Disease

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Editor-In-Chief: Prab R Tumpati, MD
Obesity, Sleep & Internal medicine
Founder, WikiMD Wellnesspedia &
W8MD medical weight loss NYC and sleep center NYC


A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of part or all of an organism, and that is not due to any external injury.

Types[edit | edit source]

One of the most common types of diseases is infectious disease, which is caused by the presence of pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, or parasites) in the body. These pathogens can be transmitted from person to person, through contact with contaminated objects, or through the air. Some examples of infectious diseases include the flu, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS.

Non-infectious diseases are caused by factors other than pathogens, and can be divided into several categories. Chronic diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease, are long-term conditions that often require ongoing medical treatment. Genetic diseases, such as sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, are caused by inherited genetic mutations and cannot be prevented. Environmental factors, such as exposure to toxic substances or radiation, can also cause non-infectious diseases.

Prevention[edit | edit source]

There are many ways to prevent or manage diseases. Immunization, or vaccination, is a common method of preventing infectious diseases by building up immunity to specific pathogens. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and covering the mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing, can also help prevent the spread of disease. A healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding risky behaviors like smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, can help prevent or manage chronic diseases.

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Treatment options for diseases vary depending on the type and severity of the condition. Medical treatments, such as medications or surgery, can help manage or cure diseases. Some diseases, such as mental illnesses, may also be treated with therapy or counseling. In some cases, alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or herbal remedies, may be used to complement traditional medical treatment.

Glossary[edit | edit source]

  • Abetalipoproteinemia    a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism; characterized by severe deficiency of beta lipoproteins and abnormal red blood cells (acanthocytes) and abnormally low cholesterol levels
  • Abortion    termination of pregnancy; failure of a plan
  • Abscess    symptom consisting of a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue
  • Acetonuria    excessive amounts of ketone bodies in the urine as in diabetes mellitus or starvation
  • Achondroplasia    an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • Acidosis    abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Acne    an inflammatory disease involving the sebaceous glands of the skin; characterized by papules or pustules or comedones
  • Acromegaly    enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • Actinomycosis    disease of cattle that can be transmitted to humans; results from infection with actinomycetes; characterized by hard swellings that exude pus through long sinuses
  • Acute kidney failure    renal failure associated with burns or other trauma or with acute infection or obstruction of the urinary tract
  • Acute pyelonephritis    pyelonephritis resulting from the spread of a bladder infection
  • Adenocarcinoma    malignant tumor originating in glandular epithelium
  • Adenomyosis    the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • Adenovirus    any of a group of viruses including those that in humans cause upper respiratory infections or infectious pinkeye
  • Agenesis    imperfect development; nondevelopment of a part
  • Agoraphobia    a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
  • Alkalosis    abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues
  • Alkaptonuria    a rare recessive metabolic anomaly marked by ochronosis and the presence of alkapton in the urine
  • Allergic    having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor); characterized by or caused by allergy
  • Allergy    hypersensitivity reaction to a particular allergen; symptoms can vary greatly in intensity
  • Alopecia    loss of hair (especially on the head) or loss of wool or feathers; in humans it can result from heredity or hormonal imbalance or certain diseases or drugs and treatments (chemotherapy for cancer)
  • Amoebiasis    infection by a disease causing ameba
  • Amyloidosis    a disorder characterized by deposit of amyloid in organs or tissues; often secondary to chronic rheumatoid arthritis or tuberculosis or multiple myeloma
  • Anaemia    a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • Anaphylaxis    hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion or injection of a substance (a protein or drug) resulting from prior contact with a substance
  • Anencephaly    a defect in brain development resulting in small or missing brain hemispheres
  • Angina    any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain; a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart
  • Angiosarcoma    a rare malignant neoplasm arising from vascular tissue; usually occurs in the breast and skin and is believed to originate from the endothelial cells of blood vessels
  • Ankylosis    abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of a joint
  • Anorexia    a prolonged disorder of eating due to loss of appetite
  • Anthrax    a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • Anxiety    a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill defined) misfortune; a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders
  • Aplastic anaemia    anemia characterized by pancytopenia resulting from failure of the bone marrow; can be caused by neoplasm or by toxic exposure
  • Appendicitis    inflammation of the vermiform appendix
  • Apraxia    inability to make purposeful movements
  • Argentine hemorrhagic fever    hemorrhagic fever with neurological signs; caused by the Junin virus
  • Ascariasis    infestation of the human intestine with Ascaris roundworms
  • Ascites    accumulation of serous fluid in peritoneal cavity
  • Asphyxiation    killing by depriving of oxygen; the condition of being deprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped)
  • Asthma    respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin
  • Ataxia    inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
  • Atopic eczema    a severe form of dermatitis characterized by atopy
  • Atrial septal defect    an abnormal opening between the left and right atria of the heart
  • Atrophy    any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse; verb undergo atrophy
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder    a condition (mostly in boys) characterized by behavioral and learning disorders
  • Autism    (psychiatry) an abnormal absorption with the self; marked by communication disorders and short attention span and inability to treat others as people
  • Autoimmune    of or relating to the immune response of the body against substance normally present in the body
  • Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial disease
  • Bacterial    relating to or caused by bacteria
  • Belching    the forceful expulsion of something from inside; a reflex that expels wind noisily from the stomach through the mouth
  • Benign    pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence; kindness of disposition or manner; not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor)
  • Bipolar    having two poles; of, pertaining to, or occurring in both polar regions; of or relating to manic depressive illness
  • Birth    the event of being born; the time when something begins (especially life); the process of giving birth; the kinship relation of an offspring to the parents; verb cause_to_be_born
  • Blastomycosis    any of several infections of the skin or mucous membrane caused by Blastomyces
  • Botulism    food poisoning from ingesting botulin; not infectious; affects the CNS; can be fatal if not treated promptly
  • Brachydactyly    abnormal shortness of fingers and toes
  • Brain death    death when respiration and other reflexes are absent; consciousness is gone; organs can be removed for transplantation before the heartbeat stops
  • Bronchitis    inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchial tubes
  • Bulimia    pathologically insatiable hunger (especially when caused by brain lesions); a disorder of eating seen among young women who go on eating binges and then feel guilt and depression and self condemnation
  • Bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma
  • Burns    celebrated Scottish poet (1759 1796); United States comedian and film actor (1896 1996)
  • Bursitis    inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
  • CHILD    a young person of either sex; a human offspring (son or daughter) of any age; an immature childish person; a member of a clan or tribe
  • Cachexia    any general reduction in vitality and strength of body and mind resulting from a debilitating chronic disease
  • Calcification    a process that impregnates something with calcium (or calcium salts); an inflexible and unchanging state; tissue hardened by deposition of lime salts
  • California    a state in the western United States on the Pacific; the 3rd largest state; known for earthquakes
  • Candidiasis    an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
  • Carcinoma    any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Cardiac arrest    absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • Cardiac arrhythmia    an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
  • Cardiac tamponade    mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion
  • Cardiomegaly    an abnormal enlargement of the heart
  • Cardiomyopathy    a disorder (usually of unknown origin) of the heart muscle (myocardium)
  • Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
  • Cat scratch disease    a disease thought to be transmitted to humans by a scratch from a cat
  • Cataract    a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice; clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • Cellulitis    an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • Cerebellar structural developmental anomalies
  • Cerebral palsy    a loss or deficiency of motor control with involuntary spasms caused by permanent brain damage present at birth
  • Cervicitis    inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • Cholangitis    inflammation of the bile ducts
  • Cholecystitis    inflammation of the gall bladder
  • Cholelithiasis    the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder
  • Cholera    an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • Chondrosarcoma    a malignant neoplasm of cartilage cells
  • Chromoblastomycosis    a fungal infection characterized by itchy warty nodules on the skin
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease    a nonreversible lung disease that is a combination of emphysema and chronic bronchitis; usually patients have been heavy cigarette smokers
  • Chronic radiodermatitis following radiotherapy
  • Cleft lip    a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip
  • Cleft palate    a congenital fissure of the hard palate
  • Clinical    scientifically detached; unemotional; relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
  • Coccidioidomycosis    an infection of the lungs and skin characterized by excessive sputum and nodules
  • Coenzyme Q    any of several quinones found in living cells and that function as coenzymes that transfer electrons from one molecule to another in cell respiration
  • Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency
  • Compression    applying pressure; encoding information while reducing the bandwidth or bits required; the process or result of becoming smaller or pressed together; an increase in the density of something
  • Concussion    any violent blow; injury to the brain caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness
  • Congenital disorder    a defect that is present at birth
  • Congenital    present at birth but not necessarily hereditary; acquired during fetal development
  • Congestive heart failure    inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues
  • Conjunctivitis    inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye
  • Contact dermatitis    a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)
  • Coronary thrombosis    obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)
  • Cowpox    a viral disease of cattle causing a mild skin disease affecting the udder; formerly used to inoculate humans against smallpox
  • Cryptococcosis    a fungal infection characterized by nodular lesions first in the lungs and spreading to the nervous system
  • Cryptorchidism    failure of one or both testes to move into the scrotum as the male fetus develops
  • Cyclothymic disorder    a mild bipolar disorder that persists over a long time
  • Cyst    a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure; a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)
  • Cystic fibrosis    the most common congenital disease; the child's lungs and intestines and pancreas become clogged with thick mucus; caused by defect in a single gene; there is no cure
  • Cystic    of or relating to or resembling a cyst; of or relating to a normal cyst (as the gallbladder or urinary bladder)
  • Cystitis    inflammation of the urinary bladder and ureters
  • Cytological    of or relating to the science of cytology
  • Cytomegalovirus    any of a group of herpes viruses that enlarge epithelial cells and can cause birth defects; can affect humans with impaired immunological systems
  • Deafness    partial or complete loss of hearing
  • Degeneration    passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form; the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality; the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities
  • Degenerative    (of illness) marked by gradual deterioration of organs and cells along with loss of function
  • Delirium    a usually brief state of excitement and mental confusion often accompanied by hallucinations; state of violent mental agitation
  • Delusional disorder    any mental disorder in which delusions play a significant role
  • Dementia    mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • Dengue fever    an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Dengue    an infectious disease of the tropics transmitted by mosquitoes and characterized by rash and aching head and joints
  • Dermatitis    inflammation of the skin; skin becomes itchy and may develop blisters
  • Dermatophytosis    fungal infection of the skin (especially of moist parts covered by clothing)
  • Dermoid cyst    a cystic tumor (usually benign) with a wall lined with epithelium and a cavity containing other material
  • Developmental capillary vascular malformations
  • Deviated nasal septum    abnormal shift in location of the nasal septum; a common condition causing obstruction of the nasal passages and difficulty in breathing and recurrent nosebleeds
  • Diabetes mellitus    diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria
  • Diabetic acidosis    acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetic coma    coma that can develop in inadequately treated cases of diabetes mellitus
  • Diphtheria    acute contagious infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae; marked by the formation of a false membrane in the throat and other air passages causing difficulty in breathing
  • Diplegia    paralysis of corresponding parts on both sides of the body
  • Discontinuity    lack of connection or continuity
  • Diverticulitis    inflammation of a diverticulum in the digestive tract (especially the colon); characterized by painful abdominal cramping and fever and constipation
  • Diverticulosis    presence of multiple diverticula in the walls of the colon
  • Diverticulum    a herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ (especially the colon)
  • Dizziness    a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • Dracunculiasis    a painful and debilitating infestation contracted by drinking stagnant water contaminated with Guinea worm larvae that can mature inside a human's abdomen until the worm emerges through a painful blister in the person's skin
  • Duodenal ulcer    a peptic ulcer of the duodenum
  • Dysfunction    (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part
  • Dyspepsia    a disorder of digestive function characterized by discomfort or heartburn or nausea
  • Dysphagia    condition in which swallowing is difficult or painful
  • Ebola    a severe and often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (monkeys and chimpanzees) caused by the Ebola virus; characterized by high fever and severe internal bleeding; can be spread from person to person; is largely limited to Africa
  • Echinococcosis    infestation with larval echinococci (tapeworms)
  • Eclampsia    a toxic condition characterized by convulsions and possibly coma during or immediately after pregnancy
  • Ectopia    abnormal position of a part or organ (especially at the time of birth)
  • Ectopic pregnancy    pregnancy resulting from gestation elsewhere than in the uterus
  • Effects    property of a personal character that is portable but not used in business
  • Ehlers Danlos syndrome musculocontractural type
  • Emphysema    an abnormal condition of the lungs marked by decreased respiratory function; associated with smoking or chronic bronchitis or old age
  • Encephalopathy    any disorder or disease of the brain
  • Encopresis    involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
  • Endometriosis    the presence of endometrium elsewhere than in the lining of the uterus; causes premenstrual pain and dysmenorrhea
  • Enteritis    inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Enterobiasis    an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis; occurs especially in children
  • Enterovirus    any of a group of picornaviruses that infect the gastrointestinal tract and can spread to other areas (especially the nervous system)
  • Enuresis    inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
  • Eosinopenia    a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood
  • Eosinophilia    a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • Epidemic myalgia    an acute infectious disease occurring in epidemic form and featuring paroxysms of pain (usually in the chest)
  • Epilepsy    a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions
  • Epiphora    repetition of the ends of two or more successive sentences, verses, etc.
  • Episcleritis    inflammation of the sclera of the eye
  • Epispadias    a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethra is on the upper surface of the penis
  • Epithelial basement membrane corneal dystrophy
  • Erythema    abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • Essential hypertension    persistent and pathological high blood pressure for which no specific cause can be found
  • Eustachian tube    either of the paired tubes connecting the middle ears to the nasopharynx; equalizes air pressure on the two sides of the eardrum
  • Exanthema    eruption on the skin occurring as a symptom of a disease
  • Facial    of or pertaining to the outside surface of an object; of or concerning the face;  care for the face that usually involves cleansing and massage and the application of cosmetic creams; cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • Failed    unable to meet financial obligations
  • Fallot    French physician who described cardiac anomalies including Fallot's tetralogy (1850 1911)
  • Familial hypercholesterolemia    congenital disorder characterized by high levels of cholesterol and early development of atherosclerosis
  • Fascioliasis    infestation with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica; liver damage sometimes occurs; related to liver rot
  • Fasciolopsiasis    infestation with the large intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski; common in eastern Asia
  • Feeding    the act of supplying food and nourishment; the act of consuming food
  • Filariasis    a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • Finding    the decision of a court on issues of fact or law; something that is found; the act of determining the properties of something
  • Fissure    (anatomy) a long narrow slit or groove that divides an organ into lobes; a long narrow opening; a long narrow depression in a surface; verb break into fissures or fine cracks
  • Flatulence    a state of excessive gas in the alimentary canal; pompously embellished language
  • Focal nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma
  • Focal    having or localized centrally at a focus; of or relating to a focus
  • Foodborne Clostridium perfringens intoxication
  • Frostbite    destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene
  • Fructose    a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  • Galactose    a simple sugar found in lactose
  • Galactosemia    a genetic disease (autosomal recessive) in which an enzyme needed to metabolize galactose is deficient or absent; typically develops shortly after birth
  • Gangrene    necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply); verb undergo necrosis
  • Gas gangrene    (pathology) a deadly form of gangrene usually caused by clostridium bacteria that produce toxins that cause tissue death; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Gastric ulcer    a peptic ulcer of the stomach
  • Gastritis    inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • Gastro oesophageal reflux disease in newborn
  • Gastroenteritis    inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • Genetic    of or relating to the science of genetics; pertaining to or referring to origin; tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity; of or relating to or produced by or being a gene
  • Giardiasis    infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • Glanders    a destructive and contagious bacterial disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
  • Glaucoma    increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor; damages the optic disc and impairs vision (sometimes progressing to blindness)
  • Glycosuria    the presence of abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
  • Gout    a painful inflammation of the big toe and foot caused by defects in uric acid metabolism resulting in deposits of the acid and its salts in the blood and joints
  • Granulation    the act of forming something into granules or grains; new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process
  • Granuloma    a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
  • Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency
  • Haemoglobinuria    presence of hemoglobin in the urine
  • Haemophilia    congenital tendency to uncontrolled bleeding; usually affects males and is transmitted from mother to son
  • Haemoptysis    coughing up blood from the respiratory tract; usually indicates a severe infection of the bronchi or lungs
  • Haemothorax    accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity (the space between the lungs and the walls of the chest)
  • Heart failure    inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • Heartburn    a painful burning sensation in the chest caused by gastroesophageal reflux (backflow from the stomach irritating the esophagus); symptomatic of an ulcer or a diaphragmatic hernia or other disorder
  • Hemiplegia    paralysis of one side of the body
  • Hemochromatosis    pathology in which iron accumulates in the tissues; characterized by bronzed skin and enlarged liver and diabetes mellitus and abnormalities of the pancreas and the joints
  • Hepatitis A    an acute but benign form of viral hepatitis caused by an RNA virus that does not persist in the blood serum and is usually transmitted by ingesting food or drink that is contaminated with fecal matter
  • Hepatitis B    an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • Herpes simplex virus    a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system
  • Herpes simplex    a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system; an infection caused by the herpes simples virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
  • Heterotaxy    any abnormal position of the organs of the body
  • Hookworm disease    infestation of the intestines by hookworms which enter the body (usually) through the skin
  • Hydrocele    disorder in which serous fluid accumulates in a body sac (especially in the scrotum)
  • Hydroxy    being or containing a hydroxyl group
  • Hyperaldosteronism    a condition caused by overproduction of aldosterone
  • Hyperbilirubinemia    abnormally high amounts of bile pigment (bilirubin) in the blood
  • Hypercalcemia    the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or Paget's disease
  • Hyperhidrosis    excessive and profuse perspiration
  • Hyperlipidemia    presence of excess lipids in the blood
  • Hyperlipoproteinemia    any of various disorders of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism that result in high levels of lipoprotein and cholesterol in the circulating blood
  • Hyperparathyroidism    excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood; can affect many systems of the body (especially causing bone resorption and osteoporosis)
  • Hypertrophy    abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ; verb undergo hypertrophy
  • Hypochondriasis    chronic and abnormal anxiety about imaginary symptoms and ailments
  • Hypoglycaemia    abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
  • Hypoparathyroidism    inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
  • Hypoplasia    underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells
  • Hypospadias    an abnormal condition in males in which the urethra opens on the under surface of the penis
  • Hypotension    abnormally low blood pressure
  • Hypothyroidism    an underactive thyroid gland; a glandular disorder resulting from insufficient production of thyroid hormones
  • Hypotonia    (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  • Ichthyosis    any of several congenital diseases in which the skin is fishlike (dry and scaly)
  • Immunoglobulin G    one of the five major classes of immunoglobulins; the main antibody defense against bacteria
  • Immunological    of or relating to immunology
  • Impetigo    a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • Infectious mononucleosis    an acute disease characterized by fever and swollen lymph nodes and an abnormal increase of mononuclear leucocytes or monocytes in the bloodstream; not highly contagious; some believe it can be transmitted by kissing
  • Inflammation    arousal to violent emotion; a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat; the act of setting something on fire; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • Influenza    an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • Inguinal hernia    hernia in which a loop of intestine enters the inguinal canal; the most common type of hernia in males
  • Inherited autonomic nervous system disorders
  • Insomnia    an inability to sleep; chronic sleeplessness
  • Intestinal obstruction    blockage of the intestine (especially the ileum) that prevents the contents of the intestine from passing to the lower bowel
  • Intestinal    of or relating to or inside the intestines
  • Irritable bowel syndrome    recurrent abdominal pain and diarrhea (often alternating with periods of constipation); often associated with emotional stress
  • Isolated follicle stimulating hormone deficiency
  • Keloid    raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury; results from excessive tissue repair
  • Keratosis pilaris    keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
  • Kidney failure    inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • Klebsiella    a genus of nonmotile rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • Kleptomania    an irresistible impulse to steal in the absence of any economic motive
  • Lack    the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable; verb be without
  • Lassa    the sacred city of Lamaism; known as the Forbidden City for its former inaccessibility and hostility to strangers
  • Lecithin    a yellow phospholipid essential for the metabolism of fats; found in egg yolk and in many plant and animal cells; used commercially as an emulsifier
  • Leiomyosarcoma    sarcoma of smooth muscle; occurs most often digestive tract or uterus or bladder or prostate
  • Leishmaniasis    sores resulting from a tropical infection by protozoa of the genus Leishmania which are spread by sandflies
  • Leprosy    chronic granulomatous communicable disease occurring in tropical and subtropical regions; characterized by inflamed nodules beneath the skin and wasting of body parts; caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae
  • Leptospirosis    an infectious disease cause by leptospira and transmitted to humans from domestic animals; characterized by jaundice and fever
  • Lupus erythematosus    a chronic inflammatory collagen disease affecting connective tissue (skin or joints)
  • Lymphadenitis    inflammation of lymph nodes
  • Lymphangiectasia    dilatation of a lymph vessel
  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis    a form of viral meningitis caused by a virus carried by the common house mouse
  • Lyssavirus    a neurotropic non arbovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae that causes rabies
  • MDMA    a stimulant drug that is chemically related to mescaline and amphetamine and is used illicitly for its euphoric and hallucinogenic effects; it was formerly used in psychotherapy but in 1985 it was declared illegal in the United States
  • Macrocephaly    an abnormally large head; differs from hydrocephalus because there is no increased intracranial pressure and the overgrowth is symmetrical
  • Male hypogonadism    the state of being a eunuch (either because of lacking testicles or because they failed to develop)
  • Malformations involving cutaneous blood vessels
  • Malfunction    a failure to function normally; verb fail to function or function improperly
  • Malignant hyperthermia    hereditary condition in which certain anesthetics (e.g., halothane) cause high body temperatures and muscle rigidity
  • Malignant mixed epithelial mesenchymal tumour
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in adrenal gland
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in large intestine
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in lymph nodes
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in mediastinum
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in retroperitoneum
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in soft tissue
  • Malignant neoplasm metastasis in spinal cord
  • Malignant neoplasm    a tumor that is malignant and tends to spread to other parts of the body
  • Manitoba    one of the three prairie provinces in central Canada
  • Mannose binding lectin pathway component defects
  • Maple syrup urine disease    an inherited disorder of metabolism in which the urine has a odor characteristic of maple syrup; if untreated it can lead to mental retardation and death in early childhood
  • Marburg disease    a viral disease of green monkeys caused by the Marburg virus; when transmitted to humans it causes serious or fatal illness
  • Maternal    characteristic of a mother; relating to or derived from one's mother; relating to or characteristic of or befitting a parent; related on the mother's side
  • Measles    an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • Megalencephaly capillary malformation syndrome
  • Melanoma    any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • Meningitis    infectious disease characterized by inflammation of the meninges (the tissues that surround the brain or spinal cord) usually caused by a bacterial infection; symptoms include headache and stiff neck and fever and nausea
  • Menopausal    of or relating to the menopause
  • Merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy
  • Metabolic    undergoing metamorphosis; of or relating to metabolism
  • Metastatic malignant neoplasm involving skin
  • Methyl    the univalent radical CH3 derived from methane
  • Migraine    a severe recurring vascular headache; occurs more frequently in women than men
  • Miliaria    obstruction of the sweat ducts during high heat and humidity
  • Miliary tuberculosis    acute tuberculosis characterized by the appearance of tiny tubercles on one or more organs of the body (presumably resulting from tubercle bacilli being spread in the bloodstream)
  • Miscellaneous non specific skin related symptoms
  • Miscellaneous    constituting a grab bag category; consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity)
  • Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency
  • Mitral valve prolapse    cardiopathy resulting from the mitral valve not regulating the flow of blood between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart
  • Mitral valve stenosis    obstruction or narrowing of the mitral valve (as by scarring from rheumatic fever)
  • Molar pregnancy    an abnormality during pregnancy; chorionic villi around the fetus degenerate and form clusters of fluid filled sacs; usually associated with the death of the fetus
  • Molluscum contagiosum    a virus disease of the skin marked by round white swellings; transmitted from person to person (most often in children or in adults with impaired immune function)
  • Mononeuropathy    any neuropathy of a single nerve trunk
  • Mucocutaneous    of or relating to the mucous membranes and skin
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis    any of a group of genetic disorders involving a defect in the metabolism of mucopolysaccharides resulting in greater than normal levels of mucopolysaccharides in tissues
  • Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome
  • Multiple sclerosis    a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
  • Mumps    an acute contagious viral disease characterized by fever and by swelling of the parotid glands
  • Muscular dystrophy dystroglycanopathy type A
  • Muscular dystrophy dystroglycanopathy type B
  • Muscular dystrophy dystroglycanopathy type C
  • Muscular dystrophy    any of several hereditary diseases of the muscular system characterized by weakness and wasting of skeletal muscles
  • Myasthenia    any muscular weakness; a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck); caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions
  • Mycoplasma    any of a group of small parasitic bacteria that lack a cell walls and can survive without oxygen; can cause pneumonia and urinary tract infection
  • Myeloid    of or relating to bone marrow; of or relating to the spinal cord
  • Myiasis    infestation of the body by the larvae of flies (usually through a wound or other opening) or any disease resulting from such infestation
  • Myocarditis    inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)
  • Myoglobinuria    the presence of myoglobin in the urine
  • Myotonia    abnormally long muscular contractions; slow relaxation of a muscle after a contraction
  • Narcolepsy    a sleep disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep
  • Nausea    disgust so strong it makes you feel sick; the state that precedes vomiting
  • Neonatal    relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth
  • Nephrotic syndrome    a syndrome characterized by edema and large amounts of protein in the urine and usually increased blood cholesterol; usually associated with glomerulonephritis or with a complication of various systemic diseases
  • Newfoundland    a breed of very large heavy dogs with a thick coarse usually black coat; highly intelligent and vigorous swimmers; developed in Newfoundland; an island in the north Atlantic
  • Non ulcerative sexually transmitted chlamydial
  • Nonfamilial nongenetic cystic kidney disease
  • Nonorgan specific systemic autoimmune disorders
  • Nutritional    of or relating to or providing nutrition
  • Nystagmus    involuntary movements of the eyeballs; its presence or absence is used to diagnose a variety of neurological and visual disorders
  • Obsessive compulsive    characterized by obsessions and compulsions;  a person with obsessive compulsive characteristics
  • Obstruction    getting in someone's way; the act of obstructing; any structure that makes progress difficult; the state or condition of being obstructed; something immaterial that stands in the way and must be circumvented or surmounted
  • Oedema    swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • Oesophagitis    inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • Omphalocele    protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • Onchocerciasis    infestation with slender threadlike roundworms (filaria) deposited under the skin by the bite of black fleas; when the eyes are involved it can result in blindness; common in Africa and tropical America
  • Opisthorchiasis    infestation with flukes obtained from eating raw fish; common in eastern Asia
  • Orbital    of or relating to the eye socket; of or relating to an orbit
  • Orchitis    inflammation of one or both testes; characterized by pain and swelling
  • Orthostatic hypotension    low blood pressure occurring in some people when they stand up
  • Ossification    hardened conventionality; the developmental process of bone formation; the process of becoming rigidly fixed in a conventional pattern of thought or behavior; the calcification of soft tissue into a bonelike material
  • Osteoarthritis    chronic breakdown of cartilage in the joints; the most common form of arthritis occurring usually after middle age
  • Osteogenesis imperfecta    autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue characterized by brittle bones that fracture easily
  • Osteomyelitis    an inflammation of bone and bone marrow (usually caused by bacterial infection)
  • Osteopetrosis    an inherited disorder characterized by an increase in bone density; in severe forms the bone marrow cavity may be obliterated
  • Osteoporosis    abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium; most common in postmenopausal women
  • Osteosarcoma    malignant bone tumor; most common in children and young adults where it tends to affect the femur
  • Otalgia    an ache localized in the middle or inner ear
  • Otitis externa    inflammation of the external ear (including auricle and ear canal)
  • Otitis media    inflammation of the middle ear; common in children
  • Otosclerosis    hereditary disorder in which ossification of the labyrinth of the inner ear causes tinnitus and eventual deafness
  • Overlap    the property of partial coincidence in time; a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena; a flap that lies over another part; verb coincide partially or wholly; extend over and cover a part of
  • Overweight    usually describes a large person who is fat but has a large frame to carry it;  the property of excessive fatness
  • Pacemaker    an implanted electronic device that takes over the function of the natural cardiac pacemaker; a specialized bit of heart tissue that controls the heartbeat; a horse used to set the pace in racing; a leading instance in its field
  • Panic disorder    an anxiety disorder characterized by unpredictable panic attacks; the attacks are usually severe but brief
  • Paraphilic disorder involving solitary behaviour
  • Paraplegia    paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
  • Paratyphoid Fever    any of a variety of infectious intestinal diseases resembling typhoid fever
  • Parkinsonism    a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system characterized by tremor and impaired muscular coordination
  • Parvovirus    any of a group of viruses containing DNA in an icosahedral protein shell and causing disease in dogs and cattle; not known to be associated with any human disease
  • Pasteurellosis    an acute infectious disease characterized by pneumonia and blood infection
  • Pauci immune proliferative glomerulonephritis
  • Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders
  • Pediculosis    infestation with lice (Pediculus humanus) resulting in severe itching
  • Pemphigus    a skin disease characterized by large thin walled blisters (bullae) arising from normal skin or mucous membrane
  • Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Peptic ulcer    an ulcer of the mucous membrane lining of the alimentary tract
  • Perforation    the act of punching a hole (especially a row of holes as for ease of separation); a line of small holes for tearing at a particular place; a hole made in something
  • Pericarditis    inflammation of the pericardium
  • Periodontal disease    a disease that attacks the gum and bone and around the teeth
  • Peritonitis    inflammation of the peritoneum
  • Pertussis    a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • Phenylketonuria    a genetic disorder of metabolism; lack of the enzyme needed to turn phenylalanine into tyrosine results in an accumulation of phenylalanine in the body fluids which causes various degrees of mental deficiency
  • Phonophobia    a morbid fear of sounds including your own voice
  • Photosensitivity    sensitivity to the action of radiant energy
  • Pica    magpies; eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency; a linear unit (1/6 inch) used in printing
  • Picornavirus    a group of single strand RNA viruses with a protein coat
  • Plasmodium vivax    parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans
  • Pleural    of or relating to the pleura or the walls of the thorax
  • Pleurisy    inflammation of the pleura of the lungs (especially the parietal layer)
  • Pneumoconiosis    chronic respiratory disease caused by inhaling metallic or mineral particles
  • Pneumocystis pneumonia    pneumonia occurring in infants or in persons with impaired immune systems (as AIDS victims)
  • Pneumonitis    inflammation of the lungs; caused by a virus or an allergic reaction
  • Pneumothorax    abnormal presence of air in the pleural cavity resulting in the collapse of the lung; may be spontaneous (due to injury to the chest) or induced (as a treatment for tuberculosis)
  • Polydactyly    birth defect characterized by the presence of more than the normal number of fingers or toes
  • Polyp    one of two forms that coelenterates take e.g. a hydra or coral: usually sedentary and has a hollow cylindrical body usually with a ring of tentacles around the mouth; a small vascular growth on the surface of a mucous membrane
  • Polyuria    renal disorder characterized by the production of large volumes of pale dilute urine; often associated with diabetes
  • Porphyria    a genetic abnormality of metabolism causing abdominal pains and mental confusion
  • Postprocedural nonmenstrual uterine bleeding
  • Postprocedural pulmonary venous complication
  • Pre eclampsia    abnormal state of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and fluid retention and albuminuria; can lead to eclampsia if untreated
  • Prenatal intrauterine intestinal perforation
  • Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis
  • Prolapse    the slipping or falling out of place of an organ (as the uterus); verb slip or fall out of place, as of body parts
  • Prurigo    chronic inflammatory disease of the skin characterized by blister capped papules and intense itching
  • Pruritus    an intense itching sensation that can have various causes (as by allergies or infection or lymphoma or jaundice etc.)
  • Psittacosis    an atypical pneumonia caused by a rickettsia microorganism and transmitted to humans from infected birds; infectious disease of birds
  • Psoriatic arthritis    a form of rheumatoid arthritis usually affecting fingers and toes and associated with psoriasis
  • Psychological    mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature; of or relating to or determined by psychology
  • Pycnodysostosis    a form of dwarfism accompanied by fragile bones and bad teeth
  • Pyridoxamine    a B vitamin that is essential for metabolism of amino acids and starch
  • Pyromania    an uncontrollable desire to set fire to things
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency
  • Pyuria    presence of white blood cells in the urine; symptom of urinary tract infection
  • Q fever    an acute disease resembling influenza
  • Quadrantanopia    blindness in one fourth of the visual field
  • REM sleep    a recurring sleep state during which dreaming occurs; a state of rapidly shifting eye movements during sleep
  • Rabies    an acute viral disease of the nervous system of warm blooded animals (usually transmitted by the bite of a rabid animal); rabies is fatal if the virus reaches the brain
  • Red eye   verb travel on an overnight flight
  • Refractory anaemia    any of various anemic conditions that are not successfully treated by any means other than blood transfusions (and that are not associated with another primary disease)
  • Relapsing fever    marked by recurring high fever and transmitted by the bite of infected lice or ticks; characterized by episodes of high fever and chills and headache and muscle pain and nausea that recur every week or ten days for several months
  • Renal colic    sharp pain in the lower back that radiates into the groin; associated with the passage of a renal calculus through the ureter
  • Respiratory syncytial virus    a paramyxovirus that forms syncytia in tissue culture and that is responsible for severe respiratory diseases such as bronchiolitis and bronchial pneumonia (especially in children)
  • Restless legs syndrome    feeling of uneasiness and restlessness in the legs after going to bed (sometimes causing insomnia); may be relieved temporarily by walking or moving the legs
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma    a highly malignant neoplasm derived from striated muscle
  • Rhinosporidiosis    fungal infection of the nose; often acquired while swimming
  • Ribose    a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
  • Rickettsialpox    mild infectious rickettsial disease caused by a bacterium of the genus Rickettsia transmitted to humans by the bite a mite that lives on rodents; characterized by chills and fever and headache and skin lesions that resemble chickenpox
  • Rift Valley fever    an infection common in Africa caused by a bunyavirus; transmitted by mosquitoes or by handling infected animals
  • Rosacea    a skin disease of adults (more often women) in which blood vessels of the face enlarge resulting in a flushed appearance
  • Rotavirus    the reovirus causing infant enteritis
  • Rubella    a contagious viral disease that is a milder form of measles lasting three or four days; can be damaging to a fetus during the first trimester
  • SESAME    East Indian annual erect herb; source of sesame seed or benniseed and sesame oil
  • Salivary gland    any of three pairs of glands in the mouth and digestive system that secrete saliva for digestion
  • Salmonella    rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; cause typhoid fever and food poisoning; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Salmonellosis    a kind of food poisoning caused by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella typhimurium
  • Salpingitis    inflammation of a Fallopian tube (usually the result of infection spreading from the vagina or uterus) or of a Eustachian tube
  • Sandfly fever    a mild viral disease transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasii
  • Sarcoidosis    a chronic disease of unknown cause marked by the formation of nodules in the lungs and liver and lymph glands and salivary glands
  • Sarcoma    a usually malignant tumor arising from connective tissue (bone or muscle etc.); one of the four major types of cancer
  • Scabies    a contagious skin infection caused by the itch mite; characterized by persistent itching and skin irritation
  • Scarlet fever    an acute communicable disease (usually in children) characterized by fever and a red rash
  • Schistosomiasis    an infestation with or a resulting infection caused by a parasite of the genus Schistosoma; common in the tropics and Far East; symptoms depend on the part of the body infected
  • Schizophrenia    any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact
  • Scrub typhus    transmitted by larval mites and widespread in Asia
  • Secondary hypertension    hypertension that is secondary to another disease
  • Seizure    the taking possession of something by legal process; a sudden occurrence (or recurrence) of a disease; the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner of property; the act of taking of a person by force
  • Sensory    involving or derived from the senses; of a nerve fiber or impulse originating outside and passing toward the central nervous system; relating to or concerned in sensation
  • Sepsis    the presence of pus forming bacteria or their toxins in the blood or tissues
  • Serratia    a genus of motile peritrichous bacteria that contain small Gram negative rod
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome    a respiratory disease of unknown etiology that apparently originated in mainland China in 2003; characterized by fever and coughing or difficulty breathing or hypoxia; can be fatal
  • Shigella    rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some are pathogenic for warm blooded animals; can be used as a bioweapon
  • Shigellosis    an acute infection of the intestine by shigella bacteria; characterized by diarrhea and fever and abdominal pains
  • Sideroblastic anaemia    refractory anemia characterized by sideroblasts in the bone marrow
  • Siemens    German electrical engineer (1816 1892); engineer who was a brother of Ernst Werner von Siemens and who moved to England (1823 1883); a unit of conductance equal to the reciprocal of an ohm
  • Skin disease    a disease affecting the skin
  • Skin disorder    a disease affecting the skin
  • Smallpox    a highly contagious viral disease characterized by fever and weakness and skin eruption with pustules that form scabs that slough off leaving scars
  • Spondylo megaepiphyseal metaphyseal dysplasia
  • Spondylolisthesis    a forward dislocation of one vertebra over the one beneath it producing pressure on spinal nerves
  • Sporotrichosis    a chronic fungal infection of the skin and lymph nodes
  • Spotted fever    any of several severe febrile diseases characterized by skin rashes or spots on the skin
  • Staphylococcus    spherical Gram positive parasitic bacteria that tend to form irregular colonies; some cause boils or septicemia or infections
  • Status epilepticus    a condition in which there are continuing attacks of epilepsy without intervals of consciousness; can lead to brain damage and death
  • Stenosis    abnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
  • Streptococcal    of or relating to or caused by streptococci
  • Streptococcus    spherical Gram positive bacteria occurring in pairs or chains; cause e.g. scarlet fever and tonsillitis
  • Subcutaneous panniculitis like T cell lymphoma
  • Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
  • Sudden infant death syndrome    sudden and unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant during sleep
  • Sunburn    redness of the skin caused by exposure to the rays of the sun; a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb get a sunburn by overexposure to the sun
  • Symptomatic    relating to or according to or affecting a symptom or symptoms; characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease
  • Syncope    (phonology) the loss of sounds in the interior of a word (as in `fo'c'sle' for `forecastle'); a spontaneous loss of consciousness caused by insufficient blood to the brain
  • Syndactyly    birth defect in which there is partial or total webbing connecting two or more fingers or toes
  • Syphilis    a common venereal disease caused by the treponema pallidum spirochete; symptoms change through progressive stages; can be congenital (transmitted through the placenta)
  • Taenia    tapeworms parasitic in humans which uses the pig as its intermediate host; a narrow headband or strip of ribbon worn as a headband
  • Tenosynovitis    inflammation of a tendon and its enveloping sheath
  • Termination    the act of ending something; a coming to an end of a contract period; the end of a word (a suffix or inflectional ending or final morpheme); something that results; a place where something ends or is complete
  • Tetralogy    a series of four related works (plays or operas or novels)
  • Thrombocytosis    increase in the number of platelets in the blood which tends to cause clots to form; associated with many neoplasms and chronic infections and other diseases
  • Thyroiditis    inflammation of the thyroid gland
  • Thyrotoxicosis    an overactive thyroid gland; pathologically excessive production of thyroid hormones or the condition resulting from excessive production of thyroid hormones
  • Tinea    type genus of the Tineidae: clothes moths; infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • Tinnitus    a ringing or booming sensation in one or both ears; a symptom of an ear infection or Meniere's disease
  • Torsion    a twisting force; a tortuous and twisted shape or position
  • Torticollis    an unnatural condition in which the head leans to one side because the neck muscles on that side are contracted
  • Toxoplasmosis    infection caused by parasites transmitted to humans from infected cats; if contracted by a pregnant woman it can result in serious damage to the fetus
  • Tracheobronchitis    common respiratory infection characterized by inflammation of the trachea and the bronchi
  • Trachoma    a chronic contagious viral disease marked by inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye and the formation of scar tissue
  • Trench fever    marked by pain in muscles and joints and transmitted by lice
  • Trichinosis    infestation by trichina larvae that are transmitted by eating inadequately cooked meat (especially pork); larvae migrate from the intestinal tract to the muscles where they become encysted
  • Trichuriasis    infestation by a roundworm; common in tropical areas with poor sanitation
  • Tularaemia    a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • Tularemia    a highly infectious disease of rodents (especially rabbits and squirrels) and sometimes transmitted to humans by ticks or flies or by handling infected animals
  • Typhoid fever    serious infection marked by intestinal inflammation and ulceration; caused by Salmonella typhosa ingested with food or water
  • Typhus fever    rickettsial disease transmitted by body lice and characterized by skin rash and high fever
  • Tyrosinemia    autosomal recessive defect in tyrosine metabolism resulting in liver and kidney disturbances and mental retardation
  • Ulcer    a circumscribed inflammatory and often suppurating lesion on the skin or an internal mucous surface resulting in necrosis of tissue
  • Ulcerative colitis    a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea
  • Ulcerative    of or relating to or characterized by ulceration
  • Umbilical hernia    protrusion of the intestine and omentum through a hernia in the abdominal wall near the navel; usually self correcting after birth
  • Uncontrolled    not being under control; out of control
  • Urea    the chief solid component of mammalian urine; synthesized from ammonia and carbon dioxide and used as fertilizer and in animal feed and in plastics
  • Urethritis    inflammation of the urethra; results in painful urination
  • Urticaria    an itchy skin eruption characterized by weals with pale interiors and well defined red margins; usually the result of an allergic response to insect bites or food or drugs
  • Vaginal discharge    discharge of secretions from the cervical glands of the vagina; normally clear or white
  • Vaginitis    inflammation of the vagina (usually associated with candidiasis)
  • Varicella    an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • Vasculitis    inflammation of a blood vessel
  • Vasomotor    relating to the nerves and muscles that cause the blood vessels to constrict or dilate
  • Vertebral    of or relating to or constituting vertebrae
  • Viral haemorrhagic fever    a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • Viral hepatitis    hepatitis caused by a virus
  • Vitamin B    originally thought to be a single vitamin but now separated into several B vitamins
  • Von Willebrand    Finnish physician who first described vascular hemophilia (1870 1949)
  • West Nile virus    the flavivirus that causes West Nile encephalitis
  • Whooping cough    a disease of the respiratory mucous membrane
  • X linked    relating to genes or characteristics or conditions carried on the X chromosome
  • Xeroderma    a mild form of ichthyosis characterized by abnormal dryness and roughness of the skin
  • Yaws    an infectious tropical disease resembling syphilis in its early stages; marked by red skin eruptions and ulcerating lesions
  • Yellow fever    caused by a flavivirus transmitted by a mosquito
  • Zoster    eruptions along a nerve path often accompanied by severe neuralgia
  • abdomen    the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis; the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • abdominal cavity    the cavity containing the major viscera; in mammals it is separated from the thorax by the diaphragm
  • abnormality    behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality; marked strangeness as a consequence of being abnormal; retardation sufficient to fall outside the normal range of intelligence; an abnormal condition
  • absent    lost in thought; showing preoccupation; not in a specified place physically or mentally; verb go away or leave
  • acanthosis    an abnormal but benign thickening of the prickle cell layer of the skin (as in psoriasis)
  • acoustic nerve    a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • acquired    gotten through environmental forces
  • administration    the act of administering medication; a method of tending to (especially business) matters; the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something; the tenure of a president
  • adolescence    in the state that someone is in between puberty and adulthood; the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood
  • adrenal gland    either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney
  • adulthood    the state (and responsibilities) of a person who has attained maturity; the period of time in your life after your physical growth has stopped and you are fully developed
  • aetiology    the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • air pressure    the pressure exerted by the atmosphere
  • albuminuria    the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • alcohol    a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent; any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation
  • allergic rhinitis    rhinitis caused by an allergic reaction
  • alveolus    a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways; a bony socket in the alveolar ridge that holds a tooth
  • amino acid    organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
  • amniotic cavity    the fluid filled cavity that surrounds the developing embryo
  • amniotic fluid    the serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion
  • ampulla    a flask that has two handles; used by Romans for wines or oils; the dilated portion of a canal or duct especially of the semicircular canals of the ear
  • amputation    a surgical removal of all or part of a limb; a condition of disability resulting from the loss of one or more limbs
  • anaesthesia    loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness
  • anemia    genus of terrestrial or lithophytic ferns having pinnatifid fronds; chiefly of tropical America; a deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality
  • ankle    a gliding joint between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula and the proximal end of the talus
  • anorectal    pertaining to the anus and rectum considered together
  • another    any of various alternatives; some other
  • anus    excretory opening at the end of the alimentary canal
  • anxiety disorder    a cover term for a variety of mental disorders in which severe anxiety is a salient symptom
  • aplasia    failure of some tissue or organ to develop
  • appendix    a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch; supplementary material that is collected and appended at the back of a book
  • arousal    the act of arousing; awakening from sleep; a state of heightened physiological activity; mutual sexual fondling prior to sexual intercourse
  • asphyxia    a condition in which insufficient or no oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged on a ventilatory basis; caused by choking or drowning or electric shock or poison gas
  • associated    related to or accompanying; joined in some kind of relationship (as a colleague or ally or companion etc.)
  • asymmetry    (mathematics) a lack of symmetry
  • auricle    the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear; a small conical pouch projecting from the upper anterior part of each atrium of the heart
  • autonomic nervous system    the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
  • bacteria    (microbiology) single celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • beta    preliminary or testing stage of a software or hardware product; second in order of importance;  the 2nd letter of the Greek alphabet; beets
  • bladder    a bag that fills with air; a distensible membranous sac (usually containing liquid or gas)
  • body part    any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity
  • bone marrow    the fatty network of connective tissue that fills the cavities of bones; very tender and very nutritious tissue from marrowbones
  • brachial plexus    a network of nerves formed by cervical and thoracic spinal nerves and supplying the arm and parts of the shoulder
  • brain stem    the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
  • breast    the front part of the trunk from the neck to the abdomen; either of two soft fleshy milk secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman; meat carved from the breast of a fowl; verb reach the summit; meet at breast level; confront bodily
  • breathing    passing or able to pass air in and out of the lungs normally; sometimes used in combination;  the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation; the process of taking in oxygen from inhaled air and releasing carbon dioxide by exhalation
  • bronchus    either of the two main branches of the trachea
  • bruising    brutally forceful and compelling; causing mental or emotional injury
  • bursa    a small fluid filled sac located between movable parts of the body especially at joints; a city in northwestern Turkey
  • caesarean section    the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • caffeine    a bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects
  • calcitonin    thyroid hormone that tends to lower the level of calcium in the blood plasma and inhibit resorption of bone
  • calcium    a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • cavum    (anatomy) a natural hollow or sinus within the body
  • central nervous system    the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
  • cerebrospinal fluid    clear liquid produced in the ventricles of the brain; fills and protects cavities in the brain and spinal cord
  • cervix uteri    necklike opening to the uterus
  • chest    box with a lid; used for storage; usually large and sturdy; furniture with drawers for keeping clothes; the part of the human torso between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates
  • childbirth    the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • childhood    the state of a child between infancy and adolescence; the time of person's life when they are a child
  • chlamydia    coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • cholestasis    a condition in which little or no bile is secreted or the flow of bile into the digestive tract is obstructed
  • choroid    a highly vascular membrane in the eye between the retina and the sclera
  • chronic    being long lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering
  • ciliary body    the part of the tunic of the eye between the choroid coat and the iris
  • circulatory system    the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
  • cirrhosis    a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • classified    arranged into classes; official classification of information or documents; withheld from general circulation;  a short ad in a newspaper or magazine (usually in small print) and appearing along with other ads of the same type
  • cleft palate    a congenital fissure of the hard palate
  • clitoris    a female sexual organ homologous to the penis
  • coagulation    the process of forming semisolid lumps in a liquid
  • cocaine    a narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves; used as a surface anesthetic or taken for pleasure; can become powerfully addictive
  • confetti    small pieces or streamers of colored paper that are thrown around on festive occasions (as at a wedding)
  • congenital anomaly    a defect that is present at birth
  • congenital heart defect    a birth defect involving the heart
  • conjunctiva    a transparent membrane covering the eyeball and under surface of the eyelid
  • connective tissue    tissue of mesodermal origin consisting of e.g. collagen fibroblasts and fatty cells; supports organs and fills spaces between them and forms tendons and ligaments
  • connective    connecting or tending to connect;  an instrumentality that connects; an uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences
  • consciousness    an alert cognitive state in which you are aware of yourself and your situation; having knowledge of
  • contact lens    a thin curved glass or plastic lens designed to fit over the cornea in order to correct vision or to deliver medication
  • context    discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation; the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event
  • coordination    the regulation of diverse elements into an integrated and harmonious operation; the skillful and effective interaction of movements; the grammatical relation of two constituents having the same grammatical form
  • cornea    transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye; it covers the lens and iris and is continuous with the sclera
  • coronary artery    the artery that branches from the aorta to supply blood to the heart
  • corpus callosum    a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
  • cranium    the part of the skull that encloses the brain
  • cutaneous sensation    a sensation localized on the skin
  • days    the time during which someone's life continues
  • deficiency    lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • degradation    changing to a lower state (a less respected state); a low or downcast state
  • deprivation    act of depriving someone of food or money or rights; the disadvantage that results from losing something; a state of extreme poverty
  • derived    formed or developed from something else; not original
  • dermal    of or relating to or located in the dermis; relating to or existing on or affecting the skin; of or relating to a cuticle or cuticula
  • dermis    the deep vascular inner layer of the skin
  • developmental    of or relating to or constituting development
  • diagnosis    identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon
  • digestive system    the system that makes food absorbable into the body
  • digestive tract    tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • disease    an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • dissection    cutting so as to separate into pieces; detailed critical analysis or examination one part at a time (as of a literary work); a minute and critical analysis
  • distant    apart in space; separate or apart in time; separated in space or coming from or going to a distance; far apart in relevance or relationship; remote in manner
  • drug    a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic; verb administer a drug to; use recreational drugs
  • ductus arteriosus    a blood vessel in a fetus that bypasses pulmonary circulation by connecting the pulmonary artery directly to the ascending aorta; normally closes at birth
  • duodenum    the part of the small intestine between the stomach and the jejunum
  • dying    in or associated with the process of passing from life or ceasing to be; eagerly desirous;  the time when something ends
  • ectoparasite    any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  • ectrodactyly    congenital abnormality involving the absence of some fingers or toes
  • eczema    generic term for inflammatory conditions of the skin; particularly with vesiculation in the acute stages
  • effusion    flow under pressure; an unrestrained expression of emotion
  • elastin    a fibrous scleroprotein found in elastic tissues such as the walls of arteries
  • electricity    keen and shared excitement; a physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electrons and protons; energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
  • electrolyte    a solution that conducts electricity
  • encephalitis    inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • epidermis    the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
  • epididymis    a convoluted tubule in each testis; carries sperm to vas deferens
  • epididymitis    painful inflammation of the epididymis
  • epiglottitis    inflammation of the epiglottis; characterized by fever and a severe sore throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • erysipelas    an acute streptococcal infection characterized by deep red inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes
  • except   verb prevent from being included or considered or accepted; take exception to
  • excess    more than is needed, desired, or required;  immoderation as a consequence of going beyond sufficient or permitted limits; a quantity much larger than is needed; excessive indulgence; the state of being more than full
  • external auditory canal    either of the passages in the outer ear from the auricle to the tympanic membrane
  • external ear    the part of the ear visible externally
  • eyeball    the ball shaped capsule containing the vertebrate eye; verb look at
  • eyelid    either of two folds of skin that can be moved to cover or open the eye
  • facial nerve    cranial nerve that supplies facial muscles
  • fallopian tube    either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
  • fascia    a sheet or band of fibrous connective tissue separating or binding together muscles and organs etc
  • female genital organ    external female sex organs
  • female genitalia    external female sex organs
  • femur    the longest and thickest bone of the human skeleton; extends from the pelvis to the knee
  • fetus    an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • fever    intense nervous anticipation; a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection
  • findings    a collection of tools and other articles used by an artisan to make jewelry or clothing or shoes
  • fingernail    the nail at the end of a finger
  • fistula    an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface; a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • foetal distress    an abnormal condition of a fetus; usually discovered during pregnancy and characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm
  • foetus    an unborn or unhatched vertebrate in the later stages of development showing the main recognizable features of the mature animal
  • forceps    an extractor consisting of a pair of pincers used in medical treatment (especially for the delivery of babies)
  • forearm    the part of the superior limb between the elbow and the wrist; verb arm in advance of a confrontation
  • foreign body entering through natural orifice
  • fragrance    a pleasingly sweet olfactory property; a distinctive odor that is pleasant
  • friction    effort expended in moving one object over another with pressure; the resistance encountered when one body is moved in contact with another; a state of conflict between persons
  • fumes    gases ejected from an engine as waste products
  • gait    a person's manner of walking; a horse's manner of moving; the rate of moving (especially walking or running)
  • gallbladder    a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
  • gastrin    polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach; induces the secretion of gastric juice
  • gastrointestinal tract    tubular passage of mucous membrane and muscle extending about 8.3 meters from mouth to anus; functions in digestion and elimination
  • gastrointestinal    of or relating to the stomach and intestines
  • genetic disorder    a disease or disorder that is inherited genetically
  • genital    of or relating to the external sex organs
  • genitourinary system    the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
  • giddiness    an impulsive scatterbrained manner; a reeling sensation; a feeling that you are about to fall
  • glasses    optical instrument consisting of a pair of lenses for correcting defective vision
  • glossopharyngeal nerve    sensory nerve to the pharynx and back of the tongue; motor fibers innervate muscles that elevate the pharynx and larynx; includes parasympathetic fibers to the otic ganglion
  • glucagon    a hormone secreted by the pancreas; stimulates increases in blood sugar levels in the blood (thus opposing the action of insulin)
  • growth hormone    a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland; promotes growth in humans
  • haematopoietic    pertaining to the formation of blood or blood cells
  • haemorrhage    flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels
  • haemorrhagic fever    a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • haemorrhagic    of or relating to a hemorrhage
  • hair follicle    a small tubular cavity containing the root of a hair; small muscles and sebaceous glands are associated with them
  • hands    (with `in') guardianship over; in divorce cases it is the right to house and care for and discipline a child; the force of workers available
  • hearing impairment    impairment of the sense of hearing
  • hearing loss    partial or complete loss of hearing
  • hemorrhage    flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels; verb lose blood from one's body
  • hemorrhagic fever    a group of illnesses caused by a viral infection (usually restricted to a specific geographic area); fever and gastrointestinal symptoms are followed by capillary hemorrhage
  • herbal    of or relating to herbs;  tea like drink made of leaves of various herbs
  • hypercalciuria    the presence of abnormally high levels of calcium in the urine; usually the result of excessive bone resorption in hyperparathyroidism or osteoporosis
  • hyperpyrexia    extremely high fever (especially in children)
  • hypertension    a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • hypoglossal nerve    supplies intrinsic muscles of the tongue and other tongue muscles
  • identified    having the identity known or established
  • immune system    a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
  • immune    (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection); secure against; relating to the condition of immunity;  a person who is immune to a particular infection
  • immunodeficiency    immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • immunodeficiency    immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced
  • implant    a prosthesis placed permanently in tissue; verb become attached to and embedded in the uterus; fix or set securely or deeply; put firmly in the mind
  • implantable cardioverter defibrillator battery
  • in situ    being in the original position; not having been moved
  • induced    brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • infancy    the earliest state of immaturity; the early stage of growth or development
  • infantile    being or befitting or characteristic of an infant; of or relating to infants or infancy; indicating a lack of maturity
  • infarction    localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • infectious agent    an agent capable of producing infection
  • infectious    easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • infestation    a swarm of insects that attack plants; the state of being invaded or overrun by parasites
  • inhalation    the act of inhaling; the drawing in of air (or other gases) as in breathing; a medication to be taken by inhaling it
  • injection    the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure; the act of putting a liquid into the body by means of a syringe; any solution that is injected (as into the skin)
  • injury    an act that injures someone; an accident that results in physical damage or hurt; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • innate immunity    immunity to disease that occurs as part of an individual's natural biologic makeup
  • inner ear    a complex system of interconnecting cavities; concerned with hearing and equilibrium
  • insufficiency    lack of an adequate quantity or number; (pathology) inability of a bodily part or organ to function normally; a lack of competence
  • integument    an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
  • intervertebral disc    a fibrocartilaginous disc serving as a cushion between all of the vertebrae of the spinal column (except between the first two)
  • intestine    the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus
  • invasion    the act of invading; the act of an army that invades for conquest or plunder; (pathology) the spread of pathogenic microorganisms or malignant cells to new sites in the body; any entry into an area not previously occupied
  • ionizing radiation    high energy radiation capable of producing ionization in substances through which it passes
  • irritant    something that causes irritation and annoyance
  • keratinisation    organic process by which keratin is deposited in cells and the cells become horny (as in nails and hair)
  • ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency
  • kidney    either of two bean shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • lacrimal apparatus    the structures that secrete and drain tears from the eye
  • lacrimal gland    any of the glands in the eyes that secrete tears
  • lactation    the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands; the period following birth during which milk is secreted; feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • large intestine    beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum; includes the cecum and the colon and the rectum; extracts moisture from food residues which are later excreted as feces
  • larynx    a cartilaginous structure at the top of the trachea; contains elastic vocal cords that are the source of the vocal tone in speech
  • left atrium    the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
  • liability    the quality of being something that holds you back; the state of being legally obliged and responsible; an obligation to pay money to another party
  • lumbar    of or relating to or near the part of the back between the ribs and the hipbones
  • lumbosacral plexus    a nerve plexus formed by the ventral divisions of the coccygeal and sacral and lumbar nerves; supplies the lower limbs and perineum and coccygeal area
  • lump    a compact mass; a large piece of something without definite shape; an awkward stupid person; abnormal protuberance or localized enlargement; verb put together indiscriminately; group or chunk together in a certain order or place side by side
  • lung    either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood
  • lymph node    the source of lymph and lymphocytes
  • lymphangitis    inflammation of a lymph vessel
  • lymphedema    swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
  • lymphoid    resembling lymph or lymphatic tissues
  • lymphoma    a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • malaria    an infective disease caused by sporozoan parasites that are transmitted through the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito; marked by paroxysms of chills and fever
  • male genital organ    external male sex organs
  • malnutrition    a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • mastoid process    process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  • mastoid    relating to or resembling a nipple; of or relating to or in the region of the mastoid process;  process of the temporal bone behind the ear at the base of the skull
  • mediastinum    the part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymus
  • medical care    professional treatment for illness or injury
  • medication    the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • melaena    abnormally dark tarry feces containing blood (usually from gastrointestinal bleeding)
  • meninges    a membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cord
  • menstrual cycle    a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation
  • mental disorder    (psychiatry) a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
  • mental retardation    lack of normal development of intellectual capacities
  • mental retardation    lack of normal development of intellectual capacities
  • mention    an official recognition of merit; a remark that calls attention to something or someone; a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage; verb commend; make reference to; make mention of
  • metabolism    the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life; the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
  • methamphetamine    an amphetamine derivative (trade name Methedrine) used in the form of a crystalline hydrochloride; used as a stimulant to the nervous system and as an appetite suppressant
  • micro    extremely small in scale or scope or capability
  • microcephaly    an abnormally small head and underdeveloped brain
  • middle ear    the main cavity of the ear; between the eardrum and the inner ear
  • morbidity    an abnormally gloomy or unhealthy state of mind; the relative incidence of a particular disease; the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you
  • mortality    the quality or state of being mortal; the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year
  • mucous membrane    mucus secreting membrane lining all body cavities or passages that communicate with the exterior
  • multiple    having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual;  the product of a quantity by an integer
  • muscle tone    normal tonicity of the muscles
  • musculoskeletal system    the system of muscles and tendons and ligaments and bones and joints and associated tissues that move the body and maintain its form
  • myocardium    the middle muscular layer of the heart wall
  • myopathy    any pathology of the muscles that is not attributable to nerve dysfunction
  • myopia    (ophthalmology) eyesight abnormality resulting from the eye's faulty refractive ability; distant objects appear blurred
  • nasal cavity    either of the two cavities lying between the floor of the cranium and the roof of the mouth and extending from the face to the pharynx
  • nasal sinus    any of the paired sinuses in the bones of the face adjacent to the nasal cavity that are lined with mucous membrane that is continuous with the lining of the nasal cavities
  • nasopharynx    cavity forming the upper part of the pharynx
  • neonatal period    the first 28 days of life
  • nephrocalcinosis    renal lithiasis in which calcium deposits form in the renal parenchyma and result in reduced kidney function and blood in the urine
  • nerves    control of your emotions; an uneasy psychological state
  • nervous system    the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
  • neural    of or relating to neurons; of or relating to the nervous system
  • neurogenic    arising in or stimulated by nerve tissues
  • neuromuscular junction    the junction between a nerve fiber and the muscle it supplies
  • neuropathy    any pathology of the peripheral nerves
  • neurotoxin    any toxin that affects neural tissues
  • newborn    having just or recently arisen or come into existence; recently borne;  a baby from birth to four weeks
  • nicotine    an alkaloid poison that occurs in tobacco; used in medicine and as an insecticide
  • oesophagogastric junction    the junction between the esophagus and the stomach epithelium
  • oesophagus    the passage between the pharynx and the stomach
  • olfactory nerve    a collective term for numerous olfactory filaments in the nasal mucosa
  • oliguria    production of an abnormally small amount of urine; abnormally small production of urine; can be a symptom of kidney disease or obstruction of the urinary tract or edema or an imbalance of fluids and electrolytes in the body
  • omentum    a fold of peritoneum supporting the viscera
  • oophoritis    inflammation of one or both ovaries
  • optic chiasm    the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
  • optic nerve    the cranial nerve that serves the retina
  • oral cavity    the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge
  • organs    edible viscera of a butchered animal
  • oropharynx    cavity formed by the pharynx at the back of the mouth
  • osteitis    inflammation of a bone as a consequence of infection or trauma or degeneration
  • other    very unusual; different in character or quality from the normal or expected; recently past; not the same one or ones already mentioned or implied; belonging to the distant past
  • ovary    (vertebrates) one of usually two organs that produce ova and secrete estrogen and progesterone; the organ that bears the ovules of a flower
  • palate    the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
  • palate    the upper surface of the mouth that separates the oral and nasal cavities
  • pancreas    a large elongated exocrine gland located behind the stomach; secretes pancreatic juice and insulin
  • parotid gland    a large salivary gland that produces 50% of daytime saliva; in human beings it is located in front of and below each ear
  • patella    type genus of the family Patellidae: common European limpets; a small flat triangular bone in front of the knee that protects the knee joint
  • pelvic girdle    the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
  • penis    the male organ of copulation (`member' is a euphemism)
  • perinatal    occurring during the period around birth (5 months before and 1 month after)
  • perineum    the general region between the anus and the genital organs
  • peripheral nervous system    the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
  • peripheral    on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area; related to the key issue but not of central importance;  (computer science) electronic equipment connected by cable to the CPU of a computer
  • peritoneum    a transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the viscera
  • pharyngitis    inflammation of the fauces and pharynx
  • pharynx    the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • phencyclidine    a drug used as an anesthetic by veterinarians; illicitly taken (originally in the form of powder or `dust') for its effects as a hallucinogen
  • phimosis    an abnormal tightness of the foreskin preventing retraction over the glans
  • photophobia    a morbid fear of light; pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright light (often associated with albinism)
  • phrenic nerve    one of a pair of nerves that arises from cervical spinal roots and passes down the thorax to innervate the diaphragm and control breathing
  • pinna    division of a usually pinnately divided leaf; the externally visible cartilaginous structure of the external ear
  • pituitary gland    the master gland of the endocrine system; located at the base of the brain
  • placenta    the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus; that part of the ovary of a flowering plant where the ovules form
  • pleura    the thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chest
  • plexus    a network of intersecting blood vessels or intersecting nerves or intersecting lymph vessels
  • pneumonia    respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants
  • poisoning    the act of giving poison to a person or animal with the intent to kill; the physiological state produced by a poison or other toxic substance
  • poliomyelitis    an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord
  • porphyrin    any of various pigments distributed widely in living tissues
  • positive T cell lymphoproliferative disorders
  • poxvirus    any of a group of viruses that can cause pox diseases in vertebrates
  • pregnancy    the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus
  • presumed genetic syndromes primarily expressed
  • proctitis    inflammation of the rectum; marked by bloody stools and a frequent urge to defecate; frequently associated with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
  • prostate    relating to the prostate gland;  a firm partly muscular chestnut sized gland in males at the neck of the urethra; produces a viscid secretion that is the fluid part of semen
  • proteinuria    the presence of excessive protein (chiefly albumin but also globulin) in the urine; usually a symptom of kidney disorder
  • psychoactive substances including medications
  • puberty    the time of life when sex glands become functional
  • puerperium    time period following childbirth when the mother's uterus shrinks and the other functional and anatomic changes of pregnancy are resolved
  • pulmonary circulation    circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
  • pulp    the soft inner part of a tooth; an inexpensive magazine printed on poor quality paper; any soft or soggy mass; a soft moist part of a fruit; a mixture of cellulose fibers; verb reduce to pulp; remove the pulp from, as from a fruit
  • pupil    contractile aperture in the iris of the eye; a young person attending school (up through senior high school); a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution
  • purine    a colorless crystalline organic base containing nitrogen; the parent compound of various biologically important substances; any of several bases that are derivatives of purine
  • purpura    any of several blood diseases causing subcutaneous bleeding
  • pyrimidine    a heterocyclic organic compound with a penetrating odor; any of several basic compounds derived from pyrimidine
  • radiotherapy    (medicine) the treatment of disease (especially cancer) by exposure to a radioactive substance
  • rectum    the terminal section of the alimentary canal; from the sigmoid flexure to the anus
  • reflex    without volition or conscious control;  an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
  • refraction    the change in direction of a propagating wave (light or sound) when passing from one medium to another; the amount by which a propagating wave is bent
  • rejection    the act of rejecting something; the speech act of rejecting; (medicine) an immunological response that refuses to accept substances or organisms that are recognized as foreign; the state of being rejected
  • related to    being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics
  • related    connected by kinship, common origin, or marriage; being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics; having close kinship and appropriateness; similar or related in quality or character
  • renal failure    inability of the kidneys to excrete wastes and to help maintain the electrolyte balance
  • renal pelvis    a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
  • respiratory system    the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide; in terrestrial animals this is accomplished by breathing
  • respiratory tract    the passages through which air enters and leaves the body
  • retina    the light sensitive membrane covering the back wall of the eyeball; it is continuous with the optic nerve
  • rickets    childhood disease caused by deficiency of vitamin D and sunlight associated with impaired metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
  • right atrium    the right upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the venae cavae and coronary sinus
  • rupture    the act of making a sudden noisy break; a personal or social separation (as between opposing factions); state of being torn or burst open; verb separate or cause to separate abruptly
  • sacral    of or relating to sacred rites; of or relating to or near the sacrum
  • scalp    the skin that covers the top of the head; verb remove the scalp of; sell illegally, as on the black market
  • sclera    whitish fibrous membrane (albuginea) that with the cornea forms the outer covering of the eyeball
  • scoliosis    an abnormal lateral curve to the vertebral column
  • scrotum    the external pouch that contains the testes
  • sebaceous gland    a cutaneous gland that secretes sebum (usually into a hair follicle) for lubricating hair and skin
  • secretion    a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell; the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance
  • shoulder girdle    the bony arch formed by the collarbones and shoulder blades in humans
  • simplex    allowing communication in only one direction at a time, or in telegraphy allowing only one message over a line at a time; having only one part or element
  • sinus    any of various air filled cavities especially in the bones of the skull; a wide channel containing blood; does not have the coating of an ordinary blood vessel; an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface
  • skeleton    the internal supporting structure that gives an artifact its shape; a scandal that is kept secret; something reduced to its minimal form; the hard structure (bones and cartilages) that provides a frame for the body of an animal
  • skin colour    the coloring of a person's face
  • skin sensation    a sensation localized on the skin
  • skull    the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates
  • small intestine    the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed
  • spermatocele    a swelling on the epididymis or the testis; usually contains spermatozoa
  • spinal cord    a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain; a long tubelike structure extending from the base of the brain through the vertebral canal to the upper lumbar region
  • spleen    a large dark red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses; a feeling of resentful anger
  • sprain    a painful injury to a joint caused by a sudden wrenching of its ligaments; verb twist suddenly so as to sprain
  • squamous cell carcinoma    the most common form of skin cancer
  • staphylococcal    of or relating to the staphylococcus bacteria
  • stated    declared as fact; explicitly stated
  • sternum    the flat bone that articulates with the clavicles and the first seven pairs of ribs
  • strabismus    abnormal alignment of one or both eyes
  • sudden death    (sports) overtime in which play is stopped as soon as one contestant scores; e.g. football and golf
  • surgical    performed with great precision; relating to or requiring or amenable to treatment by surgery especially as opposed to medicine; of or relating to or involving or used in surgery
  • sweating    being wet with perspiration;  the process of the sweat glands of the skin secreting a salty fluid
  • symptom    anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence; (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
  • syndrome    a complex of concurrent things; a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease
  • synovium    a thin membrane in synovial (freely moving) joints that lines the joint capsule and secretes synovial fluid
  • teeth    the kind and number and arrangement of teeth (collectively) in a person or animal
  • tendon    a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment
  • testis    one of the two male reproductive glands that produce spermatozoa and secrete androgens
  • thigh    the part of the leg between the hip and the knee; the upper joint of the leg of a fowl
  • throat    a passage resembling a throat in shape or function; an opening in the vamp of a shoe at the instep; the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone
  • thrombocytopenia    a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
  • thymus    large genus of Old World mints: thyme; a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity; atrophies with age
  • thyroid gland    located near the base of the neck
  • thyroid hormone    any of several closely related compounds that are produced by the thyroid gland and are active metabolically
  • thyroid    suggestive of a thyroid disorder; of or relating to the thyroid gland;  located near the base of the neck
  • tightness    lack of movement or room for movement; extreme stinginess; the spatial property of being crowded together; a tight feeling in some part of the body; a state occasioned by scarcity of money and a shortage of credit
  • toenail    the nail at the end of a toe; verb drive obliquely
  • tonsil    either of two masses of lymphatic tissue one on each side of the oral pharynx
  • tonus    the elastic tension of living muscles, arteries, etc. that facilitate response to stimuli
  • toxicity    the degree to which something is poisonous; grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • trachea    membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi; one of the tubules forming the respiratory system of most insects and many arachnids
  • transfusion    the action of pouring a liquid from one vessel to another; the introduction of blood or blood plasma into a vein or artery
  • trauma    an emotional wound or shock often having long lasting effects; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.
  • tremor    an involuntary vibration (as if from illness or fear); a small earthquake; shaking or trembling (usually resulting from weakness or stress or disease); verb shake with seismic vibrations
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle    in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy
  • trigeminal nerve    the main sensory nerve of the face and motor nerve for the muscles of mastication
  • tuberculosis    infection transmitted by inhalation or ingestion of tubercle bacilli and manifested in fever and small lesions (usually in the lungs but in various other parts of the body in acute stages)
  • tympanic membrane    the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound
  • ultraviolet radiation    radiation lying in the ultraviolet range; wave lengths shorter than light but longer than X rays
  • umbilical cord    membranous duct connecting the fetus with the placenta
  • ventricular septal defect    a common congenital heart defect; an abnormal opening in the septum dividing the ventricles allows blood to pass directly from the left to the right ventricle; large openings may cause congestive heart failure
  • vertebra    one of the bony segments of the spinal column
  • vertebral column    the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord
  • vestibulocochlear nerve    a composite sensory nerve supplying the hair cells of the vestibular organ and the hair cells of the cochlea
  • viscosity    resistance of a liquid to sheer forces (and hence to flow)
  • visual acuity    sharpness of vision; the visual ability to resolve fine detail (usually measured by a Snellen chart)
  • visual cortex    the cortical area that receives information from the lateral geniculate body of the thalamus
  • visual field    all of the points of the physical environment that can be perceived by a stable eye at a given moment
  • visual impairment    impairment of the sense of sight
  • visual system    the sensory system for vision
  • vitamin    any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism
  • vitreous body    the clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the posterior chamber of the eyeball
  • vomiting    the reflex act of ejecting the contents of the stomach through the mouth
  • vulva    external parts of the female genitalia
  • wrist    a joint between the distal end of the radius and the proximal row of carpal bones


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