means of a vein
  • intravenous - within or by means of a vein
  • Intraventricular - within the system of ventricles in the brain
  • Intrinsic factor - a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
  • Intrinsic - situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts; belonging to a thing by its very nature
  • Introitus - entrance or opening to a hollow organ or tube (especially the vaginal opening)
  • intron - sequence of a eukaryotic gene's DNA that is not translated into a protein
  • Intubate - introduce a cannula or tube into
  • Intubation - the insertion of a cannula or tube into a hollow body organ
  • Intussusception - (biology) growth in the surface area of a cell by the deposit of new particles between existing particles in the cell wall; the folding in of an outer layer so as to form a pocket in the surface
  • inventor - someone who is the first to think of or make something
  • inverse - reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect; opposite in nature or effect or relation to another quantity;  something inverted in sequence or character or effect
  • Invert - make an inversion (in a musical composition); turn inside out or upside down
  • Invest - make an investment; provide with power and authority; furnish with power or authority; of kings or emperors; place ceremoniously or formally in an office or position; give qualities or abilities to
  • Involuntary - not subject to the control of the will; controlled by the autonomic nervous system; without conscious control
  • Involute - (of some shells) closely coiled so that the axis is obscured; especially of petals or leaves in bud; having margins rolled inward
  • Iodide - a salt or ester of hydriodic acid
  • Ionizing radiation - high energy radiation capable of producing ionization in substances through which it passes
  • Iontophoresis - therapy that uses a local electric current to introduce the ions of a medicine into the tissues
  • Ipecac - a medicinal drug used to evoke vomiting (especially in cases of drug overdose or poisoning)
  • Ipsilateral - on or relating to the same side (of the body)
  • Iridectomy - surgical removal of part of the iris of the eye
  • Iridocyclitis - inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye
  • Iritis - inflammation of the iris
  • Iron deficiency anemia - a form of anemia due to lack of iron in the diet or to iron loss as a result of chronic bleeding
  • Iron lung - respirator that produces alternations in air pressure in a chamber surrounding a patient's chest to force air into and out of the lungs thus providing artificial respiration
  • Iron overload - pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • Irrigate - supply with a constant flow or sprinkling of some liquid, for the purpose of cooling, cleansing, or disinfecting; supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams
  • Irritability - an irritable petulant feeling; a disposition to exhibit uncontrolled anger; excessive sensitivity of an organ or body part
  • Irritable bowel syndrome - recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
  • irritable bowel syndrome - recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
  • Ischemia - local anemia in a given body part sometimes resulting from vasoconstriction or thrombosis or embolism
  • ischemic stroke - the most common kind of stroke; caused by an interruption in the flow of blood to the brain (as from a clot blocking a blood vessel)
  • Ischium - one of the three sections of the hipbone; situated below the ilium
  • islets of Langerhans - cell clusters in the pancreas that form the endocrine part of that organ; secrete insulin and other hormones
  • Isoflurane - a widely used inhalation anesthetic
  • Isolate - place or set apart; obtain in pure form; separate (experiences) from the emotions relating to them; set apart from others
  • Isoleucine - an essential amino acid found in proteins; isomeric with leucine
  • isomerase - an enzyme that catalyzes its substrate to an isomeric form
  • Isometropia - equality of refractive power in the two eyes
  • Isoniazid - antibacterial drug (trade name Nydrazid) used to treat tuberculosis
  • Isothiocyanate - a family of compounds derived from horseradish and radishes and onions and mustards; source of the hotness of those plants and preparations
  • Isotonic exercise - exercise in which opposing muscles contract and there is controlled movement (tension is constant while the lengths of the muscles change)
  • Isotonic solution - a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
  • Isotope - one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
  • Isotopic - of or relating to or having the relation of an isotope
  • Itching - an irritating cutaneous sensation that produces a desire to scratch
  • itraconazole - an oral antifungal drug (trade name Sporanox) taken for cases of fungal nail disease
  • Ivory Coast - a republic in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea; one of the most prosperous and politically stable countries in Africa

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J-K-L[edit | edit source]

  • Jacksonian epilepsy - focal epilepsy in which the attack usually moves from distal to proximal limb muscles on the same side of the body
  • Jacksonian - of or pertaining to Andrew Jackson or his presidency or his concepts of popular democracy;  a follower of Andrew Jackson or his ideas
  • Jamais vu - the experience of being unfamiliar with a person or situation that is actually very familiar; associated with certain types of epilepsy
  • James Murray - Scottish philologist and the lexicographer who shaped the Oxford English Dictionary (1837 1915)
  • James Parkinson - English surgeon (1755 1824)
  • James Watson - United States geneticist who (with Crick in 1953) helped discover the helical structure of DNA (born in 1928)
  • James Wilson - American Revolutionary leader who was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence (1742 1798)
  • Jawbone - the jaw in vertebrates that is hinged to open the mouth; verb talk idly or casually and in a friendly way
  • Jealousy - zealous vigilance; a feeling of jealous envy (especially of a rival)
  • Jefferson - 3rd President of the United States; chief drafter of the Declaration of Independence; made the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and sent out the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore it (1743 1826)
  • Jejunostomy - surgical creation of an opening between the jejunum and the anterior abdominal wall; will allow artificial feeding
  • Jejunum - the part of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum
  • Jensen - modernistic Danish writer (1873 1950)
  • jet lag - fatigue and sleep disturbance resulting from disruption of the body's normal circadian rhythm as a result of jet travel
  • Jock itch - fungal infection of the groin (most common in men)
  • John Rock - United States gynecologist and devout Catholic who conducted the first clinical trials of the oral contraceptive pill (1890 1984)
  • John Webster - English playwright (1580 1625)
  • Johnny - `Johnny' was applied as a nickname for Confederate soldiers by the Federal soldiers in the American Civil War; `greyback' derived from their grey Confederate uniforms
  • jointed - having joints or jointed segments
  • Jonas Salk - United States virologist who developed the Salk vaccine that is injected against poliomyelitis (born 1914)
  • Joseph Lister - English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics (1827 1912)
  • Jugular vein - veins in the neck that return blood from the head
  • jugular - relating to or located in the region of the neck or throat;  a vital part that is vulnerable to attack; veins in the neck that return blood from the head
  • julienne - a clear soup garnished with julienne vegetables; a vegetable cut into thin strips (usually used as a garnish); verb cut into long thin strips
  • Juncture - an event that occurs at a critical time; a crisis situation or point in time when a critical decision must be made; the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made
  • Junk DNA - stretches of DNA that do not code for genes
  • Jurisprudence - the branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do; the collection of rules imposed by authority
  • Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis - a form of rheumatoid arthritis that affects children; large joints become inflamed and bone growth may be retarded
  • Juvenile - of or relating to or characteristic of or appropriate for children or young people; displaying or suggesting a lack of maturity;  a youthful person
  • Juxtaposition - the act of positioning close together (or side by side); a side by side position
  • Kalemia - the presence of excess potassium in the circulating blood
  • Kaliuresis - the presence of excess potassium in the urine
  • Kaposi's sarcoma - a sarcoma that starts with purplish spots on the feet and legs and spreads from the skin to lymph nodes and internal organs; a common manifestation of AIDS
  • Karl Jaspers - German psychiatrist (1883 1969)
  • Karl Marx - founder of modern communism; wrote the Communist Manifesto with Engels in 1848; wrote Das Kapital in 1867 (1818 1883)
  • Karyokinesis - organic process consisting of the division of the nucleus of a cell during mitosis or meiosis
  • Karyolysis - disintegration and dissolution of a cell nucleus when a cell dies
  • Karyotype - the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
  • Kaufman - United States playwright who collaborated with many other writers including Moss Hart (1889 1961)
  • Kawasaki disease - an acute disease of young children characterized by a rash and swollen lymph nodes and fever; of unknown cause
  • Kegel exercises - exercises for women designed to improve the ability to hold urine
  • Kelly - United States dancer who performed in many musical films (1912 1996); United States film actress who retired when she married into the royal family of Monaco (1928 1982); United States circus clown (1898 1979)
  • keloid - raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury; results from excessive tissue repair
  • Kennedy - a large airport on Long Island east of New York City; 35th President of the United States; established the Peace Corps; assassinated in Dallas (1917 1963)
  • Keratin - a fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair feathers nails and hooves
  • Keratitis - inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • Keratoacanthoma - skin tumor that grows rapidly (especially in older people) and resembles a carcinoma but does not spread; it usually disappears spontaneously, often leaving a scar
  • Keratoconjunctivitis - inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva
  • Keratoconus - abnormal cone shaped protrusion of the cornea of the eye; can be treated by epikeratophakia
  • keratoderma blennorrhagica - skin disease characterized by a scaly rash on the palms and soles; associated with Reiter's syndrome
  • Keratoderma - any skin disorder consisting of a growth that appears horny
  • Keratomalacia - softening and drying and ulceration of the cornea resulting from vitamin A deficiency; symptom of cystic fibrosis or sprue
  • Keratoplasty - a surgical procedure in which part or all of a damaged or diseased cornea is replaced by healthy corneal tissue from a donor
  • Keratoscope - medical instrument to examine the cornea in order to detect irregularities in its anterior surface
  • Keratosis follicularis - a rare hereditary condition marked by dark crusted patches (sometimes containing pus)
  • Keratosis pilaris - keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
  • Keratosis - a skin condition marked by an overgrowth of layers of horny skin
  • Keratotomy - surgical incision into the cornea
  • Kernicterus - an abnormal accumulation of bile pigment in the brain and other nerve tissue; causes yellow staining and tissue damage
  • Ketoacidosis - acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus
  • Ketone - any of a class of organic compounds having a carbonyl group linked to a carbon atom in each of two hydrocarbon radicals
  • Ketonuria - excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine as in diabetes mellitus or starvation
  • Ketoprofen - nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade names Orudis or Orudis KT or Oruvail)
  • Ketorolac - nonsteroidal anti inflammatory (trade name Torodal) that is given only orally
  • Ketosis - an abnormal increase of ketone bodies in the blood as in diabetes mellitus
  • Kidney disease - a disease affecting the kidneys
  • Kidney failure - inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • Kidney stone - a calculus formed in the kidney
  • Kidney - either of two bean shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • killer cell - T cell with CD8 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus infected cell and binds to the infected cell and kill it
  • Kindling - material for starting a fire; the act of setting something on fire
  • Kindred - related by blood or marriage; similar or related in quality or character;  group of people related by blood or marriage
  • Kinesiology - the branch of physiology that studies the mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement
  • Kinetic - characterized by motion; relating to the motion of material bodies and the forces associated therewith; supplying motive force
  • Kinetics - the branch of mechanics concerned with the forces that cause motions of bodies
  • Kinetochore - a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
  • King's evil - a form of tuberculosis characterized by swellings of the lymphatic glands
  • Kinship - (anthropology) relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption; a close connection marked by community of interests or similarity in nature or character
  • Kissing bug - large bloodsucking bug
  • kissing - affectionate play (or foreplay without contact with the genital organs)
  • Klebsiella - a genus of nonmotile rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • Klinefelter - United States physician who first described the XXY syndrome (born in 1912)
  • Knee jerk - a reflex extension of the leg resulting from a sharp tap on the patellar tendon
  • Knee joint - hinge joint in the human leg connecting the tibia and fibula with the femur and protected in front by the patella
  • Kneecap - a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint; verb shoot in the kneecap, often done by terrorist groups as a warning
  • Knockout - very strong or vigorous;  a blow that renders the opponent unconscious; a very attractive or seductive looking woman
  • Knuckle - a joint of a finger when the fist is closed; verb shoot a marble while keeping one's knuckles on the ground; press or rub with the knuckles
  • Koplik's spots - small red spots with white centers found on the mucous membranes of the mouth and tongue; symptom of measles that appears one or two days before the measles rash appears
  • Kraurosis vulvae - kraurosis of the vulva; often a precancerous lesion
  • Kwashiorkor - severe malnutrition in children resulting from a diet excessively high in carbohydrates and low in protein
  • Kyphosis - an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column
  • Kyrgyzstan - a landlocked republic in west central Asia bordering on northwestern China; formerly an Asian soviet but became independent in 1991
  • Labetalol - antihypertensive drug (trade names Trandate and Normodyne) that blocks alpha and beta adrenergic receptors of the sympathetic nervous system (leading to a decrease in blood pressure)
  • Labia majora - the two outer folds of the vulva
  • Labia minora - the two inner folds of the vulva
  • Labial - relating to or near the female labium; of or relating to the lips of the mouth;  a consonant whose articulation involves movement of the lips
  • Labile - open to change; liable to change; (chemistry, physics, biology) readily undergoing change or breakdown
  • Labium - any of the four lip shaped folds of the female vulva
  • Laboratory - a workplace for the conduct of scientific research; a region resembling a laboratory inasmuch as it offers opportunities for observation and practice and experimentation
  • Labrocyte - a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation
  • labyrinth - complex system of paths or tunnels in which it is easy to get lost; a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • Labyrinthitis - inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • laceration - the act of lacerating; a torn ragged wound
  • lacrimal gland - any of the glands in the eyes that secrete tears
  • Lacrimal sac - either of the two dilated ends of the lacrimal ducts at the nasal ends of the eyes that fill with tears secreted by the lacrimal glands
  • Lacrimal - relating to or located near the organ that produces tears; of or relating to tears
  • Lacrimation - shedding tears
  • LaCrosse - a game invented by American Indians; now played by two teams who use long handled rackets to catch and carry and throw the ball toward the opponents' goal
  • Lactase deficiency - congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
  • lactase - any of a group of enzymes (trade name Lactaid) that hydrolyze lactose to glucose and galactose
  • Lactation - the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands; the period following birth during which milk is secreted; feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • Lactobacillus - Gram positive rod shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk
  • lactose intolerance - congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
  • lactose - a sugar comprising one glucose molecule linked to a galactose molecule; occurs only in milk
  • Lacuna - a blank gap or missing part; an ornamental sunken panel in a ceiling or dome
  • Lagophthalmos - abnormal condition in which an eye cannot close completely
  • Lamarckism - a theory of organic evolution claiming that acquired characteristics are transmitted to offspring
  • Lamella - thin plate; a thin membrane that is one of the calcified layers that form bones; any of the radiating leaflike spore producing structures on the underside of the cap of a mushroom or similar fungus
  • lamina - a thin plate or layer (especially of bone or mineral)
  • Laminaria - type genus of the family Laminariaceae: perennial brown kelps
  • Laminectomy - surgical removal of the bony arches on one or more vertebrae
  • Lamivudine - a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that is very effective in combination with zidovudine in treating AIDS and HIV
  • Lancet - a surgical knife with a pointed double edged blade; used for punctures and small incisions; an acutely pointed Gothic arch, like a lance
  • Landau - a four wheel covered carriage with a roof divided into two parts (front and back) that can be let down separately; Soviet physicist who worked on low temperature physics (1908 1968)
  • Lansoprazole - antacid (trade name Prevacid) that suppresses acid secretion in the stomach
  • lanugo - the fine downy hair covering a human fetus; normally shed during the ninth month of gestation
  • laparoscope - a slender endoscope inserted through an incision in the abdominal wall in order to examine the abdominal organs or to perform minor surgery
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy - removal of the gall bladder through small punctures in the abdomen to permit the insertion of a laparoscope and surgical instruments
  • Laparoscopy - laparotomy performed with a laparoscope that makes a small incision to examine the abdominal cavity (especially the ovaries and Fallopian tubes)
  • Laparotomy - surgical incision into the abdominal wall; often done to examine abdominal organs
  • Large intestine - beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum; includes the cecum and the colon and the rectum; extracts moisture from food residues which are later excreted as feces
  • laryngeal - of or relating to or situated in the larynx
  • Laryngectomy - surgical removal of part or all of the larynx (usually to treat cancer of the larynx)
  • Laryngitis - inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx; characterized by hoarseness or loss of voice and coughing
  • Laryngoscope - a medical instrument for examining the larynx
  • Laryngospasm - a closure of the larynx that blocks the passage of air to the lungs
  • Larynx - a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
  • laser - an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light
  • Lassa fever - an acute contagious viral disease of central western Africa; characterized by fever and inflammation and muscular pains and difficulty swallowing; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Lassa virus - the RNA virus that causes Lassa fever
  • Lassa - the sacred city of Lamaism; known as the Forbidden City for its former inaccessibility and hostility to strangers
  • Lassitude - weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy; a feeling of lack of interest or energy; a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness)
  • Latent - not presently active; potentially existing but not presently evident or realized
  • Lateral epicondylitis - painful inflammation of the tendon at the outer border of the elbow resulting from overuse of lower arm muscles (as in twisting of the hand)
  • Lateral ventricle - either of two horseshoe shaped ventricles one in each cerebral hemisphere; they communicate with the third ventricle via the foramen of Monro
  • lateral - lying away from the median and sagittal plane of a body; situated at or extending to the side;  a pass to a receiver upfield from the passer
  • Laudanum - narcotic consisting of an alcohol solution of opium or any preparation in which opium is the main ingredient
  • Laughing gas - inhalation anesthetic used as an anesthetic in dentistry and surgery
  • laughing - showing or feeling mirth or pleasure or happiness
  • Lavage - washing out a hollow organ (especially the stomach) by flushing with water
  • Laxative - stimulating evacuation of feces;  a mild cathartic
  • laxity - the quality of being lax and neglectful; the condition of being physiologically lax
  • Laying on of hands - laying hands on a person's head to invoke spiritual blessing in Christian ordination; the application of a faith healer's hands to the patient's body
  • Lazaretto - hospital for persons with infectious diseases (especially leprosy); a small locker at the stern of a boat or between decks of a ship
  • LDL cholesterol - the cholesterol in low density lipoproteins; the `bad' cholesterol; a high level in the blood is thought to be related to various pathogenic conditions
  • Lead poisoning - toxic condition produced by the absorption of excessive lead into the system
  • Leaded gasoline - gasoline treated with a lead compound to reduce motor knocks
  • Leaded - (of panes of glass) fixed in place by means of thin strips of lead; treated or mixed with lead; having thin strips of lead between the lines of type
  • Learning disability - a disorder found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills
  • learning - the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge; profound scholarly knowledge
  • Lecithin - a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
  • lectin - any of several plant glycoproteins that act like specific antibodies but are not antibodies in that they are not evoked by an antigenic stimulus
  • Leech - carnivorous or bloodsucking aquatic or terrestrial worms typically having a sucker at each end; a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage; verb draw blood
  • Leflunomide - an anti TNF compound (trade name Arava) that is given orally; can slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis by slowing the proliferation of white blood cells which reduces inflammation in the synovium
  • left atrium - the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
  • left ventricle - the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
  • Legionella - the motile aerobic rod shaped Gram negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • Legionnaire - a soldier who is a member of a legion (especially the French Foreign Legion); a member of the American Legion
  • Leiomyoma - benign tumor of smooth muscle (usually in the uterus or digestive tract)
  • Leiomyosarcoma - sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate
  • Leishmania - flagellate protozoan that causes leishmaniasis
  • Leishmaniasis - sores resulting from a tropical infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania which are spread by sandflies
  • lemniscus - a bundle of sensory nerve fibers going to the thalamus
  • lengthening - the act of prolonging something
  • Lenin - Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870 1924)
  • Lente insulin - trade names for forms of insulin that are used to treat diabetes mellitus
  • Lentiform nucleus - a basal ganglion shaped like a lens and including the outer reddish putamen and the inner pale yellow pallidum
  • lentiginous - relating to or covered with or resembling freckles
  • Lentigo - a small brownish spot (of the pigment melanin) on the skin
  • Leonardo da Vinci - Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance (1452 1519)
  • Leonardo - Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect; the most versatile genius of the Italian Renaissance (1452 1519)
  • Leonidas - king of Sparta and hero of the battle of Thermopylae where he was killed by the Persians (died in 480 BC)
  • Leper - a pariah who is avoided by others; a person afflicted with leprosy
  • Leptomeninges - the two innermost layers of the meninges; cerebrospinal fluid circulates between these innermost layers
  • Leptospirosis - an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • Lesbian - of female homosexuality;  a resident of Lesbos; a female homosexual
  • Lesbianism - female homosexuality
  • lesion - any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part; any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision
  • let down - fail to meet the hopes or expectations of; move something or somebody to a lower position
  • Lethal dose - the size dose that will cause death
  • Lethal gene - any gene that has an effect that causes the death of the organism at any stage of life
  • Lethal - of an instrument of certain death
  • Lethargy - a state of comatose torpor (as found in sleeping sickness); inactivity; showing an unusual lack of energy; weakness characterized by a lack of vitality or energy
  • Letterer - a painter of letters
  • Leucine - a white crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins that is essential for nutrition; obtained by the hydrolysis of most dietary proteins
  • Leukemia - malignant neoplasm of blood forming tissues; characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukocytes; one of the four major types of cancer
  • leukocyte - blood cells that engulf and digest bacteria and fungi; an important part of the body's defense system
  • Leukocytosis - an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
  • Leukoderma - a congenital skin condition characterized by spots or bands of unpigmented skin
  • Leukopenia - an abnormal lowering of the white blood cell count
  • Leukorrhea - discharge of white mucous material from the vagina; often an indication of infection
  • Levite - a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi (especially the branch that provided male assistants to the temple priests)
  • levodopa - the levorotatory form of dopa (trade names Bendopa and Brocadopa and Larodopa); as a drug it is used to treat Parkinson's disease
  • libido - (psychoanalysis) a Freudian term for sexual urge or desire
  • librarian - a professional person trained in library science and engaged in library services
  • licensed - given official approval to act
  • Lichen planus - an eruption of shiny flat topped purplish (usually itchy) papules on the wrist and forearms and thighs
  • Lidocaine - a local anesthetic (trade names Lidocaine and Xylocaine) used topically on the skin and mucous membranes
  • Life expectancy - an expected time to live as calculated on the basis of statistical probabilities
  • Life support - of or pertaining to equipment or methods used to sustain life
  • Lifeguard - an attendant employed at a beach or pool to protect swimmers from accidents
  • ligament - any connection or unifying bond; a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
  • ligand - an atom or molecule or radical or ion that forms a complex around a central atom
  • Ligate - bind with a bandage or ligature; bind chemically; join letters in a ligature when writing
  • ligation - (surgery) tying a duct or blood vessel with a ligature (as to prevent bleeding during surgery)
  • Lightening - descent of the uterus into the pelvic cavity that occurs late in pregnancy; the fetus is said to have dropped; changing to a lighter color
  • Lightheadedness - a frivolous lack of prudence; a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Lightwood - tall Australian acacia yielding highly valued black timber
  • limbic system - a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
  • limbus - a border or edge of any of various body parts distinguished by color or structure
  • linac - ions are accelerated along a linear path by voltage differences on electrodes along the path
  • Lincolnshire - an agricultural county of eastern England on the North Sea
  • Lindane - a white crystalline powder used as an agricultural insecticide
  • lingual - pertaining to or resembling or lying near the tongue; consisting of or related to language;  a consonant that is produced with the tongue and other speech organs
  • linguist - a person who speaks more than one language; a specialist in linguistics
  • Liniment - a medicinal liquid that is rubbed into the skin to relieve muscular stiffness and pain
  • Linkage group - any pair of genes that tend to be transmitted together
  • linked - connected by a link, as railway cars or trailer trucks
  • linolenic acid - a liquid polyunsaturated fatty acid that occurs in some plant oils; an essential fatty acid
  • Linus Pauling - United States chemist who studied the nature of chemical bonding (1901 1994)
  • Liothyronine - thyroid hormone similar to thyroxine but with one less iodine atom per molecule and produced in smaller quantity; exerts the same biological effects as thyroxine but is more potent and briefer
  • Lipaemia - presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • lipase - an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
  • Lipectomy - plastic surgery involving the breakdown and suction of fatty tissue
  • lipid - an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
  • Lipitor - an oral drug (trade name Lipitor) that is effective in lowering triglycerides; potent in reducing LDL cholesterol because higher doses can be given
  • lipoid - an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates)
  • lipoma - a tumor consisting of fatty tissue
  • Lipomatosis - pathology in which fat accumulates in lipomas in the body
  • lipophilic - having an affinity for lipids
  • Lipoprotein - a conjugated protein having a lipid component; the principal means for transporting lipids in the blood
  • Liposarcoma - sarcoma of fat cells
  • Liposome - an artificially made microscopic vesicle into which nucleic acids can be packaged; used in molecular biology as a transducing vector
  • Liquid diet - a diet of foods that can be served in liquid or strained form (plus custards or puddings); prescribed after certain kinds of surgery
  • Liquid nitrogen - nitrogen in a liquid state
  • Lisinopril - an ACE inhibiting drug (trade names Prinival or Zestril) administered as an antihypertensive and after heart attacks
  • Listeria - any species of the genus Listeria
  • Liter - a metric unit of capacity equal to the volume of 1 kilogram of pure water at 4 degrees centigrade and 760 mm of mercury (or approximately 1.76 pints)
  • Lithium - a soft silver white univalent element of the alkali metal group; the lightest metal known; occurs in several minerals
  • Lithotomy position - a position lying on your back with knees bent and thighs apart; assumed for vaginal or rectal examination
  • Lithotomy - surgical removal of a stone (calculus)
  • Litmus test - a test that relies on a single indicator; a coloring material (obtained from lichens) that turns red in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions; used as a very rough acid base indicator
  • Litmus - a coloring material (obtained from lichens) that turns red in acid solutions and blue in alkaline solutions; used as a very rough acid base indicator
  • Little finger - the finger farthest from the thumb
  • Liver cancer - malignant neoplastic disease of the liver usually occurring as a metastasis from another cancer; symptoms include loss of appetite and weakness and bloating and jaundice and upper abdominal discomfort
  • Liver disease - a disease affecting the liver
  • Liver fluke - flatworm parasitic in liver and bile ducts of domestic animals and humans
  • Liver spot - a type of skin disease that causes brown spots on the skin
  • Livid - furiously angry; (of a light) imparting a deathlike luminosity; anemic looking from illness or emotion; discolored by coagulation of blood beneath the skin
  • living will - a document written by someone still legally capable requesting that they should be allowed to die if subsequently severely disabled or suffering terminal illness
  • Livingston - American Revolutionary leader who served in the Continental Congress and as minister to France (1746 1813)
  • Lobar pneumonia - pneumonia affecting one or more lobes of the lung; commonly due to streptococcal infection
  • Lobar - of or relating to or affecting a lobe
  • Lobectomy - surgical removal of a lobe from any organ of the body (as the lung or brain)
  • Lobotomy - surgical interruption of nerve tracts to and from the frontal lobe of the brain; often results in marked cognitive and personality changes
  • lobule - a small lobe or subdivision of a lobe
  • Local anesthesia - loss of sensation in a small area of the body (as when a local anesthetic is injected for a tooth extraction)
  • Local anesthetic - anesthetic that numbs a particular area of the body
  • localized - made local or oriented locally; confined or restricted to a particular location
  • Lochia - substance discharged from the vagina (cellular debris and mucus and blood) that gradually decreases in amount during the weeks following childbirth
  • Locked - firmly fastened or secured against opening
  • locking - the act of locking something up to protect it
  • Lockjaw - an acute and serious infection of the central nervous system caused by bacterial infection of open wounds; spasms of the jaw and laryngeal muscles may occur during the late stages
  • Locomotion - self propelled movement; the power or ability to move
  • locomotive - of or relating to locomotion;  a wheeled vehicle consisting of a self propelled engine that is used to draw trains along railway tracks
  • Locomotor ataxia - syphilis of the spinal cord characterized by degeneration of sensory neurons and stabbing pains in the trunk and legs and unsteady gait and incontinence and impotence
  • Logorrhea - pathologically excessive (and often incoherent) talking
  • Logrolling - act of exchanging favors for mutual gain; especially trading of influence or votes among legislators to gain passage of certain projects; rotating a log rapidly in the water (as a competitive sport)
  • lomustine - an antineoplastic drug often used to treat brain tumors or Hodgkin's disease
  • Loneliness - the state of being alone in solitary isolation; a disposition toward being alone; sadness resulting from being forsaken or abandoned
  • Long bone - in limbs of vertebrate animals: a long cylindrical bone that contains marrow
  • Long chain - of molecules having relatively long chains of atoms in a molecule
  • Longevity - the property of being long lived; duration of service
  • longitudinal - over an extended time; running lengthwise; of or relating to lines of longitude
  • Lorazepam - tranquilizer (trade name Ativan) used to treat anxiety and tension and insomnia
  • Lordosis - an abnormal inward (forward) curvature of the vertebral column
  • Lou Gehrig - baseball player who died of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (1903 1941)
  • Louis Pasteur - French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822 1895)
  • Louis - United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight campion for 12 years (1914 1981)
  • Lovastatin - an oral drug (trade name Mevacor) to reduce blood cholesterol levels; used when dietary changes have proved inadequate
  • low tension - subjected to or capable of operating under relative low voltage
  • lower - the lower of two berths; verb set lower; cause to drop or sink; move something or somebody to a lower position; look angry or sullen, wrinkle one's forehead, as if to signal disapproval; make lower or quieter
  • Lowry - English novelist (1909 1957); English painter (1887 1976)
  • Loxapine - a tranquilizer (trade name Loxitane) used to treat schizophrenia
  • lubricant - a substance capable of reducing friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery
  • Lumbar puncture - removal by centesis of fluid from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  • lumbar - of or relating to or near the part of the back between the ribs and the hipbones
  • Lumpectomy - surgical removal of a tumor without removing much of the surrounding tissue or lymph nodes; performed in some cases of breast cancer
  • Lung Cancer - carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer
  • Lunula - a crescent shaped metal ornament of the Bronze Age; the crescent shaped area at the base of the human fingernail
  • Lunule - the crescent shaped area at the base of the human fingernail
  • Lupus erythematosus - a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)
  • Lupus vulgaris - tuberculosis of the skin; appears first on the face and heals slowly leaving deep scars
  • Lupus - a constellation in the southern hemisphere near Centaurus; any of several forms of ulcerative skin disease
  • lutein - yellow carotenoid pigments in plants and animal fats and egg yolks
  • luteinizing hormone - a gonadotropic hormone that is secreted by the anterior pituitary; stimulates ovulation in female mammals and stimulates androgen release in male mammals
  • Luxation - displacement or misalignment of a joint or organ
  • Lycanthropy - (folklore) the magical ability of a person to assume the characteristics of a wolf
  • lycopene - carotenoid that makes tomatoes red; may lower the risk of prostate cancer
  • Lyme disease - an acute inflammatory disease characterized by a rash with joint swelling and fever; caused by bacteria carried by the bite of a deer tick
  • lymph gland - the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymph node - the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymph vessel - a vascular duct that carries lymph which is eventually added to the venous blood circulation
  • lymph - a thin coagulable fluid (similar to plasma but) containing white blood cells (lymphocytes) and chyle; is conveyed to the blood stream by lymphatic vessels
  • Lymphadenitis - inflammation of lymph nodes
  • Lymphadenopathy - chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • Lymphangiectasia - dilatation of a lymph vessel
  • lymphangiogram - an angiogram of the lymph nodes and lymph vessels made after the injection of a radiopaque substance
  • lymphangiography - roentgenographic examination of lymph nodes and lymph vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium; produces a lymphangiogram
  • Lymphangioma - benign angioma consisting of a mass of lymphatic vessels
  • Lymphangitis - inflammation of a lymph vessel
  • lymphatic system - the interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body
  • Lymphatic tissue - tissue making up the lymphatic system
  • lymphatic vessel - a vascular duct that carries lymph which is eventually added to the venous blood circulation
  • Lymphatic - of or relating to or produced by lymph
  • Lymphedema - swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
  • Lymphoblast - an immature lymphocyte
  • lymphocyte - an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection
  • lymphocytic leukemia - leukemia characterized by enlargement of lymphoid tissues and lymphocytic cells in the circulating blood
  • lymphocytic - of or relating to lymphocytes
  • lymphocytopenia - an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • Lymphocytosis - an abnormal increase in the number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • Lymphogranuloma venereum - infectious disease caused by a species of chlamydia bacterium; transmitted by sexual contact; characterized by genital lesions and swelling of lymph nodes in the groin
  • lymphography - roentgenographic examination of lymph nodes and lymph vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium; produces a lymphangiogram
  • lymphoid tissue - tissue making up the lymphatic system
  • lymphoid - resembling lymph or lymphatic tissues
  • Lymphokine - a cytokine secreted by helper T cells in response to stimulation by antigens and that acts on other cells of the immune system (as by activating macrophages)
  • Lymphoma - a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • lymphopenia - an abnormally small number of lymphocytes in the circulating blood
  • Lymphopoiesis - the formation of lymphocytes in the bone marrow and lymph nodes and thymus and spleen
  • Lyophilization - a method of drying food or blood plasma or pharmaceuticals or tissue without destroying their physical structure; material is frozen and then warmed in a vacuum so that the ice sublimes
  • Lyophilize - to dry (blood, serum, or tissue) by freezing in a high vacuum
  • Lysergic acid diethylamide - a powerful hallucinogenic drug manufactured from lysergic acid
  • Lysine - an essential amino acid found in proteins; occurs especially in gelatin and casein
  • lysis - (biochemistry) dissolution or destruction of cells such as blood cells or bacteria; recuperation in which the symptoms of an acute disease gradually subside
  • Lysogenic - capable of producing or undergoing lysis; of or relating to lysogeny
  • lysosome - an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)

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  • Machupo virus - the RNA virus that causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever; carried by rats and mice
  • Macrencephaly - an abnormally large braincase
  • Macro - very large in scale or scope or capability;  a single computer instruction that results in a series of instructions in machine language
  • Macrobiotic diet - a diet consisting chiefly of beans and whole grains
  • Macrobiotic - of or relating to the theory or practice of macrobiotics
  • Macrocephaly - an abnormally large head; differs from hydrocephalus because there is no increased intracranial pressure and the overgrowth is symmetrical
  • Macrocytic anemia - anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is larger than normal
  • Macrocytosis - the presence of macrocytes in the blood
  • Macroglossia - a congenital disorder characterized by an abnormally large tongue; often seen in cases of Down's syndrome
  • Macromolecule - any very large complex molecule; found only in plants and animals
  • macrophage - a large phagocyte; some are fixed and other circulate in the blood stream
  • Macroscopic - large enough to be visible to the naked eye
  • macular degeneration - degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea which results in blurred vision and can cause blindness; usually age related
  • Macule - a patch of skin that is discolored but not usually elevated; caused by various diseases
  • Madhouse - pejorative terms for an insane asylum
  • Maggot - the larva of the housefly and blowfly commonly found in decaying organic matter
  • Magic bullet - a remedy (drug or therapy or preventive) that cures or prevents a disease
  • Magnesia - a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase; a source of magnesium
  • Magnesium sulfate - a salt of magnesium
  • magnetic resonance imaging - the use of nuclear magnetic resonance of protons to produce proton density images
  • Maimonides - Spanish philosopher considered the greatest Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages who codified Jewish law in the Talmud (1135 1204)
  • Makeup - cosmetics applied to the face to improve or change your appearance; an event that is substituted for a previously cancelled event; the way in which someone or something is composed
  • malabsorption syndrome - a pattern of symptoms including loss of appetite and bloating and weight loss and muscle pain and steatorrhea; associated with celiac disease and sprue and cystic fibrosis
  • Malabsorption - abnormal absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
  • Malacia - a state of abnormal softening of tissue
  • Malady - any unwholesome or desperate condition; impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
  • malaise - physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)
  • Malar - the arch of bone beneath the eye that forms the prominence of the cheek
  • Malaria - an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • Malathion - a yellow insecticide used as a dust or spray to control garden pests and house flies and mites
  • Male genitalia - external male sex organs
  • Male reproductive system - the reproductive system of males
  • Malformation - something abnormal or anomalous; an affliction in which some part of the body is misshapen or malformed
  • Malignancy - (medicine) a malignant state; progressive and resistant to treatment and tending to cause death; quality of being disposed to evil; intense ill will
  • malignant hypertension - severe hypertension that runs a rapid course and damages the inner linings of the blood vessels and the heart and spleen and kidneys and brain
  • Malignant hyperthermia - hereditary condition in which certain anesthetics (e.g., halothane) cause high body temperatures and muscle rigidity
  • Malignant melanoma - any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • malignant - dangerous to health; characterized by progressive and uncontrolled growth (especially of a tumor)
  • Malingering - evading duty or work by pretending to be incapacitated
  • Malleability - the property of being physically malleable; the property of something that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking
  • Malleus - the ossicle attached to the eardrum
  • Malnutrition - a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • Malpighian layer - the innermost layer of the epidermis
  • Maltreatment - cruel or inhumane treatment
  • Mammary gland - milk secreting organ of female mammals
  • mammary - of or relating to the milk giving gland of the female
  • mammogram - X ray film of the soft tissue of the breast
  • Mammography - a diagnostic procedure to detect breast tumors by the use of X rays
  • Management - the act of managing something; those in charge of running a business
  • Mandalay - a city in central Myanmar north of Rangoon
  • Mandible - the jaw in vertebrates that is hinged to open the mouth
  • Mania - an irrational but irresistible motive for a belief or action; a mood disorder; an affective disorder in which the victim tends to respond excessively and sometimes violently
  • Manic - affected with or marked by frenzy or mania uncontrolled by reason
  • Mannitol - a diuretic (trade name Osmitrol) used to promote the excretion of urine
  • Mansfield - a town in north central Ohio; New Zealand writer of short stories (1888 1923)
  • Mantoux test - tuberculin (a derivative of tubercle bacillus) is injected intradermally; a red area appearing 1 3 days later signifies an exposure (past or present) to tubercle bacilli and the need for further testing
  • Maple syrup urine disease - an inherited disorder of metabolism in which the urine has a odor characteristic of maple syrup; if untreated it can lead to mental retardation and death in early childhood
  • Mapping - (genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome; a function such that for every element of one set there is a unique element of another set
  • Marasmus - extreme malnutrition and emaciation (especially in children); can result from inadequate intake of food or from malabsorption or metabolic disorders
  • Marburg disease - a viral disease of green monkeys caused by the Marburg virus; when transmitted to humans it causes serious or fatal illness
  • Marburg virus - a filovirus that causes Marburg disease; carried by animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Marcello Malpighi - Italian anatomist who was the first to use a microscope to study anatomy and was among the first to recognize cells in animals (1628 1694)
  • Margaret Mead - United States anthropologist noted for her claims about adolescence and sexual behavior in Polynesian cultures (1901 1978)
  • Marie Curie - French chemist (born in Poland) who won two Nobel prizes; one (with her husband and Henri Becquerel) for research on radioactivity and another for her discovery of radium and polonium (1867 1934)
  • Mark of Cain - the mark that God set upon Cain now refers to a person's sinful nature
  • Marker - some conspicuous object used to distinguish or mark something; a writing implement for making a mark; a distinguishing symbol
  • Marmoreal - of or relating to or characteristic of marble
  • Marriage - the act of marrying; the nuptial ceremony; two people who are married to each other; the state of being a married couple voluntarily joined for life (or until divorce); a close and intimate union
  • Mary Mallon - United States cook who was an immune carrier of typhoid fever and who infected dozens of people (1870 1938)
  • Mary Martin - United States actress (1913 1990)
  • Mask of pregnancy - a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
  • masked - having its true character concealed with the intent of misleading
  • Masochism - sexual pleasure obtained from receiving punishment (physical or psychological)
  • Massage - kneading and rubbing parts of the body to increase circulation and promote relaxation; verb give a massage to; manually manipulate (someone's body), usually for medicinal or relaxation purposes
  • Masseter - a large muscle that raises the lower jaw and is used in chewing
  • mast cell - a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation
  • Mastalgia - pain in the breast
  • Mastectomy - surgical removal of a breast to remove a malignant tumor
  • Masticate - grind and knead; chew (food)
  • Mastitis - inflammation of a breast (or udder)
  • Mastocyte - a large connective tissue cell that contains histamine and heparin and serotonin which are released in allergic reactions or in response to injury or inflammation
  • mastoid bone - process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  • Mastoid - relating to or resembling a nipple; of or relating to or in the region of the mastoid process;  process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  • Mastoidectomy - surgical removal of some or all of the mastoid process
  • Mastoiditis - inflammation of the mastoid
  • Mastopexy - plastic surgery to lift or reshape the breasts
  • masturbation - manual stimulation of the genital organs (of yourself or another) for sexual pleasure
  • Materfamilias - a female head of a family or tribe
  • Materia medica - the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects
  • Maternal - characteristic of a mother; relating to or derived from one's mother; relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; related on the mother's side
  • mathematics - a science (or group of related sciences) dealing with the logic of quantity and shape and arrangement
  • Maxilla - the jaw in vertebrates that is fused to the cranium
  • McArdle's disease - an inherited disease in which abnormal amounts of glycogen accumulate in skeletal muscle; results in weakness and cramping
  • McBurney's point - a point one third of the way along a line drawn from the hip to the umbilicus; the point of maximum sensitivity in acute appendicitis
  • meal plan - a plan and a room rate for providing meals to guests at a hotel
  • Measles - an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • Measly - contemptibly small in amount
  • Meatus - a natural body passageway
  • Mebendazole - an anthelmintic used to treat hookworm and pinworm and roundworm infestations
  • mechanical - using (or as if using) mechanisms or tools or devices; relating to or governed by or in accordance with mechanics; relating to or concerned with machinery or tools
  • Meckel's diverticulum - a congenital diverticulum in the ileum resulting from incomplete closure of the yolk sac
  • Meclizine - an antihistamine (trade name Antivert) used to treat or prevent motion sickness
  • Meconium - thick dark green mucoid material that is the first feces of a newborn child
  • medial - dividing an animal into right and left halves; relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle
  • mediastinum - the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
  • mediated - acting or brought about through an intervening agency
  • Medicaid - health care for the needy; a federally and state funded program
  • Medical assistant - a person trained to assist medical professionals
  • Medical diagnosis - identification a disease from its symptoms
  • Medical history - the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
  • Medical practice - the practice of medicine
  • Medical profession - the body of individuals who are qualified to practice medicine
  • Medical record - the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
  • Medical school - a graduate school offering study leading to a medical degree
  • medical scientist - a scientist who studies disease processes
  • Medical specialty - the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques
  • medical student - a student in medical school
  • Medicare - health care for the aged; a federally administered system of health insurance available to persons aged 65 and over
  • Medication - the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • Medicine ball - heavy ball used in physical training
  • Medicine chest - cabinet that holds medicines and toiletries
  • Medicine man - a Native American shaman
  • Mediterranean anemia - an inherited form of anemia caused by faulty synthesis of hemoglobin
  • Mediterranean Fever - infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache
  • Mediterranean - of or relating to or characteristic of or located near the Mediterranean Sea;  the largest inland sea; between Europe and Africa and Asia
  • MEDLARS - relational database of the United States National Library of Medicine for the storage and retrieval of bibliographical information concerning the biomedical literature
  • MEDLINE - the computer based telephone system of the United States National Library of Medicine that provides rapid linkage to MEDLARS
  • medroxyprogesterone - a progestin compound (trade name Provera) used to treat menstrual disorders
  • Medulla oblongata - lower or hindmost part of the brain; continuous with spinal cord; (`bulb' is an old term for medulla oblongata)
  • Medullary - of or relating to the medulla of any body part; of or relating to the medulla oblongata; containing or consisting of or resembling bone marrow
  • Mefenamic acid - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory and analgesic drug (trade name Ponstel) used to treat mild pain (especially menstrual cramps)
  • Mefloquine - an antimalarial drug (trade name Larium and Mephaquine) that is effective in cases that do not respond to chloroquine; said to produce harmful neuropsychiatric effects on some people
  • Megacolon - an abnormal enlargement of the colon; can be congenital (as in Hirschsprung's disease) or acquired (as when children refuse to defecate)
  • Megakaryocyte - a large bone marrow cell; regarded as the source of blood platelets
  • megaloblastic anemia - anemia characterized by many large immature and dysfunctional red blood cells (megaloblasts) in the bone marrow; associated with pernicious anemia
  • Megavitamin therapy - therapy based on a theory that taking very large doses of vitamins will prevent or cure physical or psychological disorders
  • Megestrol acetate - a synthetic progestational compound used to treat endometrial carcinoma
  • Megrim - a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • Meibomian cyst - a small sebaceous cyst of the eyelid resulting when a Meibomian gland is blocked
  • Meibomian gland - a long sebaceous gland that lubricates the eyelids
  • Meiotic - of or relating to meiosis
  • Melancholia - extreme depression characterized by tearful sadness and irrational fears
  • melanin - insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  • Melanocyte - a cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin under the control of the melanocyte stimulating hormone
  • Melanoderma - abnormally dark skin caused by increased deposits of melatonin
  • Melanoma - any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • Melanosis - a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of melanin (especially in the skin)
  • Melasma - a tan discoloration of a woman's face that is associated with pregnancy or with the use of oral contraceptives
  • Melatonin - hormone secreted by the pineal gland
  • Melena - abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • Melphalan - antineoplastic drug (trade name Alkeran) used to treat multiple myeloma and some other malignancies
  • Meltdown - a disaster comparable to a nuclear meltdown; severe overheating of the core of a nuclear reactor resulting in the core melting and radiation escaping
  • membrane - a thin pliable sheet of material; a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals
  • Membranous - characterized by formation of a membrane (or something resembling a membrane); relating to or made of or similar to a membrane
  • Menarche - the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
  • Mendel - Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822 1884)
  • Mendelian - of or relating to Gregor Mendel or in accord with Mendel's laws;  a follower of Mendelism
  • Mendelism - the theory of inheritance based on Mendel's laws
  • Meniere - French otologist who first described a form of vertigo now known as Meniere's disease and identified the semicircular canals as the site of the lesion (1799 1862)
  • meningeal - relating to the meninges
  • meninges - a membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • Meningioma - a tumor arising in the meninges which surround the brain and spinal cord; usually slow growing and sometimes malignant
  • Meningism - symptoms that mimic those of meningitis but without inflammation of the meninges
  • Meningocele - a congenital anomaly of the central nervous system in which a sac protruding from the brain or the spinal meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid (but no nerve tissue)
  • Meningoencephalitis - inflammation of the brain and spinal cord and their meninges
  • menopausal - of or relating to the menopause
  • Menopause - the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Menorrhagia - abnormally heavy or prolonged menstruation; can be a symptom of uterine tumors and can lead to anemia if prolonged
  • Menstrual cycle - a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation
  • Menstrual - of or relating to menstruation or the menses
  • Menstruation - the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • Mental disorder - (psychiatry) a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
  • Mental Health - the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment
  • Mental hygiene - the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods
  • Mental retardation - lack of normal development of intellectual capacities
  • Mental state - (psychology) a mental condition in which the qualities of a state are relatively constant even though the state itself may be dynamic
  • Mentum - a projection below the mouth of certain mollusks that resembles a chin; a projection like a chin formed by the sepals and base of the column in some orchids; the protruding part of the lower jaw
  • Mercaptopurine - a drug (trade name Purinethol) that interferes with the metabolism of purine and is used to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia
  • Mercury poisoning - a toxic condition caused by ingesting or inhaling mercury; acute mercury poisoning causes a metallic taste and vomiting and diarrhea and kidney problems that may lead to death
  • Meromelia - congenital absence of part of an arm or leg
  • Mesenteric artery - one of two branches of the aorta that pass between the two layers of the mesentery to the intestines
  • Mesenteric vein - a tributary of the portal vein passing from the intestine between the two layers of mesentery
  • mesenteric - of or relating to or located in a mesentery
  • Mesentery - a double layer of peritoneum that attaches to the back wall of the abdominal cavity and supports the small intestines
  • Mesial - being in or directed toward the midline or mesial plane of the body
  • Mesmerism - the act of inducing hypnosis
  • Mesoderm - the middle germ layer that develops into muscle and bone and cartilage and blood and connective tissue
  • Mesodermal - relating to or derived from the mesoderm
  • Mesothelioma - a rare form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust
  • Messenger RNA - the template for protein synthesis; the form of RNA that carries information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome sites of protein synthesis in the cell
  • messenger - a person who carries a message
  • Mestranol - a synthetic form of estrogen used in combination with a progestin in oral contraceptives
  • Metabolic rate - rate of metabolism; the amount of energy expended in a give period
  • Metabolic - undergoing metamorphosis; of or relating to metabolism
  • Metabolism - the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • Metacentric chromosome - a chromosome having two equal arms because the centromere is in median position
  • Metamere - one of a series of similar body segments into which some animals are divided longitudinally
  • Metamorphopsia - a defect of vision in which objects appear to be distorted; usually due to a defect in the retina
  • Metaphase - the second stage of mitosis; the second stage of meiosis
  • Metaphase - the second stage of mitosis; the second stage of meiosis
  • Metaphysis - the growing part of a long bone between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
  • Metastasis - the spreading of a disease to another part of the body; the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life
  • metastasize - spread throughout the body
  • metastatic - relating to or affected by metastasis
  • Metatarsal - of or relating to the metatarsus;  any bone of the foot between the ankle and the toes
  • Metatarsus - the skeleton of the human foot between the toes and the tarsus; the corresponding part of the foot in birds or of the hind foot in quadrupeds
  • metformin - an antidiabetic drug (trade name Glucophage) prescribed to treat type II diabetes
  • Methadone - synthetic narcotic drug similar to morphine but less habit forming; used in narcotic detoxification and maintenance of heroin addiction
  • Methamphetamine - an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
  • Metharbital - anticonvulsant drug (trade name Gemonil) used in the treatment of epilepsy
  • Methicillin - antibiotic drug of the penicillin family used in the treatment of certain staphylococcal infections
  • Methionine - a crystalline amino acid containing sulfur; found in most proteins and essential for nutrition
  • Methocarbamol - muscle relaxant for skeletal muscles (trade name Robaxin) used to treat spasms
  • Methotrexate - toxic antimetabolite that limits cellular reproduction by acting as an antagonist to folic acid; used to treat certain cancers and psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis
  • Methyl bromide - a poisonous gas or liquid (CH3Br) used to fumigate rodents, worms, etc.
  • methyl - the univalent radical CH3 derived from methane
  • Methyldopa - antihypertensive drug (trade name Aldomet) used in the treatment of high blood pressure
  • Methylene blue - a dark green dye used as a stain, an antiseptic, a chemical indicator, and an antidote in cyanide poisoning
  • Methylphenidate - central nervous system stimulant (trade name Ritalin) used in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention deficit disorder in children
  • Metronidazole - antiprotozoal medication (trade name Flagyl) used to treat trichomoniasis and giardiasis
  • Metropolis - people living in a large densely populated municipality; a large and densely populated urban area; may include several independent administrative districts
  • Metrorrhagia - bleeding from the uterus that is not due to menstruation; usually indicative of disease (as cervical cancer)
  • Meuse - an American operation in World War I (1918); American troops under Pershing drove back the German armies which were saved only by the armistice on November 11; a European river; flows into the North Sea
  • Mexiletine - antiarrhythmic drug (trade name Mexitil) used to treat ventricular arrhythmias
  • Miasma - unhealthy vapors rising from the ground or other sources; an unwholesome atmosphere
  • Miasmic - of noxious stench from atmospheric pollution; filled with vapor
  • Miconazole - an antifungal agent usually administered in the form of a nitrate (trade name Monistat)
  • Micro - extremely small in scale or scope or capability
  • microbe - a minute life form (especially a disease causing bacterium); the term is not in technical use
  • microbiologist - a specialist in microbiology
  • Microbiology - the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans
  • Microcephaly - an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain
  • Microcytic anemia - anemia in which the average size of erythrocytes is smaller than normal
  • Microcytosis - a blood disorder characterized by the presence of microcytes (abnormally small red blood cells) in the blood; often associated with anemia
  • microgram - one millionth (1/1,000,000) gram
  • Micronutrient - a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  • Microorganism - any organism of microscopic size
  • Micropenis - an abnormally small penis
  • Microphallus - an abnormally small penis
  • Microscope - magnifier of the image of small objects
  • Microscopic anatomy - the study of microscopic structures of tissues and organs
  • Microscopic - too small to be seen except under a microscope; extremely precise with great attention to details; of or relating to or used in microscopy; infinitely or immeasurably small
  • Microscopy - research with the use of microscopes
  • Microsurgery - surgery using operating microscopes and miniaturized precision instruments to perform intricate procedures on very small structures
  • Micturate - eliminate urine
  • micturition - the discharge of urine
  • Midazolam - an injectable form of benzodiazepine (trade name Versed) useful for sedation and for reducing pain during uncomfortable medical procedures
  • middle ear - the main cavity of the ear; between the eardrum and the inner ear
  • Middle finger - the second finger; between the index finger and the ring finger
  • Midget - very small;  a person who is markedly small
  • Midwife - a woman skilled in aiding the delivery of babies
  • Midwifery - assisting women at childbirth; the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother
  • Mifepristone - an abortion inducing drug (trade name RU_486) developed in France; when taken during the first five weeks of pregnancy it blocks the action of progesterone so that the uterus sloughs off the embryo
  • Migraine - a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • Milch - giving milk; bred or suitable primarily for milk production
  • Miliaria - obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • Miliary fever - epidemic in the 15th and 16th centuries and characterized by profuse sweating and high mortality
  • Miliary tuberculosis - acute tuberculosis characterized by the appearance of tiny tubercles on one or more organs of the body (presumably resulting from tubercle bacilli being spread in the bloodstream)
  • Military hospital - hospital for soldiers and other military personnel
  • Milk sickness - caused by consuming milk from cattle suffering from trembles; disease of livestock and especially cattle poisoned by eating certain kinds of snakeroot
  • milligram - one thousandth (1/1,000) gram
  • Milwaukee - largest city of Wisconsin; located in southeastern Wisconsin on the western shore of Lake Michigan; a flourishing agricultural center known for its breweries
  • Mimesis - the imitative representation of nature and human behavior in art and literature; the representation of another person's words in a speech; any disease that shows symptoms characteristic of another disease
  • Mimetic - exhibiting mimicry; characterized by or of the nature of or using mimesis
  • Mimicry - the resemblance of an animal species to another species or to natural objects; provides concealment and protection from predators; the act of mimicking; imitative behavior
  • Minamata disease - a form of mercury poisoning among people who ate fish from mercury contaminated waters of Minamata Bay off Japan in the 1950s; characterized by severe neurological degeneration
  • mindfulness - the trait of staying aware of (paying close attention to) your responsibilities
  • mindlessness - the trait of acting rashly and without prudence; total lack of meaning or ideas
  • mineralocorticoid - hormone that is one of the steroids of the adrenal cortex that influences the metabolism of sodium and potassium
  • Minimisation - the act of reducing something to the least possible amount or degree or position
  • Minocycline - tetracycline antibiotic (trade name Minocin) used to treat a variety of bacterial and rickettsial infections
  • Minoxidil - a vasodilator (trade name Loniten) used to treat severe hypertension; one side effect is hirsutism so it is also sold (trade name Rogaine) as a treatment for male patterned baldness
  • miotic - of or relating to or causing constriction of the pupil of the eye;  a drug that causes miosis (constriction of the pupil of the eye)
  • Mirror - polished surface that forms images by reflecting light; a faithful depiction or reflection; verb reflect or resemble; reflect as if in a mirror
  • Miscarriage - failure of a plan; a natural loss of the products of conception
  • mismatch - a bad or unsuitable match; verb match badly; match two objects or people that do not go together
  • Mitochondrion - an organelle containing enzymes responsible for producing energy
  • mitomycin - a complex of antibiotic substances obtained from a streptomyces bacterium; one form (trade name Mutamycin) shows promise as an anticancer drug
  • mitosis - cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
  • Mitotic - of or relating to or undergoing mitosis
  • mitral valve prolapse - cardiopathy resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  • mitral valve stenosis - obstruction or narrowing of the mitral valve (as by scarring from rheumatic fever)
  • mitral valve - valve with two cusps; situated between the left atrium and the left ventricle
  • mitral - of or relating to or located in or near the mitral valve; relating to or resembling the miter worn by some clerics
  • Mittelschmerz - pain in the area of the ovary that is felt at the time of ovulation (usually midway through the menstrual cycle)
  • mixed - consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity); involving or composed of different races; caused to combine or unite
  • mobility - the quality of moving freely
  • Modeling - a preliminary sculpture in wax or clay from which a finished work can be copied; the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale); sculpture produced by molding
  • Modelling - the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale); a preliminary sculpture in wax or clay from which a finished work can be copied
  • modified radical mastectomy - removal of a breast and the pectoralis minor and some lymph nodes in the adjacent armpit
  • Modifier gene - a gene that modifies the effect produced by another gene
  • Moisturize - make (more) humid
  • Molar pregnancy - an abnormality during pregnancy; chorionic villi around the fetus degenerate and form clusters of fluid filled sacs; usually associated with the death of the fetus
  • Molecular biology - the branch of biology that studies the structure and activity of macromolecules essential to life (and especially with their genetic role)
  • Molecular genetics - the branch of genetics concerned with the structure and activity of genetic material at the molecular level
  • molecular - relating to simple or elementary organization; relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules
  • Molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound; (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
  • molluscum contagiosum - a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
  • Momism - excessive protection
  • Monaural - relating to or having or hearing with only one ear
  • Mongolism - a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
  • Monilia - any of the yeastlike imperfect fungi of the genus Monilia
  • Moniliasis - an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitor - any of a group of antidepressant drugs that inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase in the brain and so allow monoamines to accumulate
  • Monochromacy - complete color blindness; colors can be differentiated only on the basis of brightness
  • Monochromat - a person who is completely color blind
  • Monochromatism - complete color blindness; colors can be differentiated only on the basis of brightness
  • monoclonal antibody - any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a hybridoma; very specific for a particular location in the body
  • Monoclonal - forming or derived from a single clone;  any of a class of antibodies produced in the laboratory by identical offspring of a hybridoma; very specific for a particular location in the body
  • Monocular vision - vision with only one eye
  • Monocyte - a type of granular leukocyte that functions in the ingestion of bacteria
  • Monocytosis - increase in the number of monocytes in the blood; symptom of monocytic leukemia
  • Monogenic disorder - an inherited disease controlled by a single pair of genes
  • Monogenic - of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by a single pair of genes
  • Monohybrid cross - hybridization using a single trait with two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
  • Monohybrid - a hybrid produced by crossing parents that are homozygous except for a single gene locus that has two alleles (as in Mendel's experiments with garden peas)
  • Mononeuropathy - any neuropathy of a single nerve trunk
  • Monoplegia - paralysis of a single limb
  • Monoploid - of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
  • Monorchism - failure of one testes to descend into the scrotum
  • Monosodium glutamate - white crystalline compound used as a food additive to enhance flavor; often used in Chinese cooking
  • Monosomy - chromosomal abnormality consisting of the absence of one chromosome from the normal diploid number
  • Moonflower - pantropical climber having white fragrant nocturnal flowers
  • morbid - suggesting an unhealthy mental state; caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology; suggesting the horror of death and decay
  • morbidity - an abnormally gloomy or unhealthy state of mind; the relative incidence of a particular disease; the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you
  • Morbilli - an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • Morbilliform - of a rash that resembles that of measles
  • Morgue - a building (or room) where dead bodies are kept before burial or cremation
  • Morning sickness - nausea early in the day; a characteristic symptom in the early months of pregnancy
  • morning - the time period between dawn and noon; a conventional expression of greeting or farewell; the earliest period; the first light of day
  • Moro reflex - a normal reflex of young infants; a sudden loud noise causes the child to stretch out the arms and flex the legs
  • Morphea - localized scleroderma
  • Morpheus - the Roman god of sleep and dreams
  • Morphia - an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • Morphine - an alkaloid narcotic drug extracted from opium; a powerful, habit forming narcotic used to relieve pain
  • Morphogenesis - differentiation and growth of the structure of an organism (or a part of an organism)
  • Mortality rate - the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • Mortality - the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • Mosaicism - the condition in which an organism has two or more cell populations that differ in genetic makeup
  • Mosquito net - a fine net or screen (especially around beds) to protect against mosquitos
  • Motherese - an adult's imitation of the speech of a young child
  • motility - ability to move spontaneously and independently; a change of position that does not entail a change of location
  • Motion sickness - the state of being dizzy or nauseated because of the motions that occur while traveling in or on a moving vehicle
  • Motoneuron - a neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord
  • Motor control - control of muscles
  • motor neuron - a neuron conducting impulses outwards from the brain or spinal cord
  • Motor pool - a fleet of military vehicles controlled by a single agency and available for use as needed
  • Mountain sickness - nausea and shortness of breath experienced by mountain climbers above ten thousand feet
  • mountain - a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill; a large number or amount
  • Mourning - sorrowful through loss or deprivation;  state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one; the passionate and demonstrative activity of expressing grief
  • Mouthwash - a medicated solution used for gargling and rinsing the mouth
  • mower - garden tool for mowing grass on lawns
  • mucocutaneous - of or relating to the mucous membranes and skin
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis - any of a group of genetic disorders involving a defect in the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides resulting in greater than normal levels of mucopolysaccharides in tissues
  • mucosa - mucus secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • mucous membrane - mucus secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • Mucous - of or secreting or covered with or resembling mucus
  • Mucoviscidosis - the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • Mulligan - Irish version of burgoo
  • Multicellular - consisting of many cells
  • Multifactorial - involving or depending on several factors or causes (especially pertaining to a condition or disease resulting from the interaction of many genes)
  • Multiparous - producing more than one offspring at a time
  • Multiple myeloma - myeloma that develops in several places at the same time
  • multiple sclerosis - a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
  • Multiple - having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual;  the product of a quantity by an integer
  • multiplicity - the property of being multiple; a large number
  • Multivitamin - a pill or tablet containing several vitamins
  • Mumps - an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • Munchausen syndrome - syndrome consisting of feigning acute and dramatic illness for which no clinical evidence is ever found
  • Munchhausen - German raconteur who told preposterous stories about his adventures as a soldier and hunter; his name is now associated with any telling of exaggerated stories or winning lies (1720 1797)
  • Murine typhus - acute infection caused by rickettsia and transmitted by the bite of an infected flea; characterized by fever and chills and muscle aches and a rash
  • Murine - of or relating to or transmitted by a member of the family Muridae (rats and mice);  a rodent that is a member of the family Muridae
  • Mus musculus - brownish grey Old World mouse now a common household pest worldwide
  • Muscle relaxant - a drug that reduces muscle contractility by blocking the transmission of nerve impulses or by decreasing the excitability of the motor end plate or by other actions
  • Muscle tone - normal tonicity of the muscles
  • Muscular dystrophy - any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • Musculoskeletal system - the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
  • Musculoskeletal - relating to muscles and skeleton
  • Musculus - one of the contractile organs of the body
  • Mustard gas - a toxic war gas with sulfide based compounds that raises blisters and attacks the eyes and lungs; there is no known antidote
  • Mustard plaster - a plaster containing powdered black mustard; applied to the skin as a counterirritant or rubefacient
  • Mutability - the quality of being capable of mutation
  • Mutagen - any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation
  • Mutagenesis - an event capable of causing a mutation
  • Mutant - tending to undergo or resulting from mutation;  an animal that has undergone mutation; (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
  • Muteness - a refusal to speak when expected; the condition of being unable or unwilling to speak
  • Mutism - the condition of being unable or unwilling to speak
  • Muton - the smallest unit of DNA where a mutation can occur
  • myalgia - pain in a muscle or group of muscles
  • Myasthenia gravis - a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • Mycelium - the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
  • Mycobacteria - rod shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • Mycobacterium leprae - cause of leprosy
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis - cause of tuberculosis
  • mycobacterium - rod shaped bacteria some saprophytic or causing diseases
  • Mycoplasma - any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection
  • mycosis - an inflammatory condition caused by a fungus
  • mycostatin - an antifungal and antibiotic (trade names Mycostatin and Nystan) discovered in New York State; derived from soil fungi actinomycetes
  • Mycotoxin - a toxin produced by a fungus
  • Mydriasis - reflex pupillary dilation as a muscle pulls the iris outward; occurs in response to a decrease in light or certain drugs
  • mydriatic - a drug that causes the pupil of the eye to dilate; used to aid eye examinations
  • myelin - a white fatty substance that forms a medullary sheath around the axis cylinder of some nerve fibers
  • Myelinization - the development of a myelin sheath around a nerve fiber
  • Myelitis - inflammation of the spinal cord
  • myelofibrosis - fibrosis of the bone marrow
  • myelogram - X ray film of the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots and subarachnoid space
  • Myelography - roentgenography of the spinal cord to detect possible lesions (usually after injection of a contrast medium into the subarachnoid space)
  • Myeloid leukemia - chronic leukemia characterized by granular leukocytes; more common in older people
  • myeloid - of or relating to bone marrow; of or relating to the spinal cord
  • myeloma - a tumor of the bone marrow (usually malignant) composed of cells normally found in bone marrow
  • myocardial infarction - destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle
  • myocardial - of or relating to the myocardium
  • Myocarditis - inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • myocardium - the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
  • Myoclonus - a clonic spasm of a muscle or muscle group
  • Myoglobin - a hemoprotein that receives oxygen from hemoglobin and stores it in the tissues until needed
  • Myoglobinuria - the presence of myoglobin in the urine
  • Myoma - a benign tumor composed of muscle tissue
  • myometrium - the smooth muscle forming the wall of the uterus
  • Myonecrosis - localized death of muscle cell fibers
  • myopathic - of or relating to any disease of the muscles that is not caused by nerve dysfunction
  • Myopathy - any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • myopia - (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • Myosarcoma - sarcoma of muscle tissue
  • myosin - the commonest protein in muscle; a globulin that combines with actin to form actomyosin
  • Myositis - inflammation of muscle tissue
  • Myotonia - abnormally long muscular contractions; slow relaxation of a muscle after a contraction
  • myotonic - of or relating to or caused by myotonia
  • Myriad - too numerous to be counted;  a large indefinite number
  • Myringotomy - surgical incision into the eardrum (to relieve pressure or release pus from the middle ear)
  • Myrmecia - bulldog ants
  • Mysophobia - a morbid fear of dirt or contamination
  • Myxedema - hypothyroidism marked by dry skin and swellings around lips and nose as well as mental deterioration
  • Myxoma - a benign tumor of connective tissue containing jellylike material
  • Nabothian cyst - a cyst that forms in the nabothian glands of the uterine cervix
  • Nabumetone - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Relafen)
  • Nadir - the point below the observer that is directly opposite the zenith on the imaginary sphere against which celestial bodies appear to be projected; an extreme state of adversity; the lowest point of anything
  • Naegele's rule - rule for calculating an expected delivery date; subtract three months from the first day of the last menstrual period and add seven days to that date
  • Nail biting - (of a situation) characterized by or causing suspense
  • Naloxone - a potent narcotic antagonist (trade name Narcan) especially effective with morphine
  • Naltrexone - an oral antagonist against the action of opiates
  • named - bearing the author's name; given or having a specified name
  • Nandrolone - an androgen (trade names Durabolin or Kabolin) that is used to treat testosterone deficiency or breast cancer or osteoporosis
  • Nanism - a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
  • Nanny - female goat; a woman who is the custodian of children
  • Nanotechnology - the branch of engineering that deals with things smaller than 100 nanometers (especially with the manipulation of individual molecules)
  • Naphazoline - vasoconstrictor (trade names Privine and Sudafed) used in nasal sprays to treat symptoms of nasal congestion and in eyedrops to treat eye irritation
  • Naphthalene - a white crystalline strong smelling hydrocarbon made from coal tar or petroleum and used in organic synthesis and as a fumigant in mothballs
  • naproxen sodium - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trademarks Aleve and Anaprox and Aflaxen)
  • Naproxen - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Naprosyn) used in the treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal inflammation and moderate pain
  • Narcan - a potent narcotic antagonist (trade name Narcan) especially effective with morphine
  • Narcolepsy - a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
  • Naris - any of the openings to the nasal cavities that allow air to flow through the cavities to the pharynx
  • Nasal cavity - either of the two cavities lying between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth and extending from the face to the pharynx
  • Nasal decongestant - a decongestant that provides temporary relief of nasal symptoms of the common cold and rhinitis and upper respiratory infections
  • Nasal septum - a partition of bone and cartilage between the nasal cavities
  • nasal - sounding as if the nose were pinched; of or in or relating to the nose;  an elongated rectangular bone that forms the bridge of the nose; a consonant produced through the nose with the mouth closed
  • Nasopharynx - cavity forming the upper part of the pharynx
  • National Academy of Sciences - an honorary American society of scientists created by President Lincoln during the American Civil War
  • National Library of Medicine - the world's largest medical library
  • Natriuresis - the presence of abnormally large amounts of sodium in the urine
  • Natriuretic - of or relating to natriuresis
  • Natural family planning - any of several methods of family planning that do not involve sterilization or contraceptive devices or drugs; coitus is avoided during the fertile time of a woman's menstrual cycle
  • Natural immunity - immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • Natural selection - a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
  • naturalist - a biologist knowledgeable about natural history (especially botany and zoology); an advocate of the doctrine that the world can be understood in scientific terms
  • Naturopath - a therapist who practices naturopathy
  • Naturopathy - a method of treating disease using food and exercise and heat to assist the natural healing process
  • Nausea - disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • Navel - scar where the umbilical cord was attached; the center point or middle of something
  • Neanderthal - relating to or belonging to or resembling Neanderthal man; ill mannered and coarse and contemptible in behavior or appearance;  extinct robust human of Middle Paleolithic in Europe and western Asia
  • Nearsightedness - (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • Nebulizer - a dispenser that turns a liquid (such as perfume) into a fine mist
  • Necrobiosis lipoidica - skin disease marked by thin shiny patches (especially on the legs); often associated with diabetes mellitus
  • Necrobiosis - (physiology) the normal degeneration and death of living cells (as in various epithelial cells)
  • Necropsy - an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease
  • Necrosis - the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • Necrotic - relating to or affected by necrosis
  • needle biopsy - biopsy of deep tissue that is obtained through a hollow needle
  • Nefazodone - an antidepressant drug (trade name Serzone)
  • nematode - unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free living but some are parasitic
  • Neo darwinism - a modern Darwinian theory that explains new species in terms of genetic mutations
  • Neocortex - the cortical part of the neencephalon
  • Neomycin - an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used (as a sulphate under the trade name Neobiotic) as an intestinal antiseptic in surgery
  • Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia - a common disorder that is usually due to immaturity of the liver; usually subsides spontaneously
  • Neonatal intensive care unit - an intensive care unit designed with special equipment to care for premature or seriously ill newborn
  • Neonatal mortality rate - the death rate during the first 28 days of life
  • neonatal mortality - the death rate during the first 28 days of life
  • neonatal - relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • Neonate - a baby from birth to four weeks
  • Neonatology - that branch of pediatric medicine concerned with the newborn; the diagnosis and treatment of neonates
  • Neopallium - the cortical part of the neencephalon
  • Neophobia - a morbid fear of novelty
  • neoplasia - the pathological process that results in the formation and growth of a tumor
  • Neoplasm - an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • Neoplastic - of or related to or having the properties of a neoplasm
  • Neostigmine - a cholinergic drug (trade name Prostigmin) used to treat some ophthalmic conditions and to treat myasthenia gravis
  • Nephrectomy - surgical removal of a kidney
  • Nephritis - an inflammation of the kidney
  • Nephroblastoma - malignant renal tumor of young children characterized by hypertension and blood in the urine and the presence of a palpable mass
  • Nephrocalcinosis - renal lithiasis in which calcium deposits form in the renal parenchyma and result in reduced kidney function and blood in the urine
  • Nephrolith - a calculus formed in the kidney
  • Nephrolithiasis - the presence of kidney stones (calculi) in the kidney
  • Nephrology - the branch of medicine concerned with the kidney its development and anatomy and physiology and disorders
  • Nephron - any of the small tubules that are the excretory units of the vertebrate kidney
  • nephropathy - a disease affecting the kidneys
  • Nephroptosis - prolapse of the kidney
  • Nephrosclerosis - kidney disease that is usually associated with hypertension; sclerosis of the renal arterioles reduces blood flow that can lead to kidney failure and heart failure
  • Nephrotomy - incision into a kidney (usually to remove a kidney stone)
  • nephrotoxic - toxic to the kidney
  • nerve agent - a toxic gas that is inhaled or absorbed through the skin and has harmful effects on the nervous and respiratory system
  • Nerve cell - a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
  • Nerve compression - harmful pressure on a nerve (especially in nerves that pass over rigid prominences); causes nerve damage and muscle weakness
  • nerve growth factor - a protein that is involved in the growth of peripheral nerve cells
  • Nerve plexus - a network of intersecting nerves
  • nerve - any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body; impudent aggressiveness; the courage to carry on; verb get ready for something difficult or unpleasant
  • Nerves - control of your emotions; an uneasy psychological state
  • Nervous system - the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • nervous - easily agitated; of or relating to the nervous system; unpredictably excitable (especially of horses); excited in anticipation; causing or fraught with or showing anxiety
  • Nervus ulnaris - a nerve running along the inner side of the arm and passing near the elbow; supplies intrinsic muscles of the hand and the skin of the medial side of the hand
  • Neural tube - a tube of ectodermal tissue in the embryo from which the brain and spinal cord develop
  • Neural - of or relating to neurons; of or relating to the nervous system
  • Neuralgia - acute spasmodic pain along the course of one or more nerves
  • Neurasthenia - nervous breakdown (not in technical use)
  • Neurectomy - surgical removal of all or part of a nerve
  • Neurilemma - thin membranous sheath around a nerve fiber
  • Neurinoma - tumor (usually benign) of the sheath surrounding a nerve
  • Neuritis - inflammation of a nerve accompanied by pain and sometimes loss of function
  • neuroanatomy - the anatomy of the nervous system
  • neurobiology - the branch of biology that deals with the anatomy and physiology and pathology of the nervous system
  • Neuroblast - a cell from which a nerve cell develops
  • Neuroblastoma - malignant tumor containing embryonic nerve cells; usually metastasizes quickly
  • Neurodermatitis - dermatitis in which localized areas (especially the forearms or back of the neck or outer part of the ankle) itch persistently; cause is unknown
  • neuroendocrine - of or relating to the nervous and endocrine systems (especially as they function together)
  • Neuroethics - the study of ethical implications of treatments for neurological diseases
  • Neurofibroma - tumor of the fibrous covering of a peripheral nerve
  • Neurofibromatosis - autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous neurofibromas and by spots on the skin and often by developmental abnormalities
  • Neurogenesis - the development of nerve tissues
  • Neurogenic - arising in or stimulated by nerve tissues
  • Neurohormone - a hormone that is released by nerve impulses (e.g., norepinephrine or vasopressin)
  • Neuroleptic - tranquilizer used to treat psychotic conditions when a calming effect is desired
  • Neurological - of or relating to or used in or practicing neurology
  • neurologist - a medical specialist in the nervous system and the disorders affecting it
  • Neurology - (neurology) the branch of medicine that deals with the nervous system and its disorders; the branch of medical science that deals with the nervous system
  • neuroma - any tumor derived from cells of the nervous system
  • neuromuscular junction - the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
  • Neuromuscular - affecting or characteristic of both neural and muscular tissue
  • neuron - a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
  • Neuropathy - any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • Neurophysiology - the branch of neuroscience that studies the physiology of the nervous system
  • Neuropsychiatry - the branch of medicine dealing with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system
  • Neuropsychology - the branch of psychology that is concerned with the physiological bases of psychological processes
  • Neuroscience - the scientific study of the nervous system
  • neuroscientist - a neurobiologist who specializes in the study of the brain
  • Neurosis - a mental or personality disturbance not attributable to any known neurological or organic dysfunction
  • Neurospora - genus of fungi with black perithecia used extensively in genetic research; includes some forms with orange spore masses that cause severe damage in bakeries
  • neurosurgeon - someone who does surgery on the nervous system (especially the brain)
  • Neurosurgery - any surgery that involves the nervous system (brain or spinal cord or peripheral nerves)
  • Neurosyphilis - syphilis of the central nervous system
  • Neurotoxic - poisonous to nerves or nerve cells
  • Neurotoxin - any toxin that affects neural tissues
  • Neurotransmitter - transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
  • neurotropism - an affinity for neural tissues
  • Neutropenia - leukopenia in which the decrease is primarily in number of neutrophils (the chief phagocytic leukocyte)
  • neutrophil - the chief phagocytic leukocyte; stains with either basic or acid dyes
  • Nevirapine - a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (trade name Viramune) used to treat AIDS and HIV
  • nevus - a blemish on the skin that is formed before birth
  • newborn - having just or recently arisen or come into existence; recently borne;  a baby from birth to four weeks
  • Newcastle - a port city in northeastern England on the River Tyne; a center for coal exports (giving rise to the expression `carry coals to Newcastle' meaning to do something unnecessary)
  • Nexus - a connected series or group; the means of connection between things linked in series
  • Niacin - a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • Nicotiana tabacum - tall erect South American herb with large ovate leaves and terminal clusters of tubular white or pink flowers; cultivated for its leaves
  • Nicotine - an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
  • Nicotinic acid - a B vitamin essential for the normal function of the nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract
  • Nictitate - briefly shut the eyes
  • Nidus - a nest in which spiders or insects deposit their eggs; a central point or locus of an infection in an organism
  • Nifedipine - calcium blocker (trade name Procardia); appears to increase the risk of recurrent heart attacks
  • Night blindness - inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder
  • Night terror - an emotional episode (usually in young children) in which the person awakens in terror with feelings of anxiety and fear but is unable to remember any incident that might have provoked those feelings
  • Nightmare - a terrifying or deeply upsetting dream; a situation resembling a terrifying dream
  • Ninth cranial nerve - sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
  • ninth - coming next after the eighth and just before the tenth in position;  position nine in a countable series of things; one part in nine equal parts
  • Nipple shield - a rubber or plastic shield to protect the nipples of nursing women
  • Nipple - a flexible cap on a baby's feeding bottle or pacifier; the small projection of a mammary gland
  • Nitpicking - quibbling over insignificant details
  • Nitric oxide - a poisonous red brown gas (NO)
  • Nitrobenzene - a poisonous oily water soluble liquid used as a solvent and in the manufacture of aniline
  • Nitrogen mustard - a toxic compound resembling mustard gas in structure; important in cancer treatment
  • Nitrogen narcosis - confused or stuporous state caused by high levels of dissolved nitrogen in the blood
  • Nitrogen - a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues
  • Nitroglycerin - a heavy yellow poisonous oily explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol; used in making explosives and medically as a vasodilator (trade names Nitrospan and Nitrostat)
  • Nitrous oxide - inhalation anesthetic used as an anesthetic in dentistry and surgery
  • Nitrous oxide - inhalation anesthetic used as an anesthetic in dentistry and surgery
  • NNRTI - an antiviral drug used against HIV; binds directly to reverse transcriptase and prevents RNA conversion to DNA; often used in combination with other drugs
  • No show - someone who shirks duty; a guest who fails to notify a hotel or restaurant when canceling a reservation
  • Nocturia - excessive urination at night; especially common in older men
  • nocturnal - belonging to or active during the night; of or relating to or occurring in the night
  • Nodular - having nodules or occurring in the form of nodules; relating to or characterized by or having nodules
  • nodule - a small node; (mineralogy) a small rounded lump of mineral substance (usually harder than the surrounding rock or sediment); small rounded wartlike protuberance on a plant
  • Noise pollution - annoying and potentially harmful environmental noise
  • Noisome - offensively malodorous; causing or able to cause nausea
  • Nomenclature - a system of words used to name things in a particular discipline
  • Nominal aphasia - inability to name objects or to recognize written or spoken names of objects
  • nomogram - a graphic representation of numerical relations
  • Nonagenarian - being from 90 to 99 years old;  someone whose age is in the nineties
  • Noncompliance - the failure to obey
  • Nondisjunction - meiosis in which there is a failure of paired homologous chromosomes to separate; results in an abnormal number of chromosomes in the daughter cells
  • nonessential - not of prime or central importance;  anything that is not essential
  • nonmalignant - not threatening to life or health; not malignant
  • nonprescription - purchasable without a doctor's prescription
  • Nonrandom - not random
  • nonsense - having no intelligible meaning;  a message that seems to convey no meaning; ornamental objects of no great value
  • Nonsteroidal - not steroidal or not having the effects of steroid hormones;  an organic compound that does no contain a steroid
  • nonstructural - not structural
  • Nonunion - not belonging to or not allowing affiliation with a trade union
  • noradrenaline - a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • norepinephrine - a catecholamine precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and also released at synapses
  • Norethandrolone - a synthetic progestational hormone (trade name Norlutin) used in oral contraceptives and to treat endometriosis
  • Norgestrel - synthetic progestin used in oral contraceptives
  • Normal distribution - a theoretical distribution with finite mean and variance
  • Normotensive - having normal blood pressure
  • Northern Ireland - a division of the United Kingdom located on the northern part of the island of Ireland
  • Northumberland - the northernmost county of England; has many Roman remains (including Hadrian's Wall)
  • Nortriptyline - a tricyclic antidepressant drug (trade name Pamelor) used along with psychotherapy to treat dysthymic depression; may interact dangerously if taken with other drugs
  • Nose job - cosmetic surgery to improve the appearance of your nose
  • Nosebleed - bleeding from the nose
  • Nosocomial - taking place or originating in a hospital
  • Nosology - the branch of medical science dealing with the classification of disease
  • Nostradamus - French astrologer who wrote cryptic predictions whose interpretations are still being debated (1503 1566)
  • Nostril - either one of the two external openings to the nasal cavity in the nose
  • Nostrum - patent medicine whose efficacy is questionable; hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases; once sought by the alchemists
  • novelist - one who writes novels
  • novobiocin - an antibiotic obtained from an actinomycete and used to treat infections by Gram positive bacteria
  • Noxiptiline - a tricyclic antidepressant drug
  • NREM sleep - a recurring sleep state during which rapid eye movements do not occur and dreaming does not occur; accounts for about 75% of normal sleep time
  • NSAID - an anti inflammatory drug that does not contain steroids
  • Nuclear family - a family consisting of parents and their children and grandparents of a marital partner
  • Nuclear medicine - the branch of medicine that uses radioactive materials either to image a patient's body or to destroy diseased cells
  • Nuclease - general term for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acid by cleaving chains of nucleotides into smaller units
  • Nucleic acid - (biochemistry) any of various macromolecules composed of nucleotide chains that are vital constituents of all living cells
  • Nucleolar organizer - the particular part of a chromosome that is associated with a nucleolus after nuclear division
  • Nucleolus - a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus; such organelles contain RNA and are involved in protein synthesis
  • Nucleoprotein - any of several substances found in the nuclei of all living cells; consists of a protein bound to a nucleic acid
  • Nucleoside - a glycoside formed by partial hydrolysis of a nucleic acid
  • Nucleotide - a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside; the basic structural unit of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA)
  • Nude mouse - a mouse with a genetic defect that prevents them from growing hair and also prevents them from immunologically rejecting human cells and tissues; widely used in preclinical trials
  • Nullipara - (obstetrics) a woman who has never give birth to a child
  • Numbness - partial or total lack of sensation in a part of the body; a symptom of nerve damage or dysfunction; the trait of lacking enthusiasm for or interest in things generally
  • Nurse practitioner - a registered nurse who has received special training and can perform many of the duties of a physician
  • Nursing home - an institution where people are cared for
  • Nursing school - a school for training nurses
  • Nursing - the work of caring for the sick or injured or infirm; nourishing at the breast; the profession of a nurse
  • Nutrient - of or providing nourishment;  any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue
  • Nutritionist - a specialist in the study of nutrition
  • Nyctalopia - inability to see clearly in dim light; due to a deficiency of vitamin A or to a retinal disorder
  • Nyctophobia - a morbid fear of night or darkness
  • Nymph - a larva of an insect with incomplete metamorphosis (as the dragonfly or mayfly); (classical mythology) a minor nature goddess usually depicted as a beautiful maiden; a voluptuously beautiful young woman
  • Nystagmus - involuntary movements of the eyeballs; its presence or absence is used to diagnose a variety of neurological and visual disorders
  • Nystatin - an antifungal and antibiotic (trade names Mycostatin and Nystan) discovered in New York State; derived from soil fungi actinomycetes
  • Obese - excessively fat
  • Obesity - more than average fatness
  • observer - an expert who observes and comments on something; a person who becomes aware (of things or events) through the senses
  • Obsessive - characterized by or constituting an obsession;  a person who has obsessions
  • obstetrical - of or relating to or used in or practicing obstetrics
  • obstetrician - a physician specializing in obstetrics
  • Obstetrics - the branch of medicine dealing with childbirth and care of the mother
  • Obstructive shock - shock caused by obstruction of blood flow
  • obstructive - preventing movement
  • Obtund - reduce the edge or violence of
  • Obverse - the side of a coin or medal bearing the principal stamp or design; the more conspicuous of two alternatives or cases or sides
  • Occam's razor - the principle that entities should not be multiplied needlessly; the simplest of two competing theories is to be preferred
  • Occipital bone - a saucer shaped membrane bone that forms the back of the skull
  • occipital lobe - that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying in the back of the head
  • occipital - of or relating to the occiput
  • Occiput - back part of the head or skull
  • Occlude - block passage through
  • Occupational disease - disease or disability resulting from conditions of employment (usually from long exposure to a noxious substance or from continuous repetition of certain acts)
  • Occupational therapy - physical therapy involving the therapeutic use of crafts and hobbies for the rehabilitation of handicapped or convalescing patients (especially for emotionally disturbed patients)
  • occupational - of or relating to the activity or business for which you are trained
  • ocean - a large body of water constituting a principal part of the hydrosphere; anything apparently limitless in quantity or volume
  • Ochronosis - an accumulation of dark pigment in cartilage and other connective tissue; usually a symptom of alkaptonuria or phenol poisoning
  • Octogenarian - being from 80 to 89 years old;  someone whose age is in the eighties
  • Ocular - able to be seen; relating to or using sight; of or relating to or resembling the eye;  combination of lenses at the viewing end of optical instruments
  • Oculomotor nerve - supplies extrinsic muscles of the eye
  • oculomotor - supplies extrinsic muscles of the eye
  • Odynophagia - severe pain on swallowing due to a disorder of the esophagus
  • Oesophagus - the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • Offspring - something that comes into existence as a result; the immediate descendants of a person; any immature animal
  • Old age - a late time of life
  • Olecranon - process of the ulna that forms the outer bump of the elbow and fits into the fossa of the humerus when the arm is extended
  • Olfaction - the faculty that enables us to distinguish scents
  • Olfactory bulb - one of two enlargements at the terminus of the olfactory nerve at the base of the brain just above the nasal cavities
  • Olfactory nerve - a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
  • olfactory - of or relating to olfaction
  • Oligodactyly - congenital condition in which some fingers or toes are missing
  • Oligodendrocyte - a cell of the oligodendroglia
  • Oligomenorrhea - abnormally light or infrequent menstruation
  • Oligospermia - insufficient spermatozoa in the semen
  • Oliver Wendell Holmes - United States writer of humorous essays (1809 1894)
  • omega - the last (24th) letter of the Greek alphabet; the ending of a series or sequence
  • omentum - a fold of peritoneum supporting the viscera
  • Omeprazole - antacid (trade name Prilosec) that suppresses acid secretion in the stomach
  • Omniscience - the state of being omniscient; having infinite knowledge
  • Omphalocele - protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • Omphalos - scar where the umbilical cord was attached
  • Onchocerciasis - infestation with slender threadlike roundworms (filaria) deposited under the skin by the bite of black fleas; when the eyes are involved it can result in blindness; common in Africa and tropical America
  • Oncogene - a gene that causes normal cells to change into cancerous tumor cells
  • oncologist - a specialist in oncology
  • Oncology - the branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of tumors
  • Oneiric - of or relating to or suggestive of dreams
  • Onset - the beginning or early stages; (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons)
  • Onycholysis - separation of a nail from its normal attachment to the nail bed
  • Oocyte - a female gametocyte that develops into an ovum after two meiotic divisions
  • Oogenesis - development of ova
  • Oophorectomy - surgical removal of one of both ovaries
  • Oophoritis - inflammation of one or both ovaries
  • Open fracture - bone fracture associated with lacerated soft tissue or an open wound
  • Operating room - a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • Operating table - table on which the patient lies during a surgical operation
  • Operating theater - a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • Operon - a segment of DNA containing adjacent genes including structural genes and an operator gene and a regulatory gene
  • Ophthalmia - severe conjunctivitis
  • Ophthalmic artery - a branch of the internal carotid artery that supplies the eye and neighboring structures
  • ophthalmic - of or relating to ophthalmology; of or relating to the eye
  • Ophthalmitis - severe conjunctivitis
  • ophthalmologist - a medical doctor specializing in the treatment of diseases of the eye
  • Ophthalmology - the branch of medicine concerned with the eye and its diseases
  • Ophthalmoplegia - paralysis of the motor nerves of the eye
  • Ophthalmoscope - medical instrument for examining the retina of the eye
  • Ophthalmoscopy - examination of the interior of an eye using an ophthalmoscope
  • opiate - a narcotic drug that contains opium or an opium derivative
  • Opisthotonos - severe spasm in which the back arches and the head bends back and heels flex toward the back
  • Opium - an addictive narcotic extracted from seed capsules of the opium poppy
  • opportunistic - taking immediate advantage, often unethically, of any circumstance of possible benefit
  • Optic cup - (embryology) a two walled cuplike depression that develops into the pigmented and sensory layers of the retina
  • Optic disc - the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light
  • optic disk - the point where the optic nerve enters the retina; not sensitive to light
  • optic nerve - the cranial nerve that serves the retina
  • Optic - relating to or using sight; of or relating to or resembling the eye;  the organ of sight
  • Optical - of or relating to or involving light or optics; relating to or using sight; of or relating to or resembling the eye
  • Optician - a worker who makes glasses for remedying defects of vision
  • optimism - a general disposition to expect the best in all things; the optimistic feeling that all is going to turn out well
  • optometrist - a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses
  • Optometry - the practice of an optometrist
  • Oral cancer - malignant neoplasm of the lips of mouth; most common in men over the age of 60
  • Oral contraceptive - a contraceptive in the form of a pill containing estrogen and progestin to inhibit ovulation and so prevent conception
  • orbital - of or relating to the eye socket; of or relating to an orbit
  • orchidectomy - surgical removal of one or both testicles
  • Orchiectomy - surgical removal of one or both testicles
  • Orchiopexy - operation to bring an undescended testicle into the scrotum
  • Orchitis - inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • Organ of hearing - the part of the ear that is responsible for sensations of sound
  • Organ transplant - an operation moving an organ from one organism (the donor) to another (the recipient)
  • Organelle - a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ
  • Organic brain syndrome - mental abnormality resulting from disturbance of the structure or function of the brain
  • Organism - a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently; a system considered analogous in structure or function to a living body
  • Organophosphate - an insecticide that interferes with an insect's nervous system
  • orgasm - the moment of most intense pleasure in sexual intercourse
  • Orifice - an aperture or hole that opens into a bodily cavity
  • Ornithine - an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is important in the formation of urea
  • oropharyngeal - of or relating to or located near the oropharynx
  • oropharynx - cavity formed by the pharynx at the back of the mouth
  • Orphenadrine - a skeletal muscle relaxant (trade name Norflex) used to treat severe muscle strain and Parkinsonism
  • Orthodontics - the branch of dentistry dealing with the prevention or correction of irregularities of the teeth
  • Orthopaedic - of or relating to or employed in orthopedics
  • Orthopaedics - the branch of medical science concerned with disorders or deformities of the spine and joints
  • Orthopaedist - a specialist in correcting deformities of the skeletal system (especially in children)
  • Orthopedic - of or relating to or employed in orthopedics
  • orthopedics - the branch of medical science concerned with disorders or deformities of the spine and joints
  • orthopedist - a specialist in correcting deformities of the skeletal system (especially in children)
  • Orthopnea - form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect; associated with asthma and emphysema and angina pectoris
  • Orthoptics - treatment of defects of binocular vision (such as strabismus and amblyopia) by nonsurgical measures (especially by exercises to strengthen the eye muscles)
  • orthostatic hypotension - low blood pressure occurring in some people when they stand up
  • orthostatic - pertaining to an upright standing posture
  • Oryzomys palustris - hardy agile rat of grassy marshes of Mexico and the southeastern United States
  • Osseous - composed of or containing bone
  • Ossicle - a small bone; especially one in the middle ear
  • Ossify - become bony; cause to become hard and bony; make rigid and set into a conventional pattern
  • osteitis deformans - a disease of bone occurring in the middle aged and elderly; excessive bone destruction sometimes leading to bone pain and fractures and skeletal deformities
  • Osteitis - inflammation of a bone as a consequence of infection or trauma or degeneration
  • Osteoarthritis - chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • Osteoblast - a cell from which bone develops
  • Osteoblastoma - benign tumor of bone and fibrous tissue; occurs in the vertebrae or femur or tibia or arm bones (especially in young adults)
  • Osteochondroma - benign tumor containing both bone and cartilage; usually occurs near the end of a long bone
  • Osteoclasis - treatment of a skeletal deformity by intentionally fracturing a bone
  • Osteoclast - cell that functions in the breakdown and resorption of bone tissue
  • Osteocyte - mature bone cell
  • Osteodystrophy - defective bone development; usually attributable to renal disease or to disturbances in calcium and phosphorus metabolism
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta - autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
  • osteogenic sarcoma - malignant bone tumor; most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur
  • Osteology - the branch of anatomy that studies the bones of the vertebrate skeleton
  • Osteolysis - lysis of bone caused by disease or infection or inadequate blood supply
  • osteoma - a slow growing benign tumor of consisting of bone tissue; usually on the skull or mandible
  • Osteomalacia - abnormal softening of bones caused by deficiencies of phosphorus or calcium or vitamin D
  • Osteomyelitis - an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • osteopath - a therapist who manipulates the skeleton and muscles
  • Osteopathy - therapy based on the assumption that restoring health is best accomplished by manipulating the skeleton and muscles
  • Osteopetrosis - an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
  • Osteophyte - small abnormal bony outgrowth
  • Osteoporosis - abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • Osteosarcoma - malignant bone tumor; most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur
  • Osteosclerosis - abnormal hardening or eburnation of bone
  • Osteotomy - surgical sectioning of bone
  • ostomy - surgical procedure that creates an artificial opening for the elimination of bodily wastes
  • Otalgia - an ache localized in the middle or inner ear
  • Othello - the hero of William Shakespeare's tragedy who would not trust his wife
  • Otitis externa - inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
  • Otitis interna - inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • Otitis media - inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • Otitis - inflammation of the ear
  • Otolaryngologist - a specialist in the disorders of the ear or nose or throat
  • Otolaryngology - the medical specialty that deals with diseases of the ear, nose and throat
  • Otology - the branch of medicine concerned with the ear
  • Otoplasty - reconstructive surgery of the auricle of the external ear
  • Otorhinolaryngology - the medical specialty that deals with diseases of the ear, nose and throat
  • Otosclerosis - hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
  • Otoscope - medical instrument consisting of a magnifying lens and light; used for examining the external ear (the auditory meatus and especially the tympanic membrane)
  • outbreak - a sudden violent spontaneous occurrence (usually of some undesirable condition)
  • outer ear - the part of the ear visible externally
  • outer - being on or toward the outside of the body; being on the outside or further from a center; located outside
  • outpatient - a patient who does not reside in the hospital where he is being treated
  • Ovarian cyst - a cystic tumor (usually benign) of the ovary
  • Ovarian pregnancy - ectopic pregnancy in the ovary
  • Ovarian - of or involving the ovaries
  • ovariectomy - surgical removal of one of both ovaries
  • Ovary - (vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone; the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
  • overactive - more active than normal
  • Overbite - (dentistry) malocclusion in which the upper teeth extend abnormally far over the lower teeth
  • Overeating - eating to excess (personified as one of the deadly sins)
  • Overgrowth - a profusion of growth on or over something else; excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Overload - an excessive burden; an electrical load that exceeds the available electrical power; verb place too much a load on; become overloaded; fill to excess so that function is impaired
  • Overweight - usually describes a large person who is fat but has a large frame to carry it;  the property of excessive fatness
  • ovulation - the expulsion of an ovum from the ovary (usually midway in the menstrual cycle)
  • Oxaprozin - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Daypro)
  • Oxazepam - a tranquilizing drug (trade name Serax) used to treat anxiety and insomnia and alcohol withdrawal
  • oxidant - a substance that oxidizes another substance
  • oxidation - the process of oxidizing; the addition of oxygen to a compound with a loss of electrons; always occurs accompanied by reduction
  • oxide - any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical
  • oxide - any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical
  • Oxycephaly - a congenital abnormality of the skull; the top of the skull assumes a cone shape
  • Oxygen mask - a breathing device that is placed over the mouth and nose; supplies oxygen from an attached storage tank
  • Oxygen - a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust
  • Oxygenate - impregnate, combine, or supply with oxygen
  • Oxygenation - the process of providing or combining or treating with oxygen
  • Oxyhemoglobin - the bright red hemoglobin that is a combination of hemoglobin and oxygen from the lungs
  • Oxytetracycline - a yellow crystalline antibiotic (trademark Terramycin) obtained from a soil actinomycete; used to treat various bacterial and rickettsial infections
  • Oxytocin - hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland (trade name Pitocin); stimulates contractions of the uterus and ejection of milk

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  • Pachyderma - thickening of the skin (usually unilateral on an extremity) caused by congenital enlargement of lymph vessel and lymph vessel obstruction
  • Pachydermatous - of or relating to or characteristic of pachyderms; emotionally hardened
  • Pacifier - device used for an infant to suck or bite on; someone who tries to bring peace
  • Pacing - walking with slow regular strides; (music) the speed at which a composition is to be played
  • paediatrician - a specialist in the care of babies
  • Paediatrics - the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children
  • Paget - English pathologist who discovered the cause of trichinosis (1814 1899)
  • Pain unit - a unit measuring the intensity of pain
  • painful - causing physical or psychological pain; causing physical discomfort; exceptionally bad or displeasing; causing misery or pain or distress
  • Pains - an effortful attempt to attain a goal
  • painting - the occupation of a house painter; the act of applying paint to a surface; creating a picture with paints; graphic art consisting of an artistic composition made by applying paints to a surface
  • Pakistan - a Muslim republic that occupies the heartland of ancient south Asian civilization in the Indus River valley; formerly part of India; achieved independence from the United Kingdom in 1947
  • palate - the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
  • Palatine bone - either of two irregularly shaped bones that form the back of the hard palate and helps to form the nasal cavity and the floor of the orbits
  • Palatine tonsil - either of two masses of lymphatic tissue one on each side of the oral pharynx
  • Paleopathology - the study of disease of former times (as inferred from fossil evidence)
  • Paleostriatum - the inner pale yellow part of the lenticular nucleus
  • Palilalia - a pathological condition in which a word is rapidly and involuntarily repeated
  • Palindrome - a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward
  • Palliate - provide physical relief, as from pain; lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of
  • Palliation - easing the severity of a pain or a disease without removing the cause; to act in such a way as to cause an offense to seem less serious
  • palliative - moderating pain or sorrow by making it easier to bear;  remedy that alleviates pain without curing
  • Pallidum - the inner pale yellow part of the lenticular nucleus
  • Palmar - relating to the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot
  • Palpable - capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind; especially capable of being handled or touched or felt; can be felt by palpation
  • palpate - examine (a body part) by palpation
  • Palpation - a method of examination in which the examiner feels the size or shape or firmness or location of something (of body parts when the examiner is a health professional)
  • Palpebra - either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye
  • palpitation - a rapid and irregular heart beat; a shaky motion
  • palsy - a condition marked by uncontrollable tremor; loss of the ability to move a body part; verb affect with palsy
  • Panacea - hypothetical remedy for all ills or diseases; once sought by the alchemists; (Greek mythology) the goddess of healing; daughter of Aesculapius and sister of Hygeia
  • pancreas - a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
  • Pancreatectomy - surgical removal of part or all of the pancreas
  • pancreatic cancer - cancer of the pancreas
  • pancreatic duct - a duct connecting the pancreas with the intestine
  • pancreatic juice - a fluid secreted into the duodenum by the pancreas; important for breaking down starches and proteins and fats
  • pancreatic - of or involving the pancreas
  • Pancreatitis - inflammation of the pancreas; usually marked by abdominal pain
  • Pancytopenia - an abnormal deficiency in all blood cells (red blood cells and white blood cells and platelets); usually associated with bone marrow tumor or with aplastic anemia
  • Pandemic - existing everywhere; epidemic over a wide geographical area;  an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • Pandiculation - yawning and stretching (as when first waking up)
  • Panic attack - a sudden attack of fear
  • Panic disorder - an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks; the attacks are usually severe but brief
  • Panic - an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety; sudden mass fear and anxiety over anticipated events; verb cause sudden fear in or fill with sudden panic; be overcome by a sudden fear
  • Pantothenic acid - a vitamin of the vitamin B complex that performs an important role in the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates and certain amino acids; occurs in many foods
  • Pap smear - a sample of secretions and superficial cells of the uterine cervix and uterus; examined with a microscope to detect any abnormal cells
  • Pap test - a method of examining stained cells in a cervical smear for early diagnosis of uterine cancer
  • Papilla - a small projection of tissue at the base of a hair or tooth or feather; a small nipple shaped protuberance concerned with taste, touch, or smell; (botany) a tiny outgrowth on the surface of a petal or leaf
  • Papillary muscle - any of several muscles associated with the atrioventricular valves
  • Papillary tumor - a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass
  • papillary - of or relating to or resembling papilla
  • Papilledema - swelling of the optic disc (where the optic nerve enters the eyeball); usually associated with an increase in intraocular pressure
  • Papilloma - a benign epithelial tumor forming a rounded mass
  • Papillon - small slender toy spaniel with erect ears and a black spotted brown to white coat
  • PAPPA - an informal term for a father; probably derived from baby talk
  • Pappataci fever - a mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasii
  • Paprika - a mild powdered seasoning made from dried pimientos; plant bearing large mild thick walled usually bell shaped fruits; the principal salad peppers
  • Papule - a small inflamed elevation of skin that is nonsuppurative (as in chicken pox)
  • Paracentesis - centesis of the belly to remove fluid for diagnosis
  • paradoxical - seemingly contradictory but nonetheless possibly true
  • Paraesthesia - abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
  • paraffin - (British usage) kerosine; from crude petroleum; used for candles and for preservative or waterproof coatings; a series of non aromatic saturated hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH(2n+2)
  • Paralysis - loss of the ability to move a body part
  • paralytic - affected or subject to with paralysis; relating to or of the nature of paralysis;  a person suffering from paralysis
  • Paramedic - a person trained to assist medical professionals and to give emergency medical treatment
  • Parametritis - inflammation of connective tissue adjacent to the uterus
  • paramyxovirus - a group of viruses including those causing mumps and measles
  • Paranoia - a psychological disorder characterized by delusions of persecution or grandeur
  • Paraparesis - a slight paralysis or weakness of both legs
  • Paraphilia - abnormal sexual activity
  • Paraplegia - paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
  • Paraplegic - suffering complete paralysis of the lower half of the body usually resulting from damage to the spinal cord;  a person who has paraplegia (is paralyzed from the waist down)
  • Paraquat - a poisonous yellow solid used in solution as a herbicide
  • Parasitemia - a condition in which parasites are present in the blood
  • Parasitic worm - worm that is parasitic on the intestines of vertebrates especially roundworms and tapeworms and flukes
  • Parasitic - of plants or persons; having the nature or habits of a parasite or leech; living off another; relating to or caused by parasites; of or pertaining to epenthesis
  • Parasitism - the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
  • Parathion - a colorless and odorless toxic oil used as an insecticide
  • Parathormone - hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
  • parathyroid gland - any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the thyroid gland
  • parathyroid hormone - hormone synthesized and released into the blood stream by the parathyroid glands; regulates phosphorus and calcium in the body and functions in neuromuscular excitation and blood clotting
  • parathyroid - any one of four endocrine glands situated above or within the thyroid gland
  • Paratyphoid fever - any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
  • Parental - relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; designating the generation of organisms from which hybrid offspring are produced
  • parenteral - located outside the alimentary tract; administered by means other than through the alimentary tract (as by intramuscular or intravenous injection)
  • Paresis - a slight or partial paralysis
  • Paresthesia - abnormal skin sensations (as tingling or tickling or itching or burning) usually associated with peripheral nerve damage
  • Parietal bone - either of two skull bones between the frontal and occipital bones and forming the top and sides of the cranium
  • parietal lobe - that part of the cerebral cortex in either hemisphere of the brain lying below the crown of the head
  • parietal pericardium - the tough outermost layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm and the sternum
  • Parietal - of or relating to or associated with the parietal bones in the cranium
  • Parkinson's disease - a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • Parkinson - British historian noted for ridicule of bureaucracies (1909 1993); English surgeon (1755 1824)
  • Parkinsonism - a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • Paronychia - low growing annual or perennial herbs or woody plants; whitlowworts; infection in the tissues adjacent to a nail on a finger or toe
  • Parotid gland - a large salivary gland that produces 50% of daytime saliva; in human beings it is located in front of and below each ear
  • Parotitis - inflammation of one or both parotid glands
  • paroxysm - a sudden uncontrollable attack
  • paroxysmal - accompanied by or of the nature of paroxysms
  • Parrot fever - an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds
  • parrot fever - an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds
  • Parsonage - an official residence provided by a church for its parson or vicar or rector
  • Parthenogenesis - process in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual; common among insects and some other arthropods; human conception without fertilization by a man
  • Participant - someone who takes part in an activity; a person who participates in or is skilled at some game
  • Particle - a function word that can be used in English to form phrasal verbs; a body having finite mass and internal structure but negligible dimensions; (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything
  • parts - the local environment
  • Parturition - the process of giving birth
  • Passive immunity - an impermanent form of acquired immunity in which antibodies against a disease are acquired naturally (as through the placenta to an unborn child) or artificially (as by injection of antiserum)
  • Pasteur - French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822 1895)
  • Pasteurellosis - an acute infectious disease characterized by pneumonia and blood infection
  • Pasteurization - partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
  • Patch test - a test to determine allergic sensitivity by applying small pads soaked with allergen to the unbroken skin
  • patchy - irregular or uneven in quality, texture, etc.
  • patella - type genus of the family Patellidae: common European limpets; a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint
  • Patellar reflex - a reflex extension of the leg resulting from a sharp tap on the patellar tendon
  • patellar - near or relating to the patella or kneecap
  • Patent ductus arteriosus - a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth; may require surgical correction
  • Paterfamilias - the male head of family or tribe
  • Paternal - characteristic of a father; belonging to or inherited from one's father; relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; related on the father's side
  • Paterson - a city of northeastern New Jersey; American Revolutionary leader (born in Ireland) who was a member of the Constitutional Convention (1745 1806)
  • Pathogen - any disease producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • Pathogenesis - the origination and development of a disease
  • Pathogenic - able to cause disease
  • Pathologic - caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology; of or relating to the practice of pathology
  • pathological - caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition; of or relating to the practice of pathology; caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology
  • pathologist - a doctor who specializes in medical diagnosis
  • Pathology - the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases; any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • Paul Ehrlich - German bacteriologist who found a `magic bullet' to cure syphilis and was a pioneer in the study of immunology (1854 1915)
  • Pauling - United States chemist who studied the nature of chemical bonding (1901 1994)
  • Pavlov - Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849 1936)
  • Pavlovian - of or relating to Ivan Pavlov or his experiments
  • payment - the act of paying money; a sum of money paid
  • Peccant - liable to sin
  • Pectus - the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates
  • Pediatric - of or relating to the medical care of children
  • pediatrician - a specialist in the care of babies
  • Pediatrics - the branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of infants and children
  • pedicle - a small stalk bearing a single flower of an inflorescence; an ultimate division of a common peduncle
  • Pediculicide - a chemical agent that kills lice
  • Pediculosis pubis - infestation of the pubic hair by crab lice
  • Pediculosis - infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching
  • Pedigree - having a list of ancestors as proof of being a purebred animal;  ancestry of a purebred animal; line of descent of a purebred animal; the descendants of one individual
  • Pedophilia - a sexual attraction to children
  • Peeping tom - a viewer who enjoys seeing the sex acts or sex organs of others
  • Peer review - evaluate professionally a colleague's work
  • Pelvic - of or relating to the pelvis
  • Pelvimetry - measurement of the dimensions of the bony birth canal (to determine whether vaginal birth is possible)
  • Pemphigus - a skin disease characterized by large thin walled blisters (bullae) arising from normal skin or mucous membrane
  • Penetrating - tending to penetrate; having the power of entering or piercing; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions
  • Penicillamine - a drug (trade name Cuprimine) used to treat heavy metal poisoning and Wilson's disease and severe arthritis
  • Penicillin - any of various antibiotics obtained from Penicillium molds (or produced synthetically) and used in the treatment of various infections and diseases
  • Penile - of or relating to the penis
  • Penis - the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism)
  • Pentobarbital - a barbiturate (trade name Nembutal) used as a sedative and hypnotic and antispasmodic
  • Pentoxifylline - a drug (trade name Trental) used to treat claudication; believed to increase the flexibility of red blood cells so they can flow through the blood vessels to the legs and feet
  • Pentylenetetrazol - a drug used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant; larger doses cause convulsions in shock therapy; Metrazol is a trademark
  • Penumbra - a fringe region of partial shadow around an umbra
  • pepsin - an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
  • peptic ulcer - an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • peptic - relating to or promoting digestion
  • Peptidase - any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
  • Peptide bond - the primary linkage of all protein structures; the chemical bond between the carboxyl groups and amino groups that unites a peptide
  • peptide - amide combining the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another; usually obtained by partial hydrolysis of protein
  • Percentile - (statistics) any of the 99 numbered points that divide an ordered set of scores into 100 parts each of which contains one hundredth of the total
  • Perchlorate - a salt of perchloric acid
  • Perchloric acid - a powerful oxidizing agent; forms perchlorates
  • Percussion - the act of exploding a percussion cap; the act of playing a percussion instrument; tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes; the section of a band or orchestra that plays percussion instruments
  • Percussion - the act of exploding a percussion cap; the act of playing a percussion instrument; tapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes; the section of a band or orchestra that plays percussion instruments
  • Percutaneous - through the unbroken skin; refers to medications applied directly to the skin (creams or ointments) or in time release forms (skin patches)
  • perennial - recurring again and again; lasting three seasons or more; lasting an indefinitely long time; suggesting self renewal;  a plant lasting for three seasons or more
  • Perfect pitch - the ability to identify the pitch of a tone
  • Perforated eardrum - an eardrum with a hole or tear in it; can interfere with normal hearing and cause other ear problems
  • perforated - having a number or series of holes; having a hole cut through
  • perforation - the act of punching a hole (especially a row of holes as for ease of separation); a line of small holes for tearing at a particular place; a hole made in something
  • Perfusion - pumping a liquid into an organ or tissue (especially by way of blood vessels)
  • perianal - around the anus
  • Pericardial sac - the membrane surrounding the heart
  • pericardial - located around the heart or relating to or affecting the pericardium
  • Pericarditis - inflammation of the pericardium
  • pericardium - a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  • perinatal - occurring during the period around birth (5 months before and 1 month after)
  • Perinatologist - an obstetrician specializing in perinatology
  • Perineal - of or relating to the perineum
  • perineum - the general region between the anus and the genital organs
  • Perineurium - the sheath of connective tissue that covers a bundle of nerve fibers
  • Periodic breathing - abnormal respiration in which periods of shallow and deep breathing alternate
  • periodic - recurring or reappearing from time to time; happening or recurring at regular intervals; recurring at regular intervals
  • periodontal disease - a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
  • Periodontal - of or relating to or involving or practicing periodontics
  • Periodontics - the branch of dentistry dealing with diseases of the gums and other structures around the teeth
  • periodontitis - a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
  • Periosteum - a dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones (except at their extremities) and serving as an attachment for tendons and muscles; contains nerves and blood vessels that nourish the enclosed bone
  • peripheral nervous system - the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
  • peripheral vision - vision using only the periphery of the retina
  • Periphery - the outside boundary or surface of something
  • peristalsis - the process of wavelike muscle contractions of the alimentary tract that moves food along
  • Peritoneal - of or relating to or affecting the peritoneum
  • Peritoneum - a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
  • Peritonitis - inflammation of the peritoneum
  • Peritonsillar abscess - a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
  • pernicious anemia - a chronic progressive anemia of older adults; thought to result from a lack of intrinsic factor (a substance secreted by the stomach that is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12)
  • pernicious - working or spreading in a hidden and usually injurious way; exceedingly harmful
  • Peromyscus leucopus - American woodland mouse with white feet and underparts
  • Peromyscus maniculatus - brownish New World mouse; most widely distributed member of the genus
  • Perseveration - the tendency for a memory or idea to persist or recur without any apparent stimulus for it; the act of persisting or persevering; continuing or repeating behavior
  • Personality disorder - inflexible and maladaptive patterns of behavior
  • Perspiration - salty fluid secreted by sweat glands; the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
  • Pertussis - a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • Pes cavus - a deformity of the foot characterized by an abnormally high arch and hyperextension of the toes which gives the foot the appearance of a claw
  • pessary - a contraceptive device consisting of a flexible dome shaped cup made of rubber or plastic; it is filled with spermicide and fitted over the uterine cervix
  • pessimism - a general disposition to look on the dark side and to expect the worst in all things; the feeling that things will turn out badly
  • Pesthouse - hospital for persons with infectious diseases (especially leprosy)
  • Pesticide - a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)
  • Pestis - a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal
  • Petasites hybridus - small Eurasian herb having broad leaves and lilac pink rayless flowers; found in moist areas
  • Petasites vulgaris - small Eurasian herb having broad leaves and lilac pink rayless flowers; found in moist areas
  • Petechia - a minute red or purple spot on the surface of the skin as the result of tiny hemorrhages of blood vessels in the skin (as in typhoid fever)
  • Peter Cooper - United States industrialist who built the first American locomotive; founded Cooper Union in New York City to offer free courses in the arts and sciences (1791 1883)
  • Peter Medawar - British immunologist (born in Brazil) who studied tissue transplants and discovered that the rejection of grafts was an immune response (1915 1987)
  • Peter Pan - the main character in a play by J. M. Barrie; a boy who won't grow up; a boyish or immature man; after the boy in Barrie's play who never grows up
  • Peter - disciple of Jesus and leader of the apostles; regarded by Catholics as the vicar of Christ on earth and first Pope; obscene terms for penis
  • Petit mal - a seizure (or a type of epilepsy characterized by such seizures) of short duration characterized by momentary unconsciousness and local muscle spasms or twitching
  • Phage - a virus that is parasitic in bacteria
  • phagocyte - a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms
  • phagocytosis - process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris; an important defense against infection
  • Phalangeal - of or relating to the bones of the fingers or toes
  • Phalanx - any of the bones of the fingers or toes; a body of troops in close array; any closely ranked crowd of people
  • Phalloplasty - reconstructive surgery on the penis to repair congenital abnormality or injury
  • Phantom limb syndrome - syndrome consisting of discomfort or pain in a limb that has been amputated
  • Phantom limb - the illusion that a limb still exists after it has been amputated
  • pharmacist - a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • Pharmacogenetics - the branch of genetics that studies the genetically determined variations in responses to drugs in humans or laboratory organisms
  • pharmacokinetics - the study of the action of drugs in the body: method and rate of excretion; duration of effect; etc.
  • pharmacologic - of or relating to pharmacology
  • pharmacologist - someone trained in the science of drugs (their composition and uses and effects)
  • Pharmacology - the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects
  • Pharmacopeia - (pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • Pharmacopoeia - a collection or stock of drugs
  • Pharmacy - the art and science of preparing and dispensing drugs and medicines,; a retail shop where medicine and other articles are sold
  • Pharyngeal reflex - normal reflex consisting of retching; may be produced by touching the soft palate in the back of the mouth
  • pharyngeal - of or relating to the throat;  a consonant articulated in the back of the mouth or throat
  • Pharyngitis - inflammation of the fauces and pharynx
  • Pharynx - the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phase I - a clinical trial on a few persons to determine the safety of a new drug or invasive medical device; for drugs, dosage or toxicity limits should be obtained
  • phase II - a clinical trial on more persons than in phase I; intended to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment for the condition it is intended to treat; possible side effects are monitored
  • Phenazopyridine - analgesic (trade name Pyridium) used to treat urinary tract infections
  • Phencyclidine - a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • Phenelzine - monoamine oxidase inhibitor (trade name Nardil) used to treat clinical depression
  • pheniramine - an antihistamine used in preparations to treat allergies and respiratory infections; used to treat rhinitis and skin rashes and pruritus
  • Phenobarbital - a long acting barbiturate used as a sedative
  • Phenomenon - any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning; a remarkable development
  • Phenothiazine - a compound used primarily in veterinary medicine to rid farm animals of internal parasites
  • Phenotype - what an organism looks like as a consequence of the interaction of its genotype and the environment
  • Phensuximide - anticonvulsant (trade name Milontin) used to treat petit mal
  • Phentolamine - a virility drug (trade name Vasomax) to treat erectile dysfunction in men
  • Phenylbutazone - anti inflammatory drug (trade name Butazolidin)
  • Phenylephrine - a powerful vasoconstrictor used to dilate the pupils and relieve nasal congestion
  • phenylpropanolamine - an adrenergic drug used in many preparations to relieve allergic reactions or respiratory infections
  • Phenytoin - an anticonvulsant drug (trade name Dilantin) used to treat epilepsy and that is not a sedative
  • Pheochromocytoma - a vascular tumor of the adrenal gland; hypersecretion of epinephrine results in intermittent or sustained hypertension
  • pheresis - a procedure in which blood is drawn and separated into its components by dialysis; some are retained and the rest are returned to the donor by transfusion
  • Pheromone - a chemical substance secreted externally by some animals (especially insects) that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals of the same species
  • philosopher - a specialist in philosophy; a wise person who is calm and rational; someone who lives a life of reason with equanimity
  • Phimosis - an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans
  • Phlebitis - inflammation of a vein (usually in the legs)
  • Phlebothrombosis - thrombosis of a vein without prior inflammation of the vein; associated with sluggish blood flow (as in prolonged bedrest or pregnancy or surgery) or with rapid coagulation of the blood
  • Phlebotomist - someone who practices phlebotomy
  • Phlebotomy - surgical incision into a vein; used to treat hemochromatosis
  • Phobia - an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
  • phonophobia - a morbid fear of sounds including your own voice
  • Phosgene - a colorless poisonous gas that smells like new mown hay; used in chemical warfare
  • Phosphatase - any of a group of enzymes that act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of organic phosphates
  • phosphate - carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid; a salt of phosphoric acid
  • Phosphine - a colorless gas with a strong fishy smell; used as a pesticide
  • photocoagulation - surgical procedure that uses an intense laser beam to destroy diseased retinal tissue or to make a scar that will hold the retina in cases of detached retina
  • photography - the occupation of taking and printing photographs or making movies; the act of taking and printing photographs; the process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces
  • Photophobia - a morbid fear of light; pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • Photopic vision - normal vision in daylight; vision with sufficient illumination that the cones are active and hue is perceived
  • Photosensitivity - sensitivity to the action of radiant energy
  • Phototherapy - the use of strong light to treat acne or hyperbilirubinemia of the newborn
  • Phrenology - a now abandoned study of the shape of skull as indicative of the strengths of different faculties
  • Phthisis - involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
  • Phycomycosis - any fungal infection caused by fungi of the Phycomycetes group
  • Physical education - training in the development of and care for the human body; stresses athletics; includes hygiene
  • Physical exercise - the activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit
  • Physical fitness - good physical condition; being in shape or in condition
  • Physical therapist - therapist who treats injury or dysfunction with exercises and other physical treatments of the disorder
  • Physical therapy - therapy that uses physical agents: exercise and massage and other modalities
  • Physician - a licensed medical practitioner
  • physician - a licensed medical practitioner
  • physicist - a scientist trained in physics
  • Physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions
  • physiologic - of or consistent with an organism's normal functioning
  • physiologist - a biologist specializing in physiology
  • Physiology - processes and functions of an organism; the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms
  • physiotherapist - therapist who treats injury or dysfunction with exercises and other physical treatments of the disorder
  • Phytotoxin - any substance produced by plants that is similar in its properties to extracellular bacterial toxin
  • Pia mater - the highly vascular innermost of the 3 meninges
  • Piebald - having sections or patches colored differently and usually brightly
  • Pigeon breast - abnormal protrusion of the breastbone caused by rickets
  • Pigeon - wild and domesticated birds having a heavy body and short legs
  • Pigment - dry coloring matter (especially a powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc); verb color or dye with a pigment; acquire pigment; become colored or imbued
  • Pigmentation - coloration of living tissues by pigment; the deposition of pigment in animals or plants or human beings
  • Piles - a large number or amount; pain caused by venous swelling at or inside the anal sphincter
  • Pilocarpine - cholinergic alkaloid used in eyedrops to treat glaucoma
  • Pilus - hairlike structure especially on the surface of a cell or microorganism; any of the cylindrical filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal
  • Pimple - a small inflamed elevation of the skin; a pustule or papule; common symptom in acne
  • Pimply - (of complexion) blemished by imperfections of the skin
  • Pince nez - spectacles clipped to the nose by a spring
  • pinched - as if squeezed uncomfortably tight; very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold; sounding as if the nose were pinched; not having enough money to pay for necessities
  • Pindolol - an oral beta blocker (trade name Visken) used in treating hypertension
  • pineal gland - a small endocrine gland in the brain; situated beneath the back part of the corpus callosum; secretes melatonin
  • Pinealoma - tumor of the pineal gland
  • Pinguecula - a slightly elevated elastic tissue deposit in the conjunctiva that may extend to the cornea but does not cover it
  • Pinguicula - butterworts: a large genus of almost stemless carnivorous bog plants; Europe and America to Antarctica
  • Pink lady - a cocktail made of gin and brandy with lemon juice and grenadine shaken with an egg white and ice
  • Pinkeye - inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
  • Pinna - division of a usually pinnately divided leaf; the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
  • Pinnate - of a leaf shape; featherlike; having leaflets on each side of a common axis
  • Pinocytosis - process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
  • Pinworm - small threadlike worm infesting human intestines and rectum especially in children
  • Piperacillin - a synthetic type of penicillin antibiotic (trade name Pipracil) used for moderate to severe infections
  • Piperine - derived from pepper (especially black pepper); source of the hotness of black and white pepper
  • Piroxicam - a nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (trade name Feldene) used to treat arthritis and other inflammatory conditions
  • Pistol - a firearm that is held and fired with one hand
  • pituitary gland - the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • pituitary - of or relating to the pituitary gland; having abnormal size with overgrown extremities resulting from abnormal pituitary secretion;  the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • Pityriasis alba - common form of pityriasis (usually in children or young adults) characterized by round patches of depigmentation
  • Pityriasis rosea - pityriasis in which an itchy rash develops over the trunk and extremities
  • Pityriasis - any of several skin disorders characterized by shedding dry flakes of skin
  • Pivot joint - a freely moving joint in which movement is limited to rotation
  • Pivot - the act of turning on (or as if on) a pivot; axis consisting of a short shaft that supports something that turns; the person in a rank around whom the others wheel and maneuver; verb turn on a pivot
  • placebo - (Roman Catholic Church) vespers of the office for the dead; an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug
  • Placenta previa - pregnancy in which the placenta is implanted in the lower part of the uterus (instead of the upper part); can cause bleeding late in pregnancy; delivery by cesarean section may be necessary
  • Placenta - the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus; that part of the ovary of a flowering plant where the ovules form
  • Placental - pertaining to or having or occurring by means of a placenta;  mammals having a placenta; all mammals except monotremes and marsupials
  • Plagiocephaly - congenital malformation of the skull in which the main axis of the skull is oblique
  • planar - involving two dimensions
  • Plano - a city in northeastern Texas (suburb of Dallas)
  • Plantar wart - a wart occurring on the sole of the foot
  • plantar - relating to or occurring on the undersurface of the foot
  • plaque - (pathology) a small abnormal patch on or inside the body; a memorial made of brass
  • Plasma cell - a cell that develops from a B lymphocyte in reaction to a specific antigen; found in bone marrow and sometimes in the blood
  • Plasmacytoma - neoplasm of plasma cells (usually in bone marrow)
  • Plasmapheresis - plasma is separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • Plasmid - a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
  • plasmin - an enzyme that dissolves the fibrin of blood clots
  • Plasmodiidae - malaria parasites
  • Plasmodium vivax - parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans
  • Plasmodium - parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans; multinucleate sheet of cytoplasm characteristic of some stages of such organisms as slime molds
  • Plastic surgeon - a surgeon who beautifies the body (especially the face)
  • Plastic Surgery - surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic reformation of tissue
  • Plasticity - the property of being physically malleable; the property of something that can be worked or hammered or shaped without breaking
  • Plastid - any of various small particles in the cytoplasm of the cells of plants and some animals containing pigments or starch or oil or protein
  • plateau - a relatively flat highland
  • platelet - tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood; essential for blood clotting
  • Plateletpheresis - platelets are separated from whole blood and the rest is returned to the donor
  • pleomorphic - relating to or characterized by pleomorphism
  • Pleomorphism - (biology) the appearance of two or more distinctly different forms in the life cycle of some organisms; (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound
  • Pleonasm - using more words than necessary
  • Plethoric - excessively abundant
  • Plethysmograph - a measuring instrument for measuring changes in volume of a part or organ or whole body (usually resulting from fluctuations in the amount of blood it contains)
  • Pleura - the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  • Pleural space - the small potential space between the parietal and visceral layers of the pleura
  • Pleural - of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax
  • Pleurisy - inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
  • Pleurodynia - pain in the chest caused by inflammation of the muscles between the ribs
  • Pleuropneumonia - pleurisy and pneumonia
  • Pleximeter - a small thin metal plate held against the body and struck with a plexor in percussive examinations
  • Plexus - a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerves or intersecting lymph vessels
  • Plumbism - toxic condition produced by the absorption of excessive lead into the system
  • pneumatic - of or relating to or using air (or a similar gas)
  • pneumococcal - of or derived from or caused by bacteria of the genus pneumococcus
  • Pneumoconiosis - chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia - pneumonia occurring in infants or in persons with impaired immune systems (as AIDS victims)
  • Pneumonectomy - surgical removal of a lung (usually to treat lung cancer)
  • Pneumonia - respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • Pneumonic plague - a rapidly progressive and frequently fatal form of the plague that can spread through the air from person to person; characterized by lung involvement with chill, bloody expectoration and high fever
  • Pneumonitis - inflammation of the lungs; caused by a virus or an allergic reaction
  • Pneumothorax - abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
  • Podiatrist - a specialist in care for the feet
  • Podiatry - the branch of medicine concerned with the feet
  • Poikilotherm - an animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings; any animal except birds and mammals
  • Point mutation - a mutation due to an intramolecular reorganization of a gene
  • Poison - anything that harms or destroys; any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism; verb administer poison to; add poison to; kill with poison; kill by its poison; spoil as if by poison
  • Poisoning - the act of giving poison to a person or animal with the intent to kill; the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • Poisson distribution - a theoretical distribution that is a good approximation to the binomial distribution when the probability is small and the number of trials is large
  • Poland - a republic in central Europe; the invasion of Poland by Germany in 1939 started World War II
  • Polar body - a small cell containing little cytoplasm that is produced along with the oocyte and later discarded
  • Polarity - having an indicated pole (as the distinction between positive and negative electric charges); a relation between two opposite attributes or tendencies
  • Policy - a plan of action adopted by an individual or social group; written contract or certificate of insurance; a line of argument rationalizing the course of action of a government
  • Polio - an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • polio - an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • Poliomyelitis - an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • Poliosis - loss of color from the hair
  • Poliovirus - the virus causing poliomyelitis
  • politician - a person active in party politics; a leader engaged in civil administration; a schemer who tries to gain advantage in an organization in sly or underhanded ways
  • Pollen count - the number of pollen grains (usually ragweed) in a standard volume of air over a twenty four hour period and a specified time and place
  • Pollen - the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant
  • Pollex - the thick short innermost digit of the forelimb
  • Pollinosis - a seasonal rhinitis resulting from an allergic reaction to pollen
  • Pollutant - waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil
  • Polony - another name for Bologna sausage
  • Polyarteritis nodosa - a progressive disease of connective tissue that is characterized by nodules along arteries; nodules may block the artery and result in inadequate circulation to the particular area
  • Polycystic kidney disease - kidney disease characterized by enlarged kidneys containing many cysts; often leads to kidney failure
  • Polycythemia - a disorder characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood
  • Polydactyly - birth defect characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes
  • Polydactyly - birth defect characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes
  • Polydipsia - excessive thirst (as in cases of diabetes or kidney dysfunction)
  • Polygene - a gene that by itself has little effect on the phenotype but which can act together with others to produce observable variations
  • Polygenic disease - an inherited disease controlled by several genes at once
  • Polygenic disorder - an inherited disease controlled by several genes at once
  • Polygenic - of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by several genes at once; of or related to or determined by polygenes
  • Polymerase - an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of new DNA and RNA from an existing strand of DNA or RNA
  • Polymerize - undergo polymerization; cause (a compound) to polymerize
  • Polymox - an antibiotic; a semisynthetic oral penicillin (trade names Amoxil and Larotid and Polymox and Trimox and Augmentin) used to treat bacterial infections
  • Polymyositis - myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and swelling; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • polyneuritis - inflammation of many or all of the peripheral nerves (as in leprosy)
  • Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia - fibrous dysplasia of bone affecting multiple bones
  • polypectomy - surgical removal of a polyp
  • Polypeptide - a peptide containing 10 to more than 100 amino acids
  • Polyploid - of a cell or organism having more than twice the haploid number of chromosomes;  (genetics) an organism or cell having more than twice the haploid number of chromosomes
  • Polyploidy - the condition of being polyploid
  • Polysaccharide - any of a class of carbohydrates whose molecules contain chains of monosaccharide molecules
  • Polysomy - congenital defect of having one or more extra chromosomes in somatic cells
  • polyunsaturated fat - a class of fats having long carbon chains with many double bonds unsaturated with hydrogen atoms; used in some margarines; supposedly associated with low blood cholesterol
  • Polyuria - renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine; often associated with diabetes
  • Pontiac - famous chief of the Ottawa who led an unsuccessful rebellion against the British (1715 1769)
  • popcorn - small kernels of corn exploded by heat; corn having small ears and kernels that burst when exposed to dry heat
  • Popliteal - of or relating to the area behind the knee joint
  • Porcine - relating to or suggesting swine; resembling swine; coarsely gluttonous or greedy; repellently fat
  • Porphyria - a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • Portacaval shunt - shunt that is created surgically between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava so that blood from the abdominal organs can bypass the liver
  • Portal vein - a short vein that carries blood into the liver
  • portal - a grand and imposing entrance (often extended metaphorically); a short vein that carries blood into the liver; a site that the owner positions as an entrance to other sites on the internet
  • Position effect - (genetics) the effect on the expression of a gene that is produced by changing its location in a chromosome
  • positron emission tomography - using a computerized radiographic technique to examine the metabolic activity in various tissues (especially in the brain)
  • Poster child - a child afflicted by some disease or deformity whose picture is used on posters to raise money for charitable purposes
  • Posterior pituitary - the posterior lobe of the pituitary body; primarily glandular in nature
  • posterior - at or near the hind end in quadrupeds or toward the spine in primates;  a tooth situated at the back of the mouth; the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on
  • Postgraduate - of or relating to studies beyond a bachelor's degree;  a student who continues studies after graduation
  • Posthitis - inflammation of the foreskin of the penis; usually caused by bacterial infection
  • Postmature infant - infant born after 42 weeks of gestation; usually shows signs of placental insufficiency
  • Postmenopausal - subsequent to menopause
  • Postmortem examination - an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease
  • Postoperative - happening or done after a surgical operation
  • postpartum - occurring immediately after birth
  • Postprandial - following a meal (especially dinner)
  • Postural hypotension - low blood pressure occurring in some people when they stand up
  • Postural - of or relating to or involving posture
  • Potassium bromide - a white crystalline salt (KBr) used as a sedative and in photography
  • Potassium iodide - a crystalline salt in organic synthesis and in making photographic emulsions and in iodized table salt
  • Potomania - an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • Pott's disease - TB of the spine with destruction of vertebrae resulting in curvature of the spine
  • Power of attorney - a legal instrument authorizing someone to act as the grantor's agent
  • Prandial - of or relating to a meal
  • Pravastatin - an oral drug (trade name Pravachol) administered to reduce blood cholesterol levels; recommended after nonfatal heart attacks
  • Prazosin - antihypertensive drug (trade name Minipress)
  • Pre eclampsia - abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • precancerous - of or relating to a growth that is not malignant but is likely to become so if not treated
  • Preceptor - teacher at a university or college (especially at Cambridge or Oxford)
  • Precipitin - an antibody that causes precipitation when it unites with its antigen
  • preclinical - of or relating to the early phases of a disease when accurate diagnosis is not possible because symptoms of the disease have not yet appeared
  • Precocious - appearing or developing early; characterized by or characteristic of exceptionally early development or maturity (especially in mental aptitude)
  • precursor - a person who goes before or ances the coming of another; a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction); an indication of the approach of something or someone
  • PREDICT - make a prediction about; tell in advance; indicate by signs
  • Predispose - make susceptible
  • Predisposition - a disposition in advance to react in a particular way; an inclination beforehand to interpret statements in a particular way; susceptibility to a pathogen
  • Prednisolone - a glucocorticoid (trade names Pediapred or Prelone) used to treat inflammatory conditions
  • Prednisone - a dehydrogenated analogue of cortisol (trade names Orasone or Deltasone or Liquid Pred or Meticorten); used as an anti inflammatory drug in the treatment of arthritis and as an immunosuppressant
  • preeclampsia - abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • Preemie - an infant that is born prior to 37 weeks of gestation
  • prefix - an affix that is added in front of the word; verb attach a prefix to
  • Pregnancy test - a physiological test to determine whether a person is pregnant
  • Pregnancy - the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • Pregnant - carrying developing offspring within the body or being about to produce new life; filled with or attended with; rich in significance or implication
  • Premature baby - an infant that is born prior to 37 weeks of gestation
  • premature ejaculation - ejaculation during the early stages of sexual excitement or soon after the insertion of the penis into the vagina
  • premature ventricular contraction - irregularity of cardiac rhythm; recurrent occurrences can be a precursor of ventricular fibrillation
  • premature - uncommonly early or before the expected time; born after a gestation period of less than the normal time; too soon or too hasty
  • Prematurity - the state of being premature
  • Premenstrual syndrome - a syndrome that occurs in many women from 2 to 14 days before the onset of menstruation
  • Premenstrual - of or relating to or occurring during the period just before menstruation
  • Premie - an infant that is born prior to 37 weeks of gestation
  • Premolar - a tooth having two cusps or points; located between the incisors and the molars
  • Prenatal diagnosis - any of the diagnostic procedures used to determine whether a fetus has a genetic abnormality
  • Prenatal - occurring or existing before birth
  • Preoperative - happening or done before and in preparation for a surgical operation
  • Prepubertal - (especially of human beings) at the age immediately before puberty; often marked by accelerated growth
  • Prepuce - a fold of skin covering the tip of the penis; a fold of skin covering the tip of the clitoris
  • Presbyopia - farsightedness resulting from a reduced ability to focus caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens with age
  • Prescription drug - a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist
  • Pressure sore - a chronic ulcer of the skin caused by prolonged pressure on it (as in bedridden patients)
  • Prevention - the act of preventing
  • Preventive medicine - the branch of medicine concerned with preventing disease
  • Priapism - condition in which the penis is continually erect; usually painful and seldom with sexual arousal
  • Primaquine - synthetic antimalarial drug
  • Primary amenorrhea - delay of menarche beyond age 18
  • Primary care - the medical care received on first contact with the medical system (before being referred elsewhere)
  • Primary dentition - dentition of deciduous teeth
  • Primary health care - health care that is provided by a health care professional in the first contact of a patient with the health care system
  • Primer - an introductory textbook; the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a surface; any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
  • Primidone - an anticonvulsant (trade name Mysoline) used to treat grand mal seizures and essential tremor
  • Priming - the act of making something ready; the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a surface; any igniter that is used to initiate the burning of a propellant
  • Primordium - an organ in its earliest stage of development; the foundation for subsequent development
  • Principal investigator - the scientist in charge of an experiment or research project
  • Prion - (microbiology) an infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; thought to be the agent responsible for scrapie and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system
  • Privacy - the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others; the condition of being concealed or hidden
  • Privacy - the quality of being secluded from the presence or view of others; the condition of being concealed or hidden
  • private - concerning things deeply private and personal; confined to particular persons or groups or providing privacy; not expressed; concerning one person exclusively;  an enlisted man of the lowest rank
  • Pro re nata - according to need (physicians use PRN in writing prescriptions)
  • Probability theory - the branch of applied mathematics that deals with probabilities
  • probenecid - a uricosuric drug that reduces the level of uric acid in the blood; used to treat gout
  • Procaine - a white crystalline powder (trade name Ethocaine) administered near nerves as a local anesthetic in dentistry and medicine
  • Procarbazine - an antineoplastic drug used to treat Hodgkin's disease
  • Prochlorperazine - antipsychotic and antiemetic drug used to treat schizophrenia and to combat nausea and vomiting
  • Proclivity - a natural inclination
  • Proctitis - inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • Proctocele - protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina; can occur if pelvic muscles are weakened by childbirth
  • Proctology - the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the colon or rectum or anus
  • proctoscopy - visual examination of the rectum and the end of the colon by means of a proctoscope
  • Prodrome - an early symptom that a disease is developing or that an attack is about to occur
  • professor - someone who is a member of the faculty at a college or university
  • Progeny - the immediate descendants of a person
  • Progeria - a rare abnormality marked by premature aging (grey hair and wrinkled skin and stooped posture) in a child
  • Progesterone - a steroid hormone (trade name Lipo Lutin) produced in the ovary; prepares and maintains the uterus for pregnancy
  • progestin - any of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone
  • Progestogen - any of a group of steroid hormones that have the effect of progesterone
  • Prognathism - the condition of being prognathous; the condition of having a projecting jaw
  • Prognosis - a prediction of the course of a disease; a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop
  • Prognostic - of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions;  a sign of something about to happen
  • Progressive vaccinia - a severe or even fatal form of vaccinia that occurs mainly in persons with an immunological deficiency; characterized by progressive enlargement of the initial lesion
  • Proinflammatory - tending to cause inflammation
  • Prokaryote - a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma
  • Prokaryotic - having cells that lack membrane bound nuclei
  • Prolactin - gonadotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary; in females it stimulates growth of the mammary glands and lactation after parturition
  • Prolapse - the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus); verb slip or fall out of place, as of body parts
  • Proline - an amino acid that is found in many proteins (especially collagen)
  • Promethazine - antihistamine (trade name Phenergan) used to treat allergies; also an antiemetic used to treat motion sickness
  • prominent - conspicuous in position or importance; having a quality that thrusts itself into attention
  • Promoter - someone who is an active supporter and advocate; a sponsor who books and stages public entertainments
  • Pronation - rotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
  • Prone - lying face downward; having a tendency (to); often used in combination
  • Pronucleus - the nucleus of the ovum or sperm after fertilization but before they fuse to form the nucleus of the zygote
  • Proofread - read for errors
  • Prophase - the first stage of mitosis; the first stage of meiosis
  • Prophylaxis - the prevention of disease
  • Proportional counter - counter tube whose output pulse is proportional to number of ions produced
  • Propositus - the person immediately affected by or concerned with an action
  • proprioception - the ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts
  • Propylthiouracil - a crystalline compound used as an antithyroid drug in the treatment of goiter
  • Propylthiouracil - a crystalline compound used as an antithyroid drug in the treatment of goiter
  • Prospective - anticipated for the near future; concerned with or related to the future
  • Prostate cancer - cancer of the prostate gland
  • prostate gland - a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • Prostate - relating to the prostate gland;  a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • Prostatectomy - surgical removal of part or all of the prostate gland
  • prostatic - relating to the prostate gland
  • Prostatitis - inflammation of the prostate gland characterized by perineal pain and irregular urination and (if severe) chills and fever
  • Prosthesis - corrective consisting of a replacement for a part of the body
  • Prosthetic - relating to or serving as a prosthesis; of or relating to prosthetics
  • Prosthetics - the branch of medicine dealing with the production and use of artificial body parts
  • Prosthetist - an expert in prosthetics
  • Prosthodontist - a dentist who is expert in prosthodontics
  • Protamine - a simple protein found in fish sperm; rich in arginine; simpler in composition than globulin or albumin; counteracts the anticoagulant effect of heparin
  • Protean - taking on different forms
  • protease inhibitor - an antiviral drug used against HIV; interrupts HIV replication by binding and blocking HIV protease; often used in combination with other drugs
  • Protease - any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis
  • Proteinuria - the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • Proteome - the full complement of proteins produced by a particular genome
  • proteomics - the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome
  • Proteus - type genus of the Proteidae; (Greek mythology) a prophetic god who served Poseidon; was capable of changing his shape at will
  • Prothrombin - a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
  • Prothrombin - a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
  • Prothrombinase - coagulation factor that is converted to an enzyme that converts prothrombin to thrombin in a reaction that depends on calcium ions and other coagulation factors
  • Proto oncogene - a normal gene that has the potential to become an oncogene
  • Proto - indicating the first or earliest or original
  • protocol - code of correct conduct; forms of ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats and heads of state; (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data
  • proton - a stable particle with positive charge equal to the negative charge of an electron
  • Protoplast - a biological unit consisting of a nucleus and the body of cytoplasm with which it interacts
  • Protozoa - in some classifications considered a superphylum or a subkingdom; comprises flagellates; ciliates; sporozoans; amoebas; foraminifers
  • Protriptyline - tricyclic antidepressant used to treat clinical depression
  • Proximal - situated nearest to point of attachment or origin
  • Proximate - very close in space or time; closest in degree or order (space or time) especially in a chain of causes and effects
  • Proximo - in or of the next month after the present
  • Proxy - a power of attorney document given by shareholders of a corporation authorizing a specific vote on their behalf at a corporate meeting; a person authorized to act for another
  • Pruritus ani - chronic itching of the skin around the anus
  • Pruritus vulvae - persistent itching of the external female genitalia
  • pruritus - an intense itching sensation that can have various causes (as by allergies or infection or lymphoma or jaundice etc.)
  • Pseudo - (often used in combination) not genuine but having the appearance of;  a person who makes deceitful pretenses
  • Pseudoephedrine - poisonous crystalline alkaloid occurring with ephedrine and isomorphic with it
  • Pseudorubella - a viral disease of infants and young children; characterized by abrupt high fever and mild sore throat; a few days later there is a faint pinkish rash that lasts for a few hours to a few days
  • Psittacosis - an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • Psittacosis - an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • Psoas - either of two muscles of the abdomen and pelvis that flex the trunk and rotate the thigh
  • Psoriasis - a chronic skin disease characterized by dry red patches covered with scales; occurs especially on the scalp and ears and genitalia and the skin over bony prominences
  • Psoriatic arthritis - a form of rheumatoid arthritis usually affecting fingers and toes and associated with psoriasis
  • Psychedelia - the subculture of users of psychedelic drugs
  • Psychiatric - relating to or used in or engaged in the practice of psychiatry
  • psychiatrist - a physician who specializes in psychiatry
  • Psychiatry - the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
  • Psycho - a person afflicted with psychosis
  • Psychoactive drug - a drug that can produce mood changes and distorted perceptions
  • Psychoanalysis - a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on the theories of Sigmund Freud
  • psychoanalyst - a licensed practitioner of psychoanalysis
  • psychogenic - mental or emotional rather than physiological in origin; of or relating to the psychological cause of a disorder
  • psychological - mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature; of or relating to or determined by psychology
  • Psychologist - a scientist trained in psychology
  • psychology - the science of mental life
  • Psychopathology - the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior
  • Psychopathy - any disease of the mind; the psychological state of someone who has emotional or behavioral problems serious enough to require psychiatric intervention
  • Psychosis - any severe mental disorder in which contact with reality is lost or highly distorted
  • psychosomatic - used of illness or symptoms resulting from neurosis
  • Psychosurgery - brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
  • Psychotherapy - the treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means; the branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods
  • Pterygium - either of two thickened triangular layers of conjunctiva extending from the nasal edge of the eye to the cornea; it arises from irritation of the pinguecula
  • ptosis - drooping of the upper eyelid caused by muscle paralysis and weakness
  • Puberty - the time of life when sex glands become functional
  • pubic - relating or near the pubis
  • Pubis - one of the three sections of the hipbone; together these two bones form the front of the pelvis
  • Public security - the general security of public places
  • public - affecting the people or community as a whole; not private; open to or concerning the people as a whole;  a body of people sharing some common interest; people in general considered as a whole
  • Pucker - an irregular fold in an otherwise even surface (as in cloth); verb to gather something into small wrinkles or folds; become wrinkled or drawn together; draw fabric together and sew it tightly
  • Pudendum - human external genital organs collectively especially of a female
  • Puerperal fever - serious form of septicemia contracted by a woman during childbirth or abortion (usually attributable to unsanitary conditions); formerly widespread but now uncommon
  • puerperal - relating to or connected with or occurring at the time of childbirth or shortly following, or to the woman who has just given birth
  • Puerperium - time period following childbirth when the mother's uterus shrinks and the other functional and anatomic changes of pregnancy are resolved
  • Pulled - drawn toward the source of the force
  • Pulmonary artery - one of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs
  • Pulmonary circulation - circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
  • pulmonary embolism - blockage of the pulmonary artery by foreign matter or by a blood clot
  • Pulmonary stenosis - abnormal narrowing of the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle
  • Pulmonary trunk - the artery that carries venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart and divides into the right and left pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary tuberculosis - involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body
  • Pulmonary valve - a semilunar valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; prevents blood from flowing from the artery back into the heart
  • Pulmonary vein - any of four veins that carry arterial blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
  • pulmonary - relating to or affecting the lungs
  • Pulseless disease - disorder characterized by the absence of a pulse in both arms and in the carotid arteries
  • pulseless - appearing dead; not breathing or having no perceptible pulse
  • pupil - contractile aperture in the iris of the eye; a young person attending school (up through senior high school); a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
  • pupil - contractile aperture in the iris of the eye; a young person attending school (up through senior high school); a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
  • Purine - a colorless crystalline organic base containing nitrogen; the parent compound of various biologically important substances; any of several bases that are derivatives of purine
  • Purpura - any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • purulent - "a purulent wound"
  • Pustule - a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus; a blister filled with pus
  • Putamen - the outer reddish part of the lenticular nucleus
  • Pycnodysostosis - a form of dwarfism accompanied by fragile bones and bad teeth
  • Pyelogram - an X ray of the kidneys and ureters
  • Pyelonephritis - inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection
  • Pyknosis - a degenerative state of the cell nucleus
  • pyloric sphincter - the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
  • Pyloric stenosis - narrowing of the pyloric sphincter that blocks the passage of food from the stomach into the duodenum
  • Pylorus - a small circular opening between the stomach and the duodenum
  • Pyogenic - producing pus
  • pyramidal - resembling a pyramid
  • pyrene - the small hard nutlet of a drupe or drupelet; the seed and the hard endocarp that surrounds it; a pale yellow crystalline hydrocarbon C16H10 extracted from coal tar
  • Pyridoxine - a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • Pyrimidine - a heterocyclic organic compound with a penetrating odor; any of several basic compounds derived from pyrimidine
  • Pyromania - an uncontrollable desire to set fire to things
  • pyrophosphate - a salt or ester of pyrophosphoric acid
  • Pyrosis - a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • Pythagoras - Greek philosopher and mathematician who proved the Pythagorean theorem; considered to be the first true mathematician (circa 580 500 BC)
  • Pyuria - presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection
  • Q fever - an acute disease resembling influenza
  • Quack - medically unqualified;  the harsh sound of a duck; an untrained person who pretends to be a physician and who dispenses medical advice; verb act as a medical quack or a charlatan; utter quacking noises
  • Quackery - medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings; the dishonesty of a charlatan
  • quadrangular - of or relating to or shaped like a quadrangle
  • Quadrantanopia - blindness in one fourth of the visual field
  • Quadriceps - a muscle of the thigh that extends the leg
  • quadriplegia - paralysis of both arms and both legs
  • Quadriplegic - a person who is paralyzed in both arms and both legs
  • Qualitative - involving distinctions based on qualities; relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities
  • Quality of Life - your personal satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) with the cultural or intellectual conditions under which you live (as distinct from material comfort)
  • Qualm - uneasiness about the fitness of an action; a mild state of nausea
  • Quantitative - expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement; (of verse) having a metric system based on relative duration of syllables; relating to the measurement of quantity
  • Quasi - having some resemblance
  • Queasy - causing or fraught with or showing anxiety; feeling nausea; feeling about to vomit; causing or able to cause nausea
  • Queensland - a state in northeastern Australia
  • Quickening - the process of showing signs of life; the stage of pregnancy at which the mother first feels the movements of the fetus; the act of accelerating; increasing the speed
  • Quiescence - quiet and inactive restfulness; a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction
  • Quiescent - causing no symptoms; being quiet or still or inactive; not active or activated; marked by a state of tranquil repose
  • Quinacrine - a drug (trade name Atabrine) used to treat certain worm infestations and once used to treat malaria
  • Quinidine - cardiac drug (trade names Quinidex and Quinora) used to treat certain heart arrhythmias
  • Quinine - a bitter alkaloid extracted from chinchona bark; used in malaria therapy
  • Quinsy - a painful pus filled inflammation of the tonsils and surrounding tissues; usually a complication of tonsillitis
  • Quotidian - found in the ordinary course of events
  • Quotient - the number obtained by division; the ratio of two quantities to be divided

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  • Rabbit fever - a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • Rabbit test - pregnancy test that involves injecting some of the woman's urine into an unmated female rabbit and later examining the ovaries of the rabbit; presence of corpora lutea indicates that the woman is pregnant
  • Rabies - an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
  • Racemose - having stalked flowers along an elongated stem that continue to open in succession from below as the stem continues to grow
  • Rachischisis - a not uncommon congenital defect in which a vertebra is malformed; unless several vertebrae are affected or there is myelomeningocele there are few symptoms; can be diagnosed by amniocentesis
  • Radial artery - branch of the brachial artery beginning below the elbow and extending down the forearm around the wrist and into the palm
  • Radial keratotomy - radial pattern of incisions in the cornea that cause the cornea to bulge; performed to correct myopia
  • Radiation therapy - (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • radical mastectomy - removal of a breast and the underlying muscles (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor) and lymph nodes in the adjacent armpit
  • Radioactive - exhibiting or caused by radioactivity
  • Radiobiology - the branch of biology that studies the effects of radiation on living organisms
  • Radiochemistry - the chemistry of radioactive substances
  • radiograph - a photographic image produced on a radiosensitive surface by radiation other than visible light (especially by X rays or gamma rays)
  • Radiographer - a person who makes radiographs
  • Radiography - photography that uses other kinds of radiation than visible light; the process of making a radiograph; producing an image on a radiosensitive surface by radiation other than visible light
  • Radioimmunoassay - immunoassay of a substance that has been radioactively labeled
  • radioisotope - a radioactive isotope of an element; produced either naturally or artificially
  • radiologist - a medical specialist who uses radioactive substances and X rays in the treatment of disease
  • Radiolucent - almost complete transparent to X rays or other forms of radiation
  • Radiopaque - not transparent to X rays or other forms of radiation
  • radiopharmaceutical - pharmaceutical consisting of a radioactive compound used in radiation therapy
  • Radiosensitive - sensitive to radiation
  • Radiosensitivity - sensitivity to the action of radiant energy
  • radiotherapy - (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • Radium - an intensely radioactive metallic element that occurs in minute amounts in uranium ores
  • Radon - a radioactive gaseous element formed by the disintegration of radium; the heaviest of the inert gasses; occurs naturally (especially in areas over granite) and is considered a hazard to health
  • raised - increased especially to abnormal levels; above the surround or above the normal position; embellished with a raised pattern created by pressure or embroidery
  • Ramsay Hunt syndrome - syndrome resulting from infection by the herpes varicella zoster virus; characterized by vertigo and pain in the ears and facial nerve paralysis and sometimes hearing loss
  • Ramus - the posterior part of the mandible that is more or less vertical
  • Random sample - a sample grabbed at random; a sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected
  • Random - lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance; taken haphazardly
  • Randomization - a deliberately haphazard arrangement of observations so as to simulate chance
  • Randomize - arrange in random order
  • randomized - set up or distributed in a deliberately random way
  • Randomly - in a random manner
  • Ranitidine - a histamine blocker and antacid (trade name Zantac) used to treat peptic ulcers and gastritis and esophageal reflux
  • rapid eye movement sleep - a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
  • rapid eye movement - a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
  • rapid - done or occurring in a brief period of time; characterized by speed; moving with or capable of moving with high speed;  a part of a river where the current is very fast
  • Rasmussen - Danish ethnologist and arctic explorer; led expeditions into the Arctic to find support for his theory that Eskimos and North American Indians originally migrated from Asia (1879 1933)
  • rattlesnake root - a plant of the genus Nabalus; herb of central and southern Europe having purple florets
  • Reabsorption - the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
  • Reactant - a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction
  • reactive - participating readily in reactions; tending to react to a stimulus
  • Reagent - a chemical agent for use in chemical reactions
  • Recalcitrant - marked by stubborn resistance to authority; stubbornly resistant to authority or control
  • recent - near to or not long before the present; being new in a time not long past; of the immediate past or just previous to the present time;  approximately the last 10,000 years
  • Receptive aphasia - aphasia characterized by fluent but meaningless speech and severe impairment of the ability understand spoken or written words
  • Recessive allele - an allele that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its paired allele is identical
  • Recessive gene - gene that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical
  • Recipient - a person who gets something; the semantic role of the animate entity that is passively involved in the happening denoted by the verb in the clause
  • Reciprocal cross - hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype
  • recombinant DNA technology - the technology of preparing recombinant DNA in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and splicing together fragments from more than one organism
  • Recombinant DNA - genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
  • reconstructive surgery - surgery concerned with therapeutic or cosmetic reformation of tissue
  • recovery - the act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost); return to an original state; gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury
  • Recrudescence - a return of something after a period of abatement
  • Rectal - of or involving the rectum
  • rectal - of or involving the rectum
  • Rectocele - protrusion or herniation of the rectum into the vagina; can occur if pelvic muscles are weakened by childbirth
  • rectum - the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • rectus - any of various straight muscles
  • Recuperate - get over an illness or shock; restore to good health or strength; regain a former condition after a financial loss; regain or make up for
  • Recur - happen or occur again; return in thought or speech to something; have recourse to
  • Recurrence - happening again (especially at regular intervals)
  • Recurrent - recurring again and again
  • Red blood cell - a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleus
  • Red eye - travel on an overnight flight
  • Red jungle fowl - a jungle fowl of southeastern Asia that is considered ancestral to the domestic fowl
  • Red Raspberry - any of several raspberries bearing red fruit
  • reduviid - a true bug: long legged predacious bug living mostly on other insects; a few suck blood of mammals
  • Referral - the act of referring (as forwarding an applicant for employment or referring a matter to an appropriate agency); a recommendation to consult the (professional) person referred to
  • Referred pain - pain that is felt at a place in the body different from the injured or diseased part where the pain would be expected
  • Reflex - without volition or conscious control;  an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  • reflux - an abnormal backward flow of body fluids; the outward flow of the tide
  • reflux - an abnormal backward flow of body fluids; the outward flow of the tide
  • Refract - determine the refracting power of (a lens); subject to refraction
  • refraction - the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another; the amount by which a propagating wave is bent
  • Refractory anemia - any of various anemic conditions that are not successfully treated by any means other than blood transfusions (and that are not associated with another primary disease)
  • Regimen - (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet)
  • regional enteritis - a serious chronic and progressive inflammation of the ileum producing frequent bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain and nausea and fever and weight loss
  • regional - related or limited to a particular region; characteristic of a region
  • registry - an official written record of names or events or transactions
  • Regulator gene - a gene that produces a repressor substance that inhibits an operator gene
  • Regulatory gene - a gene that produces a repressor substance that inhibits an operator gene
  • regulatory - restricting according to rules or principles
  • Regurgitation - recall after rote memorization; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve; the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • Reiter - German bacteriologist who described a disease now known as Reiter's syndrome and who identified the spirochete that causes syphilis in humans (1881 1969)
  • rejection - the act of rejecting something; the speech act of rejecting; (medicine) an immunological response that refuses to accept substances or organisms that are recognized as foreign; the state of being rejected
  • Rejuvenation - the act of restoring to a more youthful condition; the phenomenon of vitality and freshness being restored
  • relapse - a failure to maintain a higher state; verb go back to bad behavior; deteriorate in health
  • relapsing - a failure to maintain a higher state
  • Relaxant - tending to relax or relieve muscular or nervous tension;  a drug that relaxes and relieves tension
  • Relaxin - hormone secreted by the corpus luteum during the last days of pregnancy; relaxes the pelvic ligaments and prepares the uterus for labor
  • Reliability - the quality of being dependable or reliable
  • REM sleep - a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
  • Remedy - a medicine or therapy that cures disease or relieve pain; act of correcting an error or a fault or an evil; verb provide relief for; set straight or right
  • remittent - (of a disease) characterized by periods of diminished severity
  • Renal artery - an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
  • Renal colic - sharp pain in the lower back that radiates into the groin; associated with the passage of a renal calculus through the ureter
  • Renal pelvis - a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
  • Renal vein - veins that accompany renal arteries; open into the vena cava at the level of the 2nd lumbar vertebra
  • renal - of or relating to the kidneys
  • renin - a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys; catalyzes the formation of angiotensin and thus affects blood pressure
  • Repeat - an event that repeats; verb to say again or imitate; to say, state, or perform again; do over; happen or occur again; repeat an earlier theme of a composition; make or do or perform again
  • repetitive - characterized by repetition; persistently continual
  • Reporting - the news as presented by reporters for newspapers or radio or television
  • Repressor - an agent that represses
  • Reproductive system - organs and tissues involved in the production and maturation of gametes and in their union and subsequent development as offspring
  • reproductive - producing new life or offspring
  • Repulsion - the act of repulsing or repelling an attack; a successful defensive stand; the force by which bodies repel one another; intense aversion
  • Research - systematic investigation to establish facts; a search for knowledge; verb inquire into; attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner
  • researcher - a scientist who devotes himself to doing research
  • Resect - surgically remove a part of a structure or an organ
  • resection - surgical removal of part of a structure or organ
  • Residency - the position of physician who is receiving special training in a hospital (usually after completing an internship); the act of dwelling in a place
  • Residency - the position of physician who is receiving special training in a hospital (usually after completing an internship); the act of dwelling in a place
  • resilience - the physical property of a material that can return to its original shape or position after deformation that does not exceed its elastic limit; an occurrence of rebounding or springing back
  • Resin - any of a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances obtained either as exudations from certain plants or prepared by polymerization of simple molecules
  • Resorb - undergo resorption
  • resorption - the organic process in which the substance of some differentiated structure that has been produced by the body undergoes lysis and assimilation
  • Respirator - a breathing device for administering long term artificial respiration; a protective mask with a filter; protects the face and lungs against poisonous gases
  • Respiratory disease - a disease affecting the respiratory system
  • Respiratory rate - the rate at which a person inhales and exhales; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health
  • Respiratory syncytial virus - a paramyxovirus that forms syncytia in tissue culture and that is responsible for severe respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis and bronchial pneumonia (especially in children)
  • Respiratory system - the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide; in terrestrial animals this is accomplished by breathing
  • Respiratory - pertaining to respiration
  • Restitution - getting something back again; the act of restoring something to its original state; a sum of money paid in compensation for loss or injury
  • restless legs syndrome - feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs after going to bed (sometimes causing insomnia); may be relieved temporarily by walking or moving the legs
  • Restless legs - feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs after going to bed (sometimes causing insomnia); may be relieved temporarily by walking or moving the legs
  • Restriction site - the specific sites at which a restriction enzyme will cleave DNA
  • restriction - the act of keeping something within specified bounds (by force if necessary); a principle that limits the extent of something; an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation)
  • Resuscitate - cause to regain consciousness; return to consciousness
  • Resuscitation - the act of reviving a person and returning them to consciousness
  • Resuscitator - a breathing apparatus used for resuscitation by forcing oxygen into the lungs of a person who has undergone asphyxia or arrest of respiration
  • reticular - resembling or forming a network
  • Reticulocyte - an immature red blood cell containing a network of filaments or granules
  • retina - the light sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
  • retinal detachment - visual impairment resulting from the retina becoming separated from the choroid in the back of the eye; treated by photocoagulation
  • retinal - in or relating to the retina of the eye;  either of two yellow to red retinal pigments formed from rhodopsin by the action of light
  • Retinitis - inflammation of the retina
  • Retinoblastoma - malignant ocular tumor of retinal cells; usually occurs before the third year of life; composed of primitive small round retinal cells</